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Full text of "The general biographical dictionary : containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation ; particularly the British and Irish ; from the earliest accounts to the present time .."

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OTBIDGB  AND  SON ;  G.  AND  W.  NICOL  ;  O.  WILKIE  |  J.  WALKER ;  R.  LEA  ; 



JePHSON  (Robert),  the  author  of  some  dramas  and 
poems  of  considerable  merit,  was  a  native  of  Ireland,  where 
he  was  born  in  1736.  He  appears  to  have  profited  by  a 
liberal  education,  but  entered  early  into  the  army,  and 
attained  the  rank  of  captain  in  the  73d  regimt^ot  of  foot 
on  the  Irish  establishmcDt.  When  that  regiment  was 
reduced  in  1763,  he  WD  }t.    In  1763 

he  became  acquainted  Gerard  Ha- 

milton, esq.  who  was  c  ss  of  fancy 

and  uncommon  talents,  s  they  lived 

together  in  the  greaie  1  intimacy; 

Mr.  Jephson  usually  sp<  Mr.  Hamil- 

ton at  his  house  at  Ha  giving  hint 

much  of  his  compHny  in  town  duriug  the  winter.  In  1767, 
Mr.  Jephson  married  one  of  the  daughters  of  Sir  F.divard 
Barry,  hart,  a  celebrated  physician,  ai)d  author  of  various 
medical  works;  and  was  obliged  to  bid  a  long  farewell  to 
his  t'rientis  ill  London,  Dr.  Johnson,  Mr.  Burke,  Mr.  Churles 
Townsend,  Garrlck,  Guldsniith,  &c.  in  consequence  of 
having  accepted  the  oSice  uf  master  of  the  horse  to  lord 
viscount  Townsend,  then  appointed  lord  lieutenant  of  Ire- 
land. Mr.  Hamilton  also  used  his  influence  to  procure 
Mr.  Jephson  a  permaneni  provision  on  the  Irish  establish- 
ment, of  30U^  a  year,  which  the  duke  of  Rutland,  from 
personal  regard,  and  a  high  admiration  of  Mr.  Jephisoti's 
talents,  increased  to  600/.  per  annum,  for  the  joint  lives 
of  himself  and  Mrs.  Jephson  In  addition  to  this  prouf  of 
hiM  kindness  and  esteem,  Mr.  Hamilton  never  ceased,  with- 
out jtuy  kind  of  solicitation,  to  watch  over  Mr.  Jephson'a 
iuterest  with  the  most  lively  solicituue ;  constantly  apply- 
Voi.  XiX.  B 


ing  in  person,  in  his  behalf^  to  every  new  lord  lieutenanti 
if  be  were  acquainted  witb  bim ;  or,  if  tbat  w6re  not  the 
case,  contriving  by  some  circuitous  means  to  procure  Mr. 
Jephson*s  re-appointment  to  the  oflSce  originally  conferred 
upon  bim  by  lord  Townsend  ;  and  by  these  means  chiefly 
he  was  continued  for  a  long  series  of  years,  under  twelve 
successive  governors  of  Ireland,  in  the  same  station,  which 
always  before  had  been  considered  a  temporary  office.  In 
Mr.  Jephson's  case,  this  office  was  accompanied  by  a  seat 
in  the  house  of  commons,  where  he  occasionally  amused 
the  house  by  his  wit,  but  does  not  at  any  time  appear  to 
have  been  a  profound  politician.  His  natural  inclination 
was  for  literary  pursuits;  and  he  supported  lord  Townsend*s 
government  with  more  effect  in  the  "  Bachelor,"  a  set  of 
periodical  essays  which  he  wrote  in  conjunction  with 
Mr.  Courtenay,  the  Rev.  Mr.  Burroughs,  and  others.  He 
died  at  his  house  at  Blackrock,  near  Dublin,  of  a  paralytic 
disorder,  May  31,  1803. 

As  a  dramatic  writer,  bis  claims  seem  to  be  founded 
chiefly  on  his  tragedies  of  "  Braganza,"  and  "  The  Count 
of  Narbonne."  "  Braganza*'  was  very  successful  oh  its 
original  appearance,  but  fell  into  neglect  after  the  first 
season,  in  1775.  Horace  Walpole,  whose  admiration  of  it 
is  expressed  in  the  most  extravagant  terms,  addressed  to 
the  author  **  Thoughts  on  Tragedy,"  in  three  letters, 
which  are  included  in  his  printed  works.  In  return,  Mr. 
Jephson  took  the  story  of  his  *'  Count  of  Narbonne"  from 
Walpole's  "  Castle  of  Otranto,"  and  few  tragedies  in  our 
times  have  been  more  successful.  It  was  produced  in 
1781,  and  continued  to  be  acted  until  the  death  of  Mr. 
Henderson,  the  principal  performer.  Of  Mr.  Jephson*s 
other  dramas  it  may  be  sufficient  to  give  the  names  :  "  The 
Law  of  Lombardy,"  a  tragedy,  1779;  "The  Hotel,"  a 
farce,  1783;  "The  Campaign,"  an  opera,  1785  ;  <*  Julia," 
a  tragedy,  1787;  "Love  and  War,"  1787,  and  "Two 
Strings  to  your  Bow,"  1791,  both  farces;  and  "The  Con- 
spiracy," a  tragedy.  Mr.  Jephson  afterwards  acquired  a 
considerable^ share  of  poetical  fame  from  his  "Roman 
Portraits,"  a  quarto  poem,  or  rather  collection  of  poems, 
characteristic  of  the  Roman  heroes,  published  in  1794, 
which  exhibited  much  taste  and  elegance  of  versification. 
About  the  same  time  he  published  anonymously,  "  The 
Confession  of  James  Baptiste  Couteau,"  2  vols.  12mo,  a 
kind  of  satire  on  the  perpetrators  of  the  revolutionary 


atrocities  in  Fnmce,  and  priocipallj  the  wretched  duke  of 

JEREMIAH,  metropolitan  of  Larissa,  was  raised  to  the 
patri^chal  chair  of  Constantinople  in  1573,  when  only  in 
the  thirty-sixth  year  of  his  age.  The  Lntherans  presented 
to  him  the  confession  of  Augsburg,  in  hopes  of  bis  appro* 
bation  ;  bat  he  opposed  it,  both  in  his  speeches  and  writ* 
ings.  He  seemed  even  not  for  from  uniting  the  Gred^ 
to  the  Roman  church,  and  bad  adopted  the  reformation  of 
Gregory  XIII.  in  the  calendar ;  but  some  persons,  who 
were  envious  of  him,  taking  occasion  from  thence  to  accuse 
him  of  corresponding  with  the  pope,  procured  bis  banish- 
ment in  1585.  Two  years  after  he  was  recalled  and  re* 
scored  to  his  dignity,  but  from  that  time  we  find  no  ac* 
count  of  him.  His  correspondence  with  the  Lutherans  was 
printed  at  Wittemberg,  in  Greek  and  Latin,  1584,  folio. 
It  had  previously  been  published  by  a  Catholic,  in  Latin, 

JERNINGHAM  (Edward),  an  elegant  English  poet, 
descended  from  an  ancient  Roman  catholic  family  in  Nor* 
folk,  was  the  youngest  brother  of  the  late  sir  William  Jer* 
ningham,  hart,  and  was  born  in  1727.  He  was  educated 
in  the  English  college  at  Douay,  and  from  thence  removed 
to  Paris,  where  he  improved  himself  in  classical  attainments^ 
becoming  a  good  Latin  scholar,  and  tolerably  well  ac* 
quainted  with  the  Greek,  while  the  French  and  Italian  Ian* 
guages,  particularly  the  former,  were  nearly  as  familiar  to 
him  as  that  of  bis  native  couutry.  In  his  mind,  benevo- 
lence and  poetry  had  always  a  mingled  operation.  His 
taste  was  founded  upon  the  best  models  of  literature,  which, 
however,  he  did  not  always  follow,  with  respect  to  stylci  in 
bis  latter  performances.  The  first  production  which  raised 
him  into  public  notice,  was  a  poem  in  recommendation  of 
the  Magdalen  hospital ;  and  Mr.  Jonas  Hanway,  one  of  its 
most  active  patrons,  often  declared,  that  its  success  was 
very  much  promoted  by  this  poem.  He  continued  occa* 
sionally  to  afford  proofs  of  bis  poetical  genius ;  and  bis 
works,  which  passed  through  many  editions,  are  uniformly 
marked  by  taste,  elegance,  and  a  pensive  character,  that 
always  excites  tender  and  pleasing  emotions ;  and  in  some 
of  his  works,  as  in  "  The  Sbakspeare  Gallery,'*  "  Enthu* 

1  M«lQne'«  life  of  the  Hon.  W.  <3.  Hamilton.— Biog.  Dram. — Lord  Orf6rd*i 
Ifotkfl,  rok,  it  p.  305.— Davioi'f  Ijfe  of  Garrick,  vol.  II.  p.  286. 
•  MaierU»0Mit  Hist. 

B   2 

4  J  E  R  N  I  N  O  H)  A  M. 

masoo,*'  aad  *<  The  Rise  and  Fall  of  Scandinavian  Poetry/* 
he  displays  great  vigour,  and  even  sublimity.     The  fur&t  of 
^hese.  pojoms  had  an  elegant  and  spirited  cpinpUoient  fiom 
Mr.  Burke,  in  the  following  passage  :< — ^^  I  have  not  for  ^ 
loogtime  seen  any  thing  so  lyelUfiiiiahed.     He  has  oaugbt 
ne^  fire  by  approaching  in  his  periheltum  so  near  i to  the 
Sun  of  our  poetical  system.'' — His  last  work,  pabUshed  a 
few  months  before  his  death,  was  entitled  ^^  The  Old  Bard's 
Farewell."     It  is  not  unworthy  t>f  his   best  ^days,    and 
^breathes  an  air  of  benevolence  and  .grateful  piety  for  the 
lol  in  life  which  Providence  had  assigned  him."-?^In  his  later 
writings  it  has  been  pbjected  that  he  evinces  a  species  of 
Liberal  spirit  in  matters  of  religion,  whi^b  seems  to  consider 
all  religions  alike,  provided  the  believer  is  a  man  of  meek- 
ness and  forbearance.     With  this  view  in  his  ^*  Essay  ou 
the  mild  Tenour  of  Christianity"  ha  traces  historically  the 
efforts  to  give  an  anchorite-cast  to  the  Christian  profession, 
and  gives  many  interesting  anecdotes  derived  from  the  page 
of  Ecclesiastical  histofy,  but  not  always  very  happily  Ap- 
plied.    His  ^'  Essay  on  the  Eloquence  of  the  Pulpit  in 
England,"  (prefixed  to  bishop  Bossuet's  Select  Sermons 
and  Orations)  was  very  favourably  received  by  the  public, 
but  his  notions  of  pulpit  eloquence  are  rather  French  than 
English.     Mr.  Jerningham  had,  during  the   course^  of  a 
long  life,  enjoyed  an  intimacy  with  the  most  eminent  lite* 
rary  characters  in  the  higher  ranks,  particularly  the-  cele- 
brated earl  of  Chesterfield,  and  the  present  earl  of  Carlisle. 
The  illness  which  occasioned  his  death,  had  continued  for 
some  months,  and  was  at  times  very  severe ;  but  his  suf- 
ferings were  much  alleviated  by  a  course  of  theological 
study  he  had  imposed  ofi  himself,  and  which  he  considered 
most  congenial  to  a  closing  life.     He  died  Nov.  17,   IS  12, 
He  bequeathed  all  his  manuscripts  to  Mn  Clanke,  N«w 
Bond«street.     Mr.  Jerninghani's  productions  are  as  follow : 
U  "  Poeoia  and  Plays,"  4  vols,  9th  edition,  1806.   2.  "Se- 
lect Sernnons  and  Funeral  Orations,  translated  from  the 
Erenah  of  Bossuet,  bishop  of  Meaux,"  third  edition,  1801. 
.3.  "The  mild  Tenour  of  Christianity^  an  Essay,  (eluci* 
dated  from  Scripture  and  History ;  c<Hitaining  a  new  illus- 
tration of  the  characters  of  several  eminent  personages,)'* 
second  edition,  1 807.     4.  "  The  Dignity  of  Human  Na- 
ture,   an   Essay,*'   1805.     5.  "The   Alexandrian  School; 
of,  a  narrative  of  the  first  Christian  Professors  in  Alexan- 
dria,'* third  edition,  1810.     6,  "The  Old  Bard's  Fare* 


yf^ii^  a  Poem,  second  cdhiohy  #itb  aMid^nd  psssagei^ 
1812.  Hb  dramatic  pieces^  *^  The  Siege  of  Berwick/'  ih(k 
<'  Welsh  HciresB/'  and  '<  The  Peckham  Frolic/*  bai!e  not 
been  remarkablj  nuoceisfoK '  .  .    j  . 

JEROJVi,  or  HIERONYMUS,  a  very  cdebrated  father 
df  the  cbttrch^  was  bom  of  Ohristiain  parents  at  Sliridaiiy  a 
.town  situated  upon  the  confines  of  Panooniaand  Dalmatian 
in  the  year  ^31.  His  father  Eusebias^  kho  was  a  nan.  of 
ntuk  and  substance^  took  the  greatest  care  of>  bis  ediin 
-cakiol) ;  atfed,  after  grounding  bim  well  in  the  languagi^  of 
his  own  counirj,  sent  him.  to  Borne,  where  be  was  placed 
itndeiP  the  best  matters  in  every  branch  of  iiteraJtv^e. .  JBo^ 
natus^  weii  known  for  bis  ^*  Gommentaries  upon  Vii'  aiid 
Tereifee/'  was  his  master  in  grainmiir^  asJ^roiri  himself 
tells  us  I  aiid  under  this  masiier  be  made  a  predtgious  pr6i. 
f^ess  iti  evefy  tbingi  relating  to  the  beHds  lettres.  He  bad 
also  masters  id  rbetbricy  Hebrev^,  antt  in  divinity,  .who 
AObdtioted  him  tfarbagh .  all  fiarts  of  leariiing,  sacred  ahd 
profdne;  Ibrongh  kiscoiy,  antiquity,  the  knbvsttdge  of  lahl> 
guages,  and  of  thd  discipline  and  dK)cirines  of  the  Tariovp 
s^ctaia  pkilosopfay;  so  that  he  migWt  say  of  himself -as 
he  afterwards  didy  \^itb  sdihe  reason^  ^^  Ego  j^Hlilosophusi, 
9hetlnr^;'gtaimBaticU8^  diaiecfictiSy  HebrsDus,  Grsecus^  l^sh- 
tmas^.  JiCh'^  He  was  partiealarly  carefal  to  accomplish 
himself  ia»Hrhetoric,.  or  the  art  of  speaking,  becausci,  as 
ErxfifOfHis  sBiys  in  the  life  whrch  be  prefixed  to  his  wovk^be 
had  efteeiN^edy  that  the  generality  of  Ghri^tians  were  de- 
spised as  a  rode  illiterate  set  of  people;  on  which  accomilt 
be  thought,  thai  the  oncoayerted  part  of  the  worM  would 
'Soooe^  he  drawn  over  to  Cb#istianity,  if  it  were  but  set  off 
and  .enforced  in  ai  mannet  suitable  to  the  dignity  and  ma* 
jesty  of  it.  But  though  be  was  so  conversant  with  profane 
leas-nhig  in  his* youth,  he  rendunced  it  entirely  afterwairds^ 
atid  did  all  he  could  to  make  others  renounce  it  also ;  for 
be  relates  a  vi^ion,^  which  be  pretended  was  givdn  to  hint, 
*'  in  which  faef  was  dragged  to  the  tribunal  df  Christ,.'  and 
Jterribly  .  threatened,  and  even  scourged,  for  the  griev- 
ous sin  of  reading  secular  and  profane  writers^  Gicero, 
Yirgil^  and  Horace,  whom  for  that  reason  he  resolved  ilever 
to  ukeinto  his  bands  ai6y  more." 

WheH'be  had  finished  his  education  at  Rome^  and;  reaped 
lall  the  fruits  which  books  and  good-  masters  co^ld  afford, 

I  Geot.  Mag.  rat  tXXXIU. 

6  J  E  R  O.  M. 

he  resolved,  for  his  further  improvement,  to  travel.  After 
being  baptized  therefore  at  Rome,  when  an  adult,  he  went 
into  France  with  Bonosus,  a  fellows-student,  and  remained 
a  considerable  time  in  every  (jity  through  which  he  passed, 
that  he  might  have  opportunity  and  leisure  to  examine  the 
public  libraries,  and  to  visit  the  men  of  letters,  with  which 
tbat  country  then  abounded.  He  staid  so  long  at  Treveris, 
that  he  transcribed  with  his  own  hand  a  large^  volume  of 
Hilary's  concerning  Synods,  which  some  time  •  after  he 
ordered  to  be  sent  to  him  in  the  deserts  of  Syria.  From  hence 
be  went  to  Aquileia,  where  he  became  first  acquainted 
with  Ruffinus,  who  was  a  presbyter  in  that  town,  and  with 
whom  he  contracted  an  intimate  friendship.  When  be  had 
travelled  as  long  as  he  thought  expedient,  and  seen  every 
thing  that  was  carious  ao4  worth  his  notice,  he  returned 
to  Rome ;  where  h^  began  to  deliberate  with  himself,  what 
course  of  life  he  should  take.  Study  and  retirement  were^ 
what  he  most  desired,  and  he  had  collected  an  excellent 
library  of  books  ;  but  Rome,  he  thought,  would .  not  be  a 
proper  place  to  reside  in  :  it  was<  not  only  too  noisy  and  tu- 
multuous for  him,  but  as  yet  had  too  much  of  the  old 
leaven  of  Paganism  in  it.  He  had  objections  likewise 
against  his  own  country,  Dalmatia,  whose  inhabitants  he 
represents,  in  one  of  his  epistles,  as  entirely  sunk  in  sen- 
suality and  luxury,  regardless  of  every  thing  that  was  good 
and  praise*worthy,  and  gradually  approaching  to  a  state  of 
barbarism.  After  a  consultation  therefore  with  his  friends, 
he  determined  to  retire  into  some  very  remote  region ;  and 
therefore  leaving  his  country,  parents,  substaiuie,  and  tak- 
ing, nothing  with  him.  but  his  books,  and  money  sufficient 
forhis  journey,  he  set  off. from  Italy  for  the** eastern  parts 
of  the  world.  Having  passed  through  Dalmatia,  Thrace, 
and  some  provinces  of  Asia  Minor,  his  first  care  was  to  pay 
a  visit  to  Jerusalem,  which  was  then  considered  as  a  neces* 
,sary  act  of  religion.  From  Jerusalem  he  went  to  Antioch, 
where  he  fell  into  a  dangerous  fit  of  illness ;  but  having  the 
^ood  fortune  to  recover  from  it,  be  left  Antioch,  and  set 
fcM'Ward  in.  quest  of  some  more  retired  habitation  ;  and  after 
rambling  over  several  cities  and  countries,  with  all  which 
he  was  dissatisfied  on  account  of  the  customs  and  manners 
of  .the  people,  he  settled  at  last  in  a  most  frightful  desert 
of  Syria,  which  was  scarcely  inhabited  by  any  thing  but 
wild  beasts.  This  however  was  no  objection  to  Jerom  :  it 
was  rather  a  recommendation  of  the  place  to  him;  for, 

J  E  R  O  M.  7 

stiys  Erasmus,  **  he  thought  it  better  to  cohabit  with  wild 
beasts  and  wild  men,  than  with  such  sort  of  Christians  as 
were  usually  found  in  great  cities;  men  half  Pagan,  half 
Christian  ;  Christians  in  nothing  more  than  in  name/' 

He  was  in  his  31st  year,  when  he  entered  upon  this  mo* 
nastic  course  of  life ;  and  he  carried  it,  by  his  own  prac- 
tice, to  that  height  of  perfection,  which  he  ever  after  en- 
forced upon  others  so  zealously  by  precept.     He  divided 
all  his  time  between  devotion  and  study :  he  exercised 
himself  much  in  watcbtngs. and  fastings;  slept  little,  ate 
less,  and  hardly  allowed  himself  any  recreation.     He  ap- 
plied himself  very   severely  to  the  study   of  the   Holy 
Scriptures,   which  he  is  said  to  have  gotten  by  heart, 
as  well  as  to  the  study  of  the  Oriental  languages,  which 
he  considered  as  the  only  keys  that  could  let  him  into 
their  true  sense  and   meaning,    and   which    he    learned 
from  a  Jew  who  visited  him  privately  lest  he  should  offend 
his  brethren.     After  he  had  spent  four  years  in  this  labo- 
rious way  of  Ufe,  his   health   grew   so   impaired,  that  be 
Was  obliged  to  return  to  Antioch :  where  the  church  at  that 
time  was  divided  by  factions,  Meletius,  Paulinos,  and  Vi- 
talis  all  claiming  a  right  to  the  bishopric  of  that  place. 
-Jerom  being  a  son  of  the  church  of  Rome,  where  he  was 
baptized,  would  not  espouse  any  party,  till  he  knew  the 
sense  of  his  own  church  upon  this  contested  right.     Ac- 
cordingly, be  wrote  to  Damasus,  then  bishop  of  Rome,  to 
know  whom  he  must  consider  as  the  lawful  bishop  of  Anti- 
och ;  and  upon  Damasus's  naming  Paulinus,  Jerom  acknow* 
>  ledged  him  as  such,  and  was  ordained  a  presbyter  by  him  in 
378,  but  would  never  proceed  any  farther  in  ecclesiastical 
dignity.     From  this  time  his  reputation  for  piety  and  learn- 
ing began  to  spread  abroad,  and  be  known  in  the  world.    He 
went  soon  after  to  Constantinople,  where  he  spent  a  con- 
siderable time  with  Gregory  Nazianzeo ;  whom  he  did  not 
disdain   to   call  his   master,  and   owned,  tliat   of  him  he 
learned  the  right  method  of  expounding  the  Holy  Scrip- 
tures.    Afterwards,  in  the  year  382,  he  went  to  Rome 
widi  Paulinus,  bishop  gf  Antioch,  and  Epiphanius,  bishop 
of  Salamis  in,  the  isle  of  Cyprus;  where  be  soou  became 
known  to  Damasus,  and  was  made  his  secretary.     He  ac- 
quitted himself  in  this  post  very  well,  and  yet  found  time 
to  compose  several  works.     Upon  the  death  of  Damasus, 
which  happened  in  the  year  385,  he  began  to  entertain 
thoughts  of  travelling  again  to  the  East;  to  which  he  was 

J  E  R  O  M. 

BKnred  chieflT  by  the  disturbances  and  ▼exations  he  ijoet 
with  from  the  lono<vers  of  Origeo,  at  Rooije.  For  tbese^ 
vhen  tht:y  bail  in  vain  end^voured,  sajs  Cave,  to  d  iiw 
bim  ovrr  to  their  party,  raised  infamous  reports  and  cm.- 
Inmnies  against  him.  They  charged  him,  among  other 
things,  with  a  criminal  passion  for  one  Paula,  an  eminent 
matron,  in  whose  bouse  h^  had  lodgied  during  his  residence 
at  Rome,  and  who  was  as  illustrious  for  her  piety  as  tor 
the  spiendor  of  her  birth,  and  the  dignity  of  her  rank. 
For  these  and  other  reasons  he  was  determined  to  quit 
Some,  and  acccvdingly  embaiked  for  the  East  iu  August  in 
the  year  385,  attended  by  a  great  number  of  monks  and 
ladies,  whom  he  had  persuaded  to  embrace  the  ascetic  way 
of  life.  He  sailed  to  Cyprus,  where  he  paid  a  viait  to 
£pipbanius ;  and  arrived  afterwards  at  Antioch,  wheie  be 
was  kindly  received  by  his  friend  Paulinus.  From  An- 
tioch  he  went  to  Jerusalem ;  and  the  year  following  from 
Jerusalem  into  Egypt.  Here  he  visited  several  monaste* 
ries :  but  Ending  to  his  great  g^f  the  monks  every  where 
infiituated  with  the  errors  of  Origen,  he  returned  to  Betb* 
lehem,  a  town  near  Jerusalem,  that  he  might  be  at  liberty 
to  cherish  and  propagate  his  own  opinions,  without  any 
disturbance  or  interruption  from  abroad.  This  whole  pe- 
regrination is  particularly  related  by  himself,  in  one  of  bis 
pieces,  against  Bui&nos;  and  is  veiy  characteristic,  and 
shews  much  of  hia  spirit  and  manner  of  writing. 

He  had  now  fixed  upon  Bethlehem,  as  the  properest 
place  of  abode  for  him,  and  best  accommodated  to  that 
oourse  of  life  which  he  intended  to  pursue ;  and  was  no 
sooner  arrived  here,  than  he  met  with  Paula,  and  other 
ladies  of  quality,  who  had  followed  him  from  Home,  with 
the  same  view^  of  devoting  themselves  to  a  monastic  life* 
His  famev#ar  leatning  and  piety  was  indeed  so  very  exten* 
sive,  that  nuiiihers  of  both  sexes  flocked  from  all  parts  and 
distances,  to  be  trained  up  under  him,  aod  to  form  their 
manner  of  living  according  to  his  instructions.  This  moved 
the  pious  Paula  to  found  four  monasteries ;  three  for  the 
use  of  lemales,  over  wnich  she  berseif  presided,  and  one 
for  males,  wiiich  was  committed  to  Jerom.  Here  he  en* 
joyed  ail  that  repose  which  be  had  long  desired ;  and  he 
laboured  abundantly,  as  well  for  the  souls  committed  to 
bis  care,  as  in  composing  great  and  useful  works.  He  had 
enjoyed  this  repose  probably  to  the  end  of  his  life,  if  On* 
genism  had  not  prevailed  so  mightily  in  those  pans :  but^ 

J  E  R  O  M.  9 

OS  Jerom  bad  an  abhorrence  for  every  ibing  that  looked 
like  heresy,  it  was  impossible  for  him  to  condnue  passive^ 
whiie  these  asps,  as  he  calls  them,  were  iQsinuating  their 
deadly  poison  into  all  who  had  the  misfortune  to  fall  in 
their  way.  This  engaged  him  in  viplent  controversies  with 
John  bishop  of  Jerusalem}  and  Ruffinus  of  Aquileis, 
which  lasted  many  years.  Roffinus  ^nd  Jerom  had  of  old 
been  intimate  triends ;  but  RdfBnus  having  of  late  years 
settled  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Jerusalem,  and  espoused 
the  part  ot  the  OrigenBts,  the  enmity  between  them  was 
on  that  account  the  more  bitter,  and  is  a  reproach  to  both 
their  memories.  Jerom  had  also  several  other  controver- 
sies, particularly  with  Jovmian,  an  Italian  mpnk,  whom  he 
mentions  in  has  works  with  the  utmost  intemperance  of 
language,  without  exactly  informing  us  what  his  errors  were. 
In  the  year  410,  when  Rome  was  besieged  by  the  Goths, 
many  fled  from  thence  to  Jerusalem  and  the  Holy  Land, 
and  were  kindly  received  by  Jerom  into  his  monastery.  He 
died  in  439)  in  the  ninety* 6rst  year  of  his  age;  and  is 
said  to  have  preserved  his  vivacity  and  vigour  to  the  last* 

Erasmus,  who  wrote  his  life,  and  gave  the  6rst  edition 
of  his  works  in  1 526,  ssiys,  that  he  was  *^  undoubtedly  the 
greatest  scholar,  the  greatet^t  orator,  and  the  greatest  di^ 
vine  that  Christianity  had  then  produced."  But  Cave,  who 
never  yet  was  charged  with  want  of  justice  to  the  fathers^ 
sa^s,  that  Jerom  '*  was,  with  Erasmus's  leave,  a  hot  and  furi^ 
ous  man,  whu  had  no  command  at  all  over  his  passions.  When 
he  was  once  provoked,  he  treated  his  adversaries  in  the 
iroughest  manner,  and  did  not  even  abstain  from  invective 
ami  satire :  witness  what  he  has  written  against  Ru65inur, 
who  was  formerly  his  friend ;  against  John,  bishop  of 
Jerusalem,  Jovinian,  Vigilantius,  and  others.  Upon  the 
slightest  provocation,  he  grew  excessively  abusive,  and 
threw  out  all  the  ill  language  he  could  rake  together^ 
without  the  least  regard  to  the  situation,  rank,  learning, 
and  other  circumstances,  of  the  persons  he  bad  to  do  with. 
And  what  wonder,*'  says  Cave,  ^^  when  it  is  common  with 
him  to  treat  even  St.  Paul  himself  in  very  hanh  and  inso*. 
lent  terms  ?  charging  htm,  as  he  does,  with  solecisms  in 
language,  false  expressions^  and  a  vulgar  use  of  words  ?*' 
We  do  not  quote  this  with  any  view  of  detracting  from  the 
real  merit  of  Jerom,  but  only  to  note  the  partiality  of 
Erasmus,  in  defending,  as  he  does  very  strenuously,  this 
most  excep^onable  patt  of  his  character,  his  want  of  can* 

l6  J  E  R  O  M. 

dour  and  spirit  of  persecution ;  to  which  Erasmus  himself 
was  so  averse,  that  he  has  ever  been  highly  praised  by  pro- 
testants,  and  as  highly  dispraised  by  papists,  for  placing 
all  his  glory  in  moderation. 

Jerom  was  as  exceptionable  in  many  parts  of  his  literary 
'  character,  as  be  was  in  his  moral,  whatever  Erasmus  or  his 
panegyrists  may  hav«i  said  to  the  contrary  :  instead  of  an 
orator,  he  was  rather  a  declaimer ;  and,  though  he  under* 
took  to  translate  so  many  things  out  of  Greek  and  Hebrew, 
he  was  hot  accurately  skilled  in  either  of  those  languages  ; 
and  did  not  reason  clearly,  consistently,  and  precisely, 
upon  any  subject.  This  has  been  shewn  in  part  already 
by  L^  Clerc,  in  a  book  entitled  .^^  Quaestiones  Hierony- 
mianee,'*  printed  at  Amsterdam  in  1700,  by  way  of  critique 
upon  the  Benedictine  edition  of  his  works.  In  the  mean 
time  we  are  ready  to  acknowledge,  that  the  writings  of 
-Jerom  are  useful,  and  deserve  to  be  read  by  all  who  have 
aiyy  regard  for  sacred  antiquity.  They  have  many  uses  in 
common  with  other  writings  of  ecclesiastical  authors,  and 
many  peculiar  to  themselves.  The  writings  of  Jerom  teach 
us  the  doctrines,  the  rites,  the  manners,  and  the  learning 
of  the  age  in  which  he  lived  ;  and  these  also  we  learn  from 
tile  writings  of  other  fathers.  But  the  peciiliar  use  of 
Jeromes  works  is,  1.  Their  exhibiting  to  us  more  fragments 
of  the  ancient  Greek  translators  of  the  Bible,  than  the 
^orks  of  any  other  father;  2.  Their  informing  us  of  the 
opinions  which  the  Jews  of  that  age  had  of  the  significa- 
tion of  many  Hebrew  words,  and  of  the  sense  and  meaning 
they  put  upon  many  passages  in  the  Old  Testament ;  arid, 
3.  Their  conveying  to  us  the  opinion  of  Jerom  himself  ;^ 
who,  though  he  must  always  be  read  with  caution,  on  ac- 
count of  his  declamatory  and  hyperbolical  style,  and  the 
liberties  he  allowed  himself  of  feigning  and  prevaricating 
upon  certain  occasions,  will  perhaps,  upon  the  whole,  be 
found  to  have  bad  more  judgment  as  well  as  more  learning 
than  any  father  who  went  before  him. 

The  principal  of  his  works,  which  are  enumerated  by 
Cave  and  Dupin,  are,  a  new  Latin  version  of  the  whole 
**  Old  Testament,"  from  the  Hebrew,  accompanied  with  a 
corrected  edition  of  the  ancient  version  of  the  **  New 
Testament,''  which,  after  having  been  at  first  much  op- 
posed, was  adopted  by  the  Catholic  church,  and  is  com- 
monly distinguished  by  the  appellation  of  **  Vulgate;" 
"  Commentaries"  on  most  of  the  books  of  the  Old  and 

J  E  R  O  M.  II 

New  Testament ;  ^'  A  Treatise  on  the  Lives  and  Writ* 
iiigs  of  Ecclesiastical  Authors  ;^'  "  A  continuation  of  the 
Chronicle  of  Eusebius;**  moral,  critical,  historical,  and 
miscellaneous  ^  Letters/'  The  first  printed  edition  of  his 
works  was  that  at  Basil,  under  the  care  of  Erasmus,  1516 
— 1526,  in  six  vqls.  folio,  ot  which  there  have  been  several 
subsequent  impressions  at  Lyons,  Rome,  Paris,  and  Ant*^ 
werp.  The  most  correct  edition  is  that  of  Paris,  by  falheir 
Martianay,  a  Benedictine  monk  of  the -congregation  of  St. 
Maur,  and  Anthony  Pouget,  1693-^1706,  in  5  vols,  folio. 
There  is,  however,  a  more  recent  edition,  with  notes  by 
Vallarsiusy  printed  at  Verona  in  1734**-42,  in  eleven  vo« 
lumes,  folio.  The  eleventh  contains  the  life:  of  Jemm, 
certain  pieces  attributed  to  him  on  doubtful  authority,  and 
an  Index.  Of  his  *^  Letters,  or  Epistles,'*  there  are  many 
editions  executed  about  the.  infancy  of  printing,  which  are 
of  great  beauty,  rarity,  and  value.  \ 

JEROME  of  Prague,  so  called  from  the  place  of  hit 
birth,  where  he  is  held  to  be  a  Protestant  martyr.  It  does 
not  appear  in  what  year  he  was  born,  but  it  is  certain  that 
he  was  neither  a  monk  nqr  an  ecclesiastic  :  but  that,  being 
endowed  with  excellent  natural  parts,  he  had  a  learned 
education,  .and  studied  at  Paris,  Heidelberg,  Cdlogne,  and 
perhaps  at  Oxford.  The  degree  of  M,  A.  was  conferred 
on  him  in  the  three  iirst*mentioned  universities,  and  he 
commenced  D.  D.  in  1396.  -  He  began  to  publish  the  doc* 
trine  of  the  Hussites  in  14Q8,  and  it  is  said  he  had  a  greater 
share  of  learning  and  eloquence  than  John  Huss  himselfi 
In  the  mean  time,  the  council  of  Constance  kept. a  watch* 
ful  eye  over  him;  and,  looking. upon  him  as  a  dangerous 
person,  cited  him  before  them  April  17,  1415,  to  give  an 
account  of  his  faith.  In  pursuance  of  the  citation,  be  went 
to  Constance,  in  order  to  defend  the  doctrine  of  Huss,  as 
he  bad  promised  ;  but,  on  his  arrival,  April  24,  finding  his 
master  Huss  in  prison,  he  withdrew  immediately  to  Uber^* 
lingen,  whence  he  sent  to  the  emperor  for  a  safe  conduct, 
which  was  refused.  The  council,  very  artfully,  were 
vvilling  to  grant  him  a  safe*conduct  to  come  to  Constance^ 
but  not  for  bis  return  to  Bohemia.  Upon  this  he  caused 
to  be  fixed  upon  all  the  churches  of  Constance,  and  upon 
the  gates  of  the  cardinal's  house,  a  paper,  declaring  that 

1  fMe  by  Erasmus.— Dupin. — Care«<— Lardner's  Works.— Mothcim  and  MiN 
aer*s  Church  Hist,— Saxii  Onomast,    . 


he  was  ready  to.  tome  to  Constance,  to  give  an  account  of 
ills  taitb»  and  to  answer,  not  only  in  private  and  under  the 
p^aJ,  but  in  fulltCoiincil,  all  the  cahimnies  of  bis  accusers, 
offering  to  suffer  the  punishment  due  to  heretics,  rf  he 
should  be  convinced  of  any  erroni.;  ior  which  reason  he  had 
desired  a  safe-conduct  both  from  the  emperor  and  the 
O9uocilf  hut  that  if,  notwithstanding  sacfa  a  pass,  spyyio* 
lence  should  be  done  to  him,  by  imprisonment  or  otber« 
wise,  all  the  world  might  be  a.  witness  of  the  injsistice  of 
the  council.  No  notice  being  tah^n  of  this  declaration, 
1^6  resolved  to  return  into  his  own  country  :  but  the  couriK 
cilr  dispatched  .a  saf^'Colidiact  to  hifti,  importing,  that  a^ 
|bey.bad  the  extirpation  of  heresy  above  all  ttiings  at 
heart,  trhey  sarhmoned  him  to  appear  in  the  spsKse  of  fif<* 
ieeadays,  to  b6  beard  in  the  first  session  that  sbould  be 
held,  after  his  arrival ;  that  for  this  purpose  they  bad  sent 
him,  by  those  presents,  a  safe-conduct  so  far  as  to  secure 
him  frosn  any  violence,  but  they  did  not  mean  tsot  dxempc 
hiol  from  justice,  as  far  as  it  depended  upon  tbe  council, 
and  ais  the  catholic  faith  required.  This  pass  and  sum- 
mons came  to  bis  hands,  yet  he  was  arrested  in  bis  way 
homewards,  April  25,  and  put  into  the  bands  of  the  prince 
of  Sultzbslbb ;  and^  as  be  bad  not  answered  the  citation 
of  April  17,  he  was  cited  again  May  2,  and  the  prince  of 
Sultzbach,  sending  to  Constance  in  pursuance  of  an  order 
of  the  coundil,  he  arrived  there  on  the  2ISd,  bound  in 
chains.  Upon  his  examination,  he  >dienied  receiving  of  the 
citation,  and  protested  his  ignorance  of  it.  He  was  afters- 
wards  carried  to.  a  tower  of  St.  Pau)*s  cburch,  there  fast* 
ened  to  a  post,  and  bis  hands  tied  to  bis  neck  with  the 
same  chains.  He  continued  in' this <  posture  two  days, 
witbout  receiving'  any  kind  of  nourishment;  upon  which 
he  fell  dangerously  ill,  and  desired  a.  confessor  might  be 
allowed,  which  being  granted,  he  obtained  a  little  more  li- 
berty. On  July  19,  he  was  interrogated  afresh,  when  he 
explained  himself  upon  the  subject' of  the  Eucharist  to  the 
following  effect :  That,  in  the  sacrament  of  the  altar,  the 
particular  substance  of  that  piece  of  bread  which  is  there, 
is  transubstantiated  into  the  body  of  Christ,  but  that  the 
universal  substance  of  bread  remains  ^.  '  Thus,  with  John 


*  It  15  not  easy  for  a  person,  un-     ing  to  the  doctrine  of  the  schools,  uni- 

tkiUed,  in  logic,    to  comprehehd  the'    versals  have  a  proper  dnd  real  exiftence 

meaning  of  this  visionary  distinction,      of  their  own^  independent  of,  an;! .  in 

It  is  enough  to  observe,  that,  accord-     the  nature  of  things  prior  to  the  e^ia- 

J  KB  a  ME.  t6 

'Jiiisss  be  maintained  the  ^^  unitrerstHa  ex  parte  i^.^  It 
is  true,  on  a  third  examination,  Sep«.  1 1,  *  he  retracted  this 
opinion,  and  approved  the  condemnation  of  WickliflF  and 
JohnHuss;  but,  on  May  1^6,  1416,  he' cOnde^mned  that  re- 
cantation in  these  terms :  *^I  am  not  ksfaamed  to  t^bnfesa 
here  publicly  my  weakness^  Yes,  with  'horror,  I  confess 
my  base  oowardice^  It  wab  only  tbe^  dread  of  the  pnriish-* 
ment  by  fire,  which  di^ew  me  to  consent,  against  my  con- 
science, to  the  cotidemnatton  of  the  doctrine  of  WickliflF 
and  John  Huss.*'  This.wa»  decisive,  atid  accordingly^  in 
the  21st  session,  sentence  was  passed  on  him  ;  in  pursu- 
ance of  which,  he  was  delivered  to  the  ddeulararm.  May  30. 
As  the  executioner  led  him  to  the  stake,  Je'rome,  with 
great  steadiness,  testified  his  perseverance  in  his  faith,  by 
repeating  his  creed  witlhaloud  voice,  and  singing  litanies 
and  a  hymn  to  tohe  blessed  Virgin ;  and,  being  burnt  to 
death,  his  ashes,  like'tbose  of  Huss,  wer^  thrown  into  the 

■  In  common  with  many  of  the  early  martyrs,  hi^  consis- 
tency has  been  atta<;kod  by  the  Komish  writers ;  but  one 
of  their  number,  the  oqlebrated  Poggio  Bracciblini^  iti  a 
letter  he  wrote  to  Leonard  Aretii^,  has  delineated  his  cha- 
racter in  language  of  this  highest  admii^tion.  Poggio  was 
present  at  the  council  when  Je>oilie  made'  bis  defence,  and 
immediately  wrote  the  letter  we  speak  of,  which  has  beeti 
translated  by  Mr.  Gilpin  with  an  elegance  corresponding 
to  the  fervent  glow  of  the  original.  We  shall  transcribe 
Only  one  passage  ^vhicb  respects  the  eloquence  of  (his 
martyr,  and  the  impression  it  made  on  the  liberal'  and 
learned  Poggio  :  "  His  voice  was  sweet,  distinct,  and  full: 
his  action  every  way  the  most  proper,  i^ither  to  express  fn- 
dignaiion,  or  \o  r^ise  pity:  tbouglj  he  made  no  affected 
application  to  the  pa^sionii  of  his  audieuice*  Firm  and  in* 
trepid,  he  stood'  befbre  the  council ;  collected  in  himself; 
and  not  only  coutemmng,  but  seeming  even  desirous  of 
death.  The  greatest  character  in  ancient  story  could  not 
possibly  go  beyond  him.  If  there  is  any  justice  in  history, 
this  man  will  be  admired  by  all  posterity — I  speak  not  of 
bia  errors:  let  th^^erjest  with  him.  What  I  admired  wad 
his  learning,  bis.el^queiiee^  and  amazing  acuteness.  God. 
tvip«4ri^.  whether  these  things  were  not  the  ground-work  of 

tence  of  the  individuals,  whose  genera  be  nothing  else  but  abstract  ideas,  ex- 
•nd  speoifs  tbe^  conetitutedl.  But  isting  only  in  the  mind,  wbich  is  theii« 
;hf s)e  nniversals  arc  now  well  kndwn  to     sole  creator. 

14    '  JEROME. 

Us  ruiD.^*  After  giting  an  accoutH  of  bis  deatbi  ^oggfo 
adds,  *^ThQ8  died  this  prodigibus  man.  The  epithet  is 
not  extravagant.  I  was  myself  an  eye-witness  of  his  whole 
behaviour.  Whatever  bis  life  nay  have  been,  his  death, 
witboat  doubt,  is  a  lesson  of  philosophy."' — Of  his  recanta** 
tion  it  may  be  remarked,  that  like  Cranmer,  and  a  few 
others,  who  in  their  first  terror  offered  to  exchange  prin- 
xsiples  for  life,  they  became  afterwards,  and  almost  im* 
mediately  afterwards,  more  confident  in  the  goodness 
of  their  cause,  and  more  willing  to  suffer  in  defence 
of  it, ' 

JERVAS  (Charles),  a  painter  of  this  country^  more 
Icno.wn  from  the  praises  of  Pope,  who  took  instructions  from 
bim  in  the  art  of  painting,  and  other  wits,  who  were  in- 
fluenced probably  by  the  friendship  of  Pope,  than  for 
any  merits  of  his  own,  was  a  native  of  Ireland,  and  stu* 
died  for  a  year  under  sir  Godfrey  Kneller.  Norris,  fra- 
mer  and  keeper  of  the  pictures  to  king  William  and  queen 
Anne,  was  the  first  friend  who  essentially  served  bim,  by 
allowing  bim  to  study  from  the  pictures  in  the  royal  coUec* 
tion,  and  to  copy  them.  At  Hamptou-cour  the  made  small 
copies  of  the  cartoons,  and  these  he  sold  to  Dr.  George 
Clark  of  Oxford,  who  then  became  bis  protector,  and  fur«- 
nisbed  him  with  money  to  visit  France  and  Italy,  In  the 
eighth  number  of  the  Tatler,  (April  18,  170^),  be  is  men- 
tioned as  ^  the  last  great  painter  Italy  has  sent  us.^*  Pope 
speaks  of  him  with  more  enthusiasm  than  felicity,  and  ra- 
ther as  if  he  was  determined  to  praise,  than  as  if  he  felt 
the  subject.  Perhaps  some  of  the  unbappiest  lines  in  the 
works  of  that  poet  are  in  the  short  epistle  to  Jervas.  Speak-^ 
ing  of  the  families  of  some  ladies,  he  says. 

'^  Oh«  lasting  as  thy  colours  may  they  shine. 

Free  as  thy  stroke^  yet  iaultl^  as  thy  line ;    *        ^        * 
New  graces  yearly,  Hke  thy  works/^duplay. 
Soft  without  weakness^  without  glaring  gay. 
Led  by  some  rule>  that  guid^,  but  not  constrains. 
And  iinish'd  more  through  happiness  than  pains." 

In  this  passage  the  whole  is  obscure,  the  connection  with 
the  preceding  part  particularly  so ;  and  part  is  parodied 
from  Denham.  It  is  no  wonder  that  Jervas  did  not  better 
inspire  bis  friend  to  praise  bim,  if  the  judgment  of  lord 
Orford  be  accurate,  on  which  we  may  surely  rely.  He  says, 

*  ^  Cave,— Freberi  Theatrum.— Life  by  Gilpin.-— Shepherd's  Life  of  Pogfto. 

J  E  R  V  A  S.  lA 

that  ,*^  he  was  defective  in  drawing,  colourings  and  conk- 
position,  and  even  in  that  most  necessary,  and  perhaps 
most  easy  talent  of  a  portrait-p^nteri  likeness.  In  gene- 
ral, bis  pictures  are  a  light,  flimsy  kind  of  fan-painting, 
as  large  as  life."  His  vanity,  inSamed  perhaps  by  the  un- 
deserved praises  he  received  from  wits  and  poets;  was  ex- 
cessive. He  affected  to  be  violently  in  love  with  lady  Bridge- 
water;  yet,  after  dispraising  the  form  of  her  ear,  as  the 
only  faulty  part  about  her  face,  he  ventured  to  display  his 
own  as  tlie  complete  model  of  perfection.  Jervas  appeared 
as  an  author  in  bis  translation  of  Don  Quixote,  wbich  he 
produced,  as  Pope  used  to  say  of  bim,  without  under- 
standing ^Spanish.  Warburtpn  added  a  supplement  to  the 
preface  of  Jervas*s  translation,  on  the  origin  of  romances 
-of  chivalry,  which  was  praised  at  the  time,. but  has  since 
been  totally  extinguished  by  the  acute  criticisms  of  Mr. 
Tyrwbitt.     Jervas  died  about  1740.  * 

JERUSALEM  (John- Frederick  William),  an  eminent ' 
German  divine,  was  born  at  Osuuburgh,  in  1709,  and 
died  in  1789.  Of  his  life  we  have  no  farther  account  than 
that  his  talents  raised  him  to  the  offices  of  vice-president 
of  the/ consistory  of  Brunswick,  abbot  of  Marientbal,  court 
preacher,  and  director  of  the  Caroline-college  at  Bruns- 
wick, of  which,  in  1745,  he  wrote  an  account.  He  was 
reckoned  in  his  country  one  of  the  most  original  and  most 
excellent  defenders  of  religion  that  the  eighteenth  century 
bad  produced.  His  principal  works  were,  \.  Two  volumes 
of  "  Sermons,"  Brunswick,  ,1756 — 69.  2.  "  Letters  on 
the  Mosaic  Religion  and  Philosophy,"  1773.  This  work 
contains  a  demonstration  that  Moses  really  wrote  the  books 
attributed  to  him  :  aod  observations  on  his  being  the  author 
of  the  book  of  Genesis,  and  of  the  style  of  that  book,  &c. 
3.  "  Life  of  prince  Albert-Henry  of  Brunswick  Lun«i- 
burgh."  4.  "  Thoughts  on  the  principal  Truths  of  Reli- 
gion," Brunswick,  1768,  &c.  in  several  volumes,  reckoned 
a  very  capital  performance.  The  abbot  Jerusalem  had  been 
tutor  to  the  late  duke  of  Brunswick,  and  his  highness 
desired  him  to  digest  the  instructions  he  had  given  him 
on  the  Christian  religion  in  a  regular  form;  and  after- 
wards gave  him  leave  to  publish  them.  5.  <^  Character  of 
prince  William -Adolphus  of  Brunswick,"    Berlin,    1771;. 

1  Bowles's  edition  of  Pope,  see  index.— Ruff  bead's  Life  of  Pope,  p.  147, 
4to  edit.-<-Walpole'8  Anecdotes.  , 


6.  '^  Thoughts  on  the  Unioii  of  the  Charch  ;*'  and  7.  a  very 
elegant  and  judicious  letter  *^  concerning  German  litera* 
ture,''  addressed  to  her  royal  bigimess  the  duchess  dowager 
of  Brunswick- Wolfenbattet,  1781.^ 

JESUA  (L£VITa),  a  learned  Spanish  rabbi  in  the  fif- 
teenth century,  is  the  author  of  a  book,  entitled  **  Halicoth 
olam/'  **  The  Ways  of  Eternity  ;'*  a  very  useful  piece  for 
understanding  the  Talmud.  It  was  translated  into  Latin 
by  Constantin  I'Eoipereur ;  and  Bashuysen  printed  a  good 
edition  of  it  in  Hebrew  and  Latin,  at  Hanover,  1714,  4to.* 

JEUNE  (John  Le),  a  celebrated  French  divine,  was  bom 
in  1592,  at  Poligni  in  Franche-Comt^.  His  father  was  a 
counsellor  in  the  parliament  at  Dole.  The  piety  of  Le 
Jeune  was  of  the  most  exemplary  kind.  He  delighted  in 
the  most  arduous  offices  of  his  profession  ;  and  refused  a 
canonry  of  Arbois,  to  enter  into  the  then  rising,  but  strict 
society  of  the  oratory.  His  patience  and  humiUty  were  no 
less  remarkable  than  his  piety.  He  lost  his  sight  at  the  age 
of  thirty- five,  yet  did  not  sufier  that  great  misfortune  to 
depress  his  spirits.  He  was  twice  cut  for  the  stone,  with- 
out uttering  a  single  murmur  of  impatience.  As  a  preacher 
he  was  highly  celebrated,  but  totally  free  from  all  ostenta- 
tion. As  a  converter  of  persons  estranged  from  religion, 
or  those  esteemed  heretical,  he  is  said  to  have  possessed 
wonderful  powers  of  persuasion.  Many  dignitaries  of  the 
church  were  highly  sensible  of  his  merits;  particularly  car- 
dinal Berulle,  who  regarded  him  as  a  son,  and  La  Fayette 
bishop  of  Limoges,  who  finally  persuaded  him  to  settle  in 
his  diocese.  Le  Jeune  died  Aug.  19,  1672,  at  the  age  of 
eighty.  There  are  extant  ten  large  volumes  of  his  sermons, 
in  8vo,  which  were  studied  and  admired  by  Massillon,  and 
have  been  also  translated  into  Latin.  His  style  is  simple, 
insinuating,  and  affecting,  though  now  a  little  antiquated. 
He  published  also  a  translation  of  Grotius^s  tract  *<  De 
Yeritate  Religionis  Christians."' 

JEWEL  (John),  a  learned  prelate,  and  deservedly  re* 
puted  one  of  the  fathers  of  the  English  church,  was  de- 
scended from  an  ancient  family  at  Buden  in  Devonshire, 
where  he  was  born  May  24,  1522.  After  learning  the  ru- 
diments of  grammar  under  his  maternal  uncle  Mr.  Bellamy, 
rector  of  Hamton,  and  being  put  to  school  at  Barnstaple,  b^ 

1  Maty*!  Review,  Tol.  Ylll.—Saxfi  Onomast. 

t  Moreri.— Diet.  Hitt  -^WoUoa's  MisC.  Discourtet ,  vol.  I.  cb.  in, 

d  Moreri.*— OicU  Hist. 

JEWEL.  ti 

w«ai  sent  to  Oxford,  and  admitted  a  postmaster  of  Merton 
college,  in  July  1535,  under  the  tuition  of  Parkhnrst,  after- 
ivards  bishop  of  Norwich,  who  entertained  a  veiy  high  opi- 
nion of  him  from  the  beginning,  and  had  great  pleasure  in 
cultivating  his  talents.  After  studying  four  years  at  this 
college,  he  was,  in  August  1539,  chosen  scholar  of  Corpus 
Christi  college,  where  he  pursued  his  studies  with  indefa-* 
tigable  industry,  usually  rising  at  four  in  the  morning,  and 
studying  till  ten  ^  at  night ;  by  which  means  he  acquired  a 
masterly  knowledge  in  most  branches  of  learning :  but^ 
taking  too  little  care  of  his  health,  he  contracted  such  a 
cold  as  fixed  a  lameness  in  one  of  his  legs,  which  accom- 
panied him  to  bis  grave.  In  Oct  1540,  he  proceeded  B.A. 
became  a  celebrated  tutor,  and  was  soon  sfter  chosen 
reader  of  humanity  and  rhetoric  in  his  college.  In  Feb.  1 544, 
he  commenced  M.  A.  the  expence  of  taking  which  degree 
was  borne  by  his  tutor  Parkhurst 

He  had  early  imbibed  Protestant  principles,  and  incul- 
cated them  among  his  pupils ;  but  thi^  was  carried  on  pri- 
vately till  the  accession  of  Edward  VI.  in  1546,  when  he 
made  «  public  declaration  of  bis  faith,  and  entered  into  a 
close  friendship  with  Peter  Martyr,  who  was  professor  of 
divinity  at  Oxford.  Mr.  Jewel  was  one  of  his  most  con- 
stant hearers,  and  used  to  take  down  his  lectures,  by  means 
of  a  kind  of  short-hand  invented  by  himself,  with  so  much 
accuracy,  that  he  was  frequently^  aftejrwards  employed  in 
taking  down  the  substance  of  public  debates  on  religion, 
which  were  then  common.  In  1551  he  took  the  degree  of 
B.  D.  and  frequently  preached  before  the  university  with 
great  applause.  At  the  same  time  he  preached  and  cate- 
chised every  other  Sunday  at  Sunningwell  in  Berkshire,  of 
which  church  he  was  rector.  Thus  he  zealously  promoted 
the  Reformation  during  this  reign^  and,  in  a  proper  sense, 
became  a  confessor  for  it  in  the  succeeding*  ;  so  early,  as 
to  be  expelled  the  college  by  the  fellows,  upon  their  pri- 
vate authority,  before  any  law  was  made,  or  order  given  by 

*  In  the  primitWe  charch,  the  title  vonshire,''  tells  us»  that  Mr.  Jewel's 

ef  Coofessor  was  given  not  only  to  life,  during  his  residence  in  college^ 

ihoee  who  actually  suffered  torture  for  was  so  exemplary,  that  Moren»  the  dean 

the  faith,  but  to  such  as  were  impri-  of  it,  used  to  say  to  him,  **  1  should 

sonedio  order  to  suffer  torture  or  death,  love  thee,   Jewel,  if  thou  wert  not  a 

See  Cyprian  **  de  unitate  eccles.*'  And  ZuingUan  ;  in  thy  faith  I  hold  thee  an 

perhaps    Jewel    was   not    inferior    to  heretic,  but  surely  in  thy  life  thou  v% 

any  of  the  ancients  in  point  of  piety,  an  angel ;  thou  art  very  good  and  ho* 

and  much  superior  in  regard  to  learn-  nest,  but  a  Lutheran*^ 
ing.     Prince,  in  his  "  Wortbiei^of  De- 

Vol.  XIX.  C 


qo^en  Mliy.     On  this  ocfcasioni  tbey  had  nothhlg  to  c^ 
ject  against  bim^  but,  1,  His  following  of  Peter  Martyr. 
2.  His  preaching  some  doctrines  contrary  to  popery.     S. 
Qis  taking  orders  according  to  the  hiws  then  in  force.     4. 
And,  acGording.  to  Fuller,  his  refusal  to  be  present  at  mass, 
aad  otbet  popish  solemnities.     At  his  departure  be  took 
leiv^  of  the  c^lege  in  a  Latin  speech,  full  of  pathetic  elo-' 
(Juence.     Unnvilling,  howerer,  to  leare  the  uniTersity,  he 
took  chambers  in  Broadgate-hall,  now  Pembroke  college, 
lyhefe  many  of  bis  pupils  followed  him,  besides  other  gen«* 
tlemen,  who  were  induced  by  the  fame  of  his  learning  to 
attend  his  lectures.     But  the  strongest  testimony  to  his 
likertlry  merit  was  given  by  the  university,  who  made  him 
their  orator,  and  employed  him  to  write  their  first  congra^ 
tulatory  address  to  her  majesty.     Wood  indeed  observes, 
that  this  task  was  evidently  imposed  upon  him  by  those 
who  meant  him  no  kindness  ;  it  being  taken  for  granted, 
that  he  must  either  provoke  the  Roman  catholics,  or  lose 
the  good  opinion  of  his  party.     If  this  be  true,  which  is 
probable  enough^  he  bad  the  dexterity  to  escape  the  snare; 
for  the  addrefss,  being  both  respectful  and  guarded,  passed 
the  approbation  of  Tresham  the  commfssary,    and  some 
other  dojctors,  and  was  well  received  by  the  queen ;  but 
bis  latest  biographer  attributes  the  appointment  solely  to 
the  opinion  the  university  had  of  him  as  an  elegant  writer, 
and  therefore  the  most  fit  to  pen  an  address  on  such  au 

Burnet  informs  us,  that  her  majesty  declared,  at  her 
accession,  that  she  would  force  no  man's  conscience,  nof 
make  any  change  in  religion.  These  specious  promises^ 
joined  to  Jewel's  fondness  for  the  university,  seem  to 
kave  been  the  motives  which  disposed  him  to  entertain  a 
|EK>re  favourable  opinion  of  popery  than  before.  In  thid 
state  of  his  mind,  be  went  to  Clive,  to  consult  his  old  tutor 
Dr.  Parkhurst,  who  was  rector  of  that  parish ;  but  Parkhurst^ 
iipon  the  re-establishment  of  pbpery^  having  fled  to  Lon^ 
don,  Jewel  returned  to  Oxford,  where  he  lingered  and 
waited,  till,  being  called  upon  in  St.  Mary's  church  to 
subscribe  some  of  the  popish  doctrines  under  the  several 
penalties,  he  took  his  pen  and  subscribed  with  great  reluct- 
ance. Yet  this  compliance,  of  which  his  conscience  se^ 
▼erely  accused  him,  was  of  no  avail;  for  the  dean  of  Christ 
church,  Or.  Martial,  alleging  his  subscription  to  be  in- 
sincere^  laid  a  plot  to  deliver  him  into  the  hands  of  bishop 

JEWEL.  19 

Bonner;  and  would  certainly  have  caught  him  in  the  snar^ 
bad  be  not  set  out  the  very  inght  in  which  he  was  sent  foc^ 
by  a  bye-way  to  London.  He  walked  till  he  was  forced  to 
lay  himself  on  the  ground,  quite  spent  and  almost  breath* 
less :  where  being  found  by  one  Augustine  Bemer,  a  Swiss^ 
first  a  servant  of  bishop  Latimer,  and  afterwards  a  minister^ 
this  person  provided  him  a  horse,  and  conveyed  him  to  lady 
Warcup,  by  whom  he  was  entertained  for  some  time,  and 
then  sent  safely  to  the  metropolis.  Here  he  lay  concealed^ 
changing  bis  lodgings  twice  or  thrice  for  that  purpose,  till 
a  ship  was  provided  for  him  to  go  abroad,  together  with 
money  for  the  Journey,  by  sir  Nicholas  Tbrogmorton,  a 
person  of  great  distinction,  and  at  that  time  in  considerable 
offices.  Mis  escape  was  managed  by  one  Giles  Lawrence^ 
who  had  been  his  fellow-collegian,  and  v^as  at  this  time 
tutor  to  sir  Arthur  Darcy's  children,  living  near  the  Tower 
of  London.  Upon  his  arrival  at  Francfort,  in  1554,  he 
made  a  public  confession  of  his  sorrow  for  his  late  subscrip«- 
tion  to  popery  ;  and  soon  afterwards  went  to  Strasburgh^ 
at  the  invitation  of  Peter  Martyr,  who  kept  a  kind  of  col- 
lege for  learned  men  in  his  own  house,  of  which  he  made 
Jewel  his  Tice-master :  he  likewise  attended  this  friend  to 
Zurich,  and  assisted  him  in  his  theological  lectures.  It 
was  probably  about  this  time  that  he  made  an  excursion  to 
Padua,  where  he  contracted  a  friendship  with  Sig.  Scipio, 
a  Venetian  gentleman,  ^o  whom  he  afterwards  addressed 
his  **  Epistle  concerning  the  Council  of  Trent."  During 
all  the  time  of  his  exile,  which  was  about  four  years,  he 
studied  hard,  and  spent  the  rest  of  his  time  in  consoling 
and  confirming  his  friends,  frequently  telling  them  that 
when  their  brethren  endured  such  **  bitter  tortures  and 
horrible  martyrdoms  at  home,  it  was  not  reasonable  they 
should  expect  to  fare  deliciously  in  banishment,"  always 
concluding  with  "These  things  will  not  last  an  age,"  which 
he  repeated  so  often'  as  to  impress  their  minds  with  a  firm 
belief  that  their  deliverance  was  not  far  off.  This,  how- 
ever, was  not  peculiar  to  Jewel.  Fox  was  likewise  re- 
marked for  using  the  same  language,  and  there  was  among 
these  exiles  in  general  a  very  firm  persuasion  that  the  do- 
minion of  popery  and  Cruelty,  under  queen  Mary,  would 
not  be  of  long  duration. 

The  much  wished-for  event  at  length  was  made  known, 
and  upon  the  accession  of  the  new  queen,  or  rather  the 
year  after,  155^,  Jewel  returned  to  England  ;  and  we  find 

c  2 


2(5  J  E  W  E  L. 

his  name,  soon  after,  among  the  sixteen  divines  appointeJ 
by  queen  Elizabeth  to  bold  a  disputation  in  Westminster* 
abbey  against  the  papists.     In  July  1559,  he  was  iiv  the 
commission  constituted  by  her  majesty  to  visit  the  dioceses 
of  Sarum,  Exeter,  Bristol,  Bath  and  Wells,  and  Gloucester, 
in  order  to  exterminate  popery  in  the  west  of  England ; 
and  he  was  consecrated  bishop  of  Salisbury  on  Jan.  21  fol- 
lowing, and  had  the  restitution  of  the  temporalities  April 
6,  1560.     This  pronM>tioQ  was  presented  to  him  as  a  re* 
ward  for  bis  great  merit  and  learning  ;  and  another  attesta- 
tion of  these  was  given  him  by  the  university  of, 
who,  in  1565,  conferred. on  him,  in  his  absence,  the  de- 
gree of  D.  D.  in  which  character  he  attended  the  queen  to 
Oxford  the  following  year,  and  presided  at  the  divinity 
disputations  held  before  her  majesty  on  that  occasion.    He 
bad,  before,   greatly  distinguished  himself,  by  a  sermon 
preached  at  St.  Paul's-cross,  soon  after  he  bad  been  made 
a  bishop,  in  which  he  gave  a  public  challenge  to  all  the 
Roman  catholics  in  the  world,  to  produce  but  one  clear 
and  evident  testimony  out  of  any  father  or  famous  writer 
who  flourished  within  6^00  years  after  Christ,  of  the  exist- 
ence of  any  04ie  of  the  articles  which  the  Romanists  main- 
tain against  the  church  of  EngJand  ;  and  two  years  after- 
wards he  published  his  famous  *^  Apology''  for  that  church. 
Iii  the  mean  time  he  gave  a  particular  attention  to  his  dio- 
cese, where  he  began  in  his  first  visitation,  and  completed 
in  his  last,  a  great  reformation,  not  only  in  bis  cathedral 
and  parochial  churches,  but  in  all  the  courts  of  his  juris- 
diction.    He  watched  so  narrowly  the  proceedings  of  his 
chancellor  and  archdeacons,  and  of  his  stewards  and  re- 
ceivers, that  they  had  no  opportunities  of  being  guilty  of 
oppression,  injustice,,  or  extortion,  nor  of  being  a  burden 
to  the  people,  or  a  scandal  to  himself.  <  To  prevent  these^ 
and  the  like  abt>ses,  for  which  tbq  ecclesiastical  courts  are 
often  censured,  he  sat  in  his  consistory  court,  and  there 
saw  that  all  things  were  conducted  rightly:  be  also  sat' 
often  as  an  assistant  on  the  bench  of  civil  justice,  being 
himself  a  justice  of  the  peace. 

Amidst  these  important  employments,  the  care  of  his 
health  was  too  much  neglected.  He  rose  at  four  o'clock 
in  th\s  morning  ;  and  after  prayers  with  his  family  at  five, 
and  in  the  cathedral  about  six,  he  was  so  intent  on  bis  stu- 
dies all  the  morning,  that  he  could  not,  without  great  vio- 
leiice,  be  drawn  ftom  them.    After  dinner^  bis  doors  and 

JEWEL.  21 

eon  yrere  open  to  all  suitors ;  and  it  was  observed  of  him, 
as  of  TituSy  that  be  never  sent  any  sad  from  him.  Suitors 
being  thus  dismissed,  be  heard,  with  great  impartiality  and 
patience,  such  causes  debated  before  him,  as  either  de- 
volved  on  him  as  a  judge,  or  were  referred  to  him  ^  an 
arbitrator ;  and,  if  he  could  spare  any  time  from  the^e,  he 
reckoned  it  as  clear  gain  to  his  study.  About  nine  at  night, 
he  called  all  his  servants  to  an  account  how  they  had  spent 
the  day,  and  then  went  to  prayers  with  them :  from  the 
chapel  he  withdrew  again  to  his  study,  till  near  midnight, 
and  from  thence  to  his  bed ;  in  which  when  he  was  laid, 
the  gentleman  of  his  bed-chamber  read  to  him  till  he  fell 
asleep.  Mr.  Humfrey,  who  relates  this,  observes,  that  this 
watchful  and  laborious  life,  without  any  recreation  at  all, 
except  what  his  necessary  refreshment  at  meals,  and  a 
Tery  few  hours  of  rest,  afforded  him,  wasted  his  life  too 
fast,  and  undoubtedly  hastened  his  end.  In  his  fiftieth 
year,  he  fell  into  a  disorder  which  carried  him  off  in  Sept. 
1571.  He  died  at  Monkton  Farley,  in  bis  diocese,  and 
was  buried  in  his  cathedral,  where  there  is  an  inscription 
over  his  grave,  written  by  Dr.  Laurence  Humfrey,  who 
also  wrote  an  account  of  his  life,  to  which  are  prefixed  se- 
veral copies  of  verses  in  honour  of  him.  Dr.  Jewel  was  of 
a  thin  habit  of  body,  which  he  exhausted  by  intense  appli<- 
•cation  to  his  studies.  In  his  temper  he  was  pleasant  and 
,  affable,  modest,  meek,  temperate,  and  perfectly  master  of 
his  passions.  In  his  morals  he  was  pious  and  charitable  ;  . 
and  when  bishop,  became  most  remarkable  for  his  apos- 
tolic doctrine,  holy  life,  prudent  government,  incorrupt  in-  • 
tegrity,  unspotted  chastity,  and'  bountiful  liberality.  He 
had  naturally  a  very  strong  memory,  which  he  greatly  im- 
proved by  art ;  so  that  be  could  exactly  repeat  whatever 
he  had  written  after  once  reading;  and  therefore  gene- 
rally at  the  ringing  of  the  bell,  he  began  to  commit  his  ser-  « 
mons  to  his  memory ;  which  was  so  firm,  that  he  used  to 
s^y,  that  ^*  if  he  were  to  deliver  a  premeditated  speech 
before  a  thousand  auditors,  shouting  or  fighting  all  the 
while,  yet  he  could  say  all  that  he  had  provided  to  speak." 
On  one  occasion,  when  the  bishop  of  Norwich  proposed 
to  him  many  barbarous  words  out  of  a  Kalendar,  and 
Hooper  bishop  of  Gloucester  forty  strange  words,  Welsh, 
Irish,  and  foreign  terms,  he  after  once  or  twice  reading  at 
the  most,  and  a  little  recollection,  repeated  them  all  by 
.heart  backward  and  forward.     Another  time,    when  sir 

12  JEWEL. 

Nicholas  Bacon,  lord  keeper  of  the  great  seal,  read  to  hia 
only  the  last  clauses  of  ten  lines  in  Erasmuses  Paraphrase, 
confused  and  dismembered  on  purpose,  he,  sitting  silent  a 
while,  and  covering  bis  face  with  bis  hand,  on  the  sudden 
rehearsed  all  those  broken  parcels  of  sentences  the  right 
way,  and  the  contrary,  without  any  hesitation.  He  pro* 
fessed  to  teach  others  this  art,  and  taught  it  his  tutor  Park* 
hurst  beyond  the  seas  ;  and  in  a  short  time  learned  all  the 
Gospel  forward  and  backward.  He  was  also  a  great  master 
of  the  ancient  languages,  and  skilled  in  the  German  and 

Dr.  Humfrey,  in  the  Life  of  our  bishop,  has  endeavoured 
to  represent  him  a  favourer  of  the  nonconformists.  But  it 
is  certain,  that  he  opposed  them  in  his  exile,  wheil  they 
l>egaii  their  disputes  at  Francfort ;  and  in  a  sermon  of  bis 
preached  at  Paul's  Cross,  not  long  before  his  death,  and 
printed  among  his  Works  in  1609,  he  defended  the  rites 
and  ceremonies  of  the  cburch  against  them.  He  had  like- 
wise a  conference  with  some  of  them  concerning  the  cere- 
ttionies  of  the  present  state  of  the  church,  which  be  men- 
tioned with  such  vigour,  that  though  upon  his  death-bed 
he  professed  that  neither  his  sermon  nor  conference  were 
undertaken  to  please  any  mortal  man,  or  to  trouble  those 
who  thought  differently  from  him  ;  yet  the  puritans  could 
Dot  forbear  shewing  their  resentments  against  him.  ^^  It 
was  strange  to  me,"  says  Dr.  Whitgift,  ^'  to  hear  so  nota- 
ble a  bishop,  so  learned  a  man,  so  stout  a  champion  of 
true  religion,  so  painful  a  prelate,  as  bishop  Jewel,  so  un- 
gratefully and  spightfully  used  by  a  sort  of  wavering  wicke4 
tongues.*'  He  is  supposed  likewise  to  have  been  the  au- 
thor of  a  paper,  entitled  *'  A  brief  and  lamentable  Con- 
sideration of  the  Apparel  now  used  by  the  Clergy  of  Eng- 
land," written  in  1566,  in  which  he  addresses  the  noncon- 
formists in  a  style  which  evidently  shews  his  dislike  of  their 
obstinacy  in  matters  of  trivial  importance,  and  his  dread  of 
what  might  be  the  consequences  to  the  church  in  future 

Dr.  Jewel's  writings,  which  have  rendered  his  name 
celebrated  over  all  Europe,  are :  1.  '^  Exhortatio  ad  Oxon- 
ienses."  The  substance  priuted  in  Humfrey's  Life  of  him, 
p.  35,  1573,  4to.  2.  **  Exhortatio  in  coilegio  CC.  sive 
conciD  in  fundatoris  Foxi  commemorationem,"  p.  45,  &c. 
3.  "  Concio  in  templo  B.  M.  Virginis,"  Oxon,  1550, 
preached  for  his  degree  of  B*  D.  reprinted  in  Huiqfrey, 


p.  49.     4.  ^^  Oratio  in  aula  Goliegii  CC'     His  fiu«tvdl 
speech  on  bis  expulsion  in  1^54,  printed  by  Huoifirey,  p. 
74,  &c.     5.  A  short  tract,  ^^  De  Usura/'  ibid.  p.  317,  &c. 
6.  *^  Epistolaad  Scipionem  Patritium  Venetuo),''  &c.  1559, 
and  reprinted  in  the  appendix  to  father  Paul'a  ^^  History 
of  the  Council  of  Trent,"  in  Engli^,  by  Brei»t,  third  edi- 
tion, 1629,  folio.     7.  ^'A  Letter  to  Henry  BuUinger  at 
Zurich,  concerning  the  State  of  Religion  in  Englaad,'* 
dated  May  22,  1559,  printed  in  the  appendix  to  Strype's 
'<  Annals,"  No.  xk.     8.  Another  letter  to  the  ^aine,  dated 
Feb.  8,  1566,  concerning  his  controversy  with  Hardyogc, 
ibid.  No.  36,  37.    9.  "  Letters  between  him  and  Dr.  Henry 
Cole,  &c.  1560,"  8vo.     10.  <<A  Suasion  preadied  at  Sc 
Paul's  Cross,  the  second  Sunday  before  Easter,  anno  1560,'* 
Svo.    Dr.  Cole  wrote  several  letters  to  him  on  this  subject. 
11.  ^<  A  Reply  to  Mr.  Hardynge's  Answer,  &c."  1566,  fol. 
and  again  in  Latin,  by  Will.  Whitaker^  fellow  of  Trinity 
college,  Cambridge,  at  Geneva,  1578,  4to ;  and  again  in 
1585,  in  folio,  with  oUr  author's  ^Apologia  EcclesiflB  An* 
glicanse."      12.  ^'  Apologia  Ecclesiae  Anglicanas,"  1562, 
8vo ;  several  times  printed  in  England,  and  tr4nslated  into 
German,  Italian,  French,  Spanish,  and  Dutch ;  and  ^  Gi'eek 
translation  of  it  was  printed  at.  Oxford,  in  1614,  8vo.     It 
was  likewise  translated  into  Welsh, Qsfprd,  l{i71.  The  £Bg* 
lish  translation  by  the  lady  Bacon,  wife  tosk  Nicolas  Ba- 
con, was  entitled  ^^  An  Apology  or  Answer  in  Defence  of 
the  Church  of  England,  &c."  1562,  4to.    This  <<  Apology'' 
was  approved  by  the  queen,  and  set  forth  with  the  consent 
of  the  bishops.     13.  ^^  A  Defence  of  the  Apology,  &c." 
1564, 1567,  folio;  again  in  Latin,  by  Tho.  Braddook,  fellow 
of  Christ's  college,  Cambridge,  at  Geneva,  I16OO,  foL    The 
^'  Apology"  was  ordered  by  queen  Elizabeth,  idag  James, 
kipgCharles,and  four  successive  archbishops,  to  bevead  and 
chained  up  in  all  parish  churches  throughout  England  and 
Wales.     14.  '^  An  Answer  to  a  book  written  by  Mr.  Har- 
dynge,  entitled  ^  A  Detection  of  sundry  foul  Errors,'  &c;'* 
1568  and  1570,  folio.     15.  <^  A  View  of  a  seditious  Boll 
sent  into  England  from  Pius  V.  &c."  1582,  8ro.     16.  <<  A 
Treatise  of  the  Holy  Scripture,"  Svo.     17.  ^^  Exposition 
on  the  two  Epistles  to  the  Thessalonians,"  1594,  8vo.     18, 
*«  A  Treatise  of  the  Sacraments,  &c."  1583.     19,  «  Ce^r- 
tain  Sermons  preached  before  the  queen's  majesty  at  Paul's 
Cross,  and  elsewhere."     All  these  books  (except  the  first 
tight),  with  the  "  Sermons"  and  "  Apology,"  were  printed 


at  London,  1609,  in  one  yolume,  folio,  with  an  abstract  of 
die  author's  life,  by  Dan.  Featly;  but  full  of  faults,  as 
Wood  says.  There  is  a  better  life  prefixed  to  the  octavo 
edition  of  the  Apology,  1685.  20.  "An  Answer  to  cer- 
tain frivolous  Objections  against  the  Government  of  the 
Church  of  England,"  1641,  4to,  a  single  sheet  21.  lilany 
letters  in  the  collection  of  records  in  Part  III.  of  Burnet's 
**  History  of  the  Reformation."  ■ 

.  JOACHIM,  abbot  of  Corazzo,  and  afterwards  of  Flora 
in  Calabria,  distinguished  for  his  pretended  prophecies 
.and  remarkable  opinions,  was  born  at  Celico  near  Cosejiza, 
in  1 130.  He  was  of  the  Cistertian  order,  and  had  several 
monasteries  subject  to  his  jurisdiction,  which  he  directed 
with  the  utmost  wisdom  and  regularity.  He  was  revered 
by  the  multitude  as  a  person  divinely  inspired,  and  even 
equ^l  to  the  most  illustrious  of  the  ancient  prophets.  Many 
of  his  predictions  were  formerly  circulated,  and  indeed  are 
still  extant,  having  passed  through  several  editions,  and 
received  illustration  from  several  commentators.  He  taught 
erroneous  notions  respecting  the  holy  Trinity,  which 
amounted  fully  to  tritheism ;  but  what  is  more  extraor- 
dinary, he  taught  that  the  morality  of  the  Gospel  is  im- 
perfect, and  that  a  better  and  more  complete  law  is  to  be 
given  by  the  Holy  Ghost,  which  is  to  be  everlasting.  These 
reveries  gave  birth  to  a  book  attributed  to  Joachim,  enti- 
tled "  The  Everlasting  Gospel,"  or  «  The  Gospel  of  the 
Holy  Ghost."  "  It  is  not  to  be  doubted,"  says  Mosheim, 
^'  that  Joachim  was  th^  author  of  various  predictions,  and 
that  he,  in  a  particular  manner,  foretold  the  reformation  pf 
the  church,  of  which  he  might  see  the  absolute  necessity. 
It  is,  however,  certain,  that  the  greater  part  of  the  predic- 
tions and  writings  which  were  formerly  attributed  to  him, 
were  composed  by  others.  This  we  may  affirm  even  of 
the  ^^  Everlasting  Gospel,"  the  work  undoubtedly  of  some 
obscure,  silly,  and  visionary  monk,  who  thought  proper  to 
adorn  his  reveries  with  the  celebrated  name  of  Joachim,  in 
order  to  gain  them  credit,  and  render  them  more  agree- 
able to  the  multitude.  The*  title  of  this  senseless  produc- 
tion is  taken  from  Rev.  xiv*  6 ;  and  it  contained  three  books. 


1  Life  prefixed  to  Uie  octavo  edition  of  the  ApoIo|y,  16S5,  re|nrinted  by  Dr. 
Wordsworth  in  his  Ecclesiastical  Biography. — ^Ath.  Obc.  vol.  I. — ^Falier's  Abel 
EedivivQs.— Biog.  Brit. — Strype's  Life  of  Cranmer,  pp.  33*7;  357 ;— of  Parker, 
pp.  53,  76,  99,  1U«  178,  180,  1859^63,  317,  368, 369,  460.^Priiice'i  Wor« 


Tlie  Urst  was  entitled  **  Liber  concordie  veritatis/*  or  tbe 
iiook  of  the  harmooy  of  tnith  ;  ibe  second,  *'  Apocdypsis 
Nova,'*  or  new  revelation  ;  and  the  third,  ^  Psalteriura  de- 
cern Chordamm.**  This  account  was  taken  from  a  MS.  of 
that  woik  in  the  library  of  the  Sorbonne.*'  It  is  necessar})^ 
we  should  observe,  to  distinguish  this  book  from  the  **  In- 
Uodaction  to  the  Everlasting  Gospel,**  written  by  a  friar  * 
named  Gerhard,  and  published  in  1250.  Joachim  died  in 
1202,  leaving  a  number  of  followers,  who  were  called 
Joachimites.  His  works  have  been  published  in  Venice, 
1516,  folio,  &c.  and  contain  proposiuons^wbich  have  been 
condemned  by  several  councils.  The  part  of  bis  works 
most  esteemed  is  his  commentaries  on,  Isaiah,  Jeremiah, 
and  the  Apocalypse.  His  life  was  written  by  a  Dominican 
named  Gervaise,  and  published  in  1745,  in  2  vols.  i2mo.^ 

JOACHIM,  George.    See  RHETICUS. 

JOAN  (Pope),  called  by  Platina  John  VIII.  seems  to 
require  some  notice  in  this  work,  although  her  history  is 
involved  in  much  doubt,  and  even  her  existence  is  thought 
by  some  uncertain.  This  subject  has  been  treated  with  as 
much  animosity  on  both  sides,  between  the  papists  and  tlie 
prote8tants,as  if  the  whole  of  religion  depended  on  it.  These, 
are  reckoned  upwards  of  sixty  of  the'  Romish  communion, 
and  among  them  several  monks  and  canonized  saints,  by 
whom  the  story  is  related  thus : 

About  the  middle  of  the  ninth  century,  viz.  between  the 
pontificates  of  Leo  IV.  and  Benedict  III.  *  a  woman,  called 
Joan,  was  promoted  to  the  pontificate,  by  the  name  of. 
John  5  whom  Platina,  and  almost  all  other  historians,  ha\^ 
reckoned  as  the  VII Ith  of  that  name,  and  others  as  the 
Vllth  :  some  call  her  only  John.  This  female  pope  was 
born  at  Meritz,  where  she  went  by  the  name  of  English 
John  t ;  whether  because  she  was  of  English  extraction,  or 
for  what  other  reason,  is  not  known :  some  modern  histo- 
rians say  she  was  called  Agnes,  that  is,  the  chaste,  by  way 
of  irony,  perhaps,  before  her  pontificate.  She  had  from 
her  infancy  an  extraordinary  passion  for  learning  and  tra- 
velling, find  in  order  to  satisfy  this  inclination,  put  on  the 

*  See  Moreri.     N.  B.  Blondel,  Des-  f  Her  true  name  was  Gilberta,  'and 

aaretz,  and  Bayle,  are  the  chief  of  it  is  said  she  took  the  name  of  Engliuli, 

tboie  who  absolutely  denied  it.    Span-  •  or  Aoglus,  from  Anglos,  a  monk  otilM 

heim,  L'Eofant  des  Vignelies,  among  abbey  of  Fulda,  whom  she  loved,  and 

^fe  who  haTe  affirmed  it.  wl)6  was  her  instructor,  and  travelled 

^  with  her.  Crespio's  L'etat  de  r£ni^U»h. 

!  Hwhtm^'^CaLre,  ?el.  11.— Pupin,*— Moreri. 

2S  JOAN. 

turned  towards  this  scene  of  action,  and  after  numberless 
feats  of  valour  on  both  sides,  the  attack  was  so  vigorouslj 
pushed  by  the  English,  that  the  king  (Charles  VIL)  gave 
up  the  city  as  lost,  when  relief  was  brought  from  a  very 
unexpected  quarter.  Joan,  influenced  by  the  frequent 
accounts  of  the  rencounters  at  this  memorable  siege,  and 
affected  with  the  distresses  of  her  country  and  king,  was 
seized  with  a  wild  desire  of  relieving  him  ;  and  as  her  in- 
experienced mind-worked  day  and  night  on  this  favourite 
object,  she  fancied  she  saw  visions,  and  heard  voices,  ex- 
horting her  to  re-establish  the  throne  of  France,  and  expel 
the  English  invaders.  Enthusiastic  in  these  notions,  she 
went  to  Vaucouleurs,  and  informed  Baudricourt,  the  go- 
vernor^ of  her  inspirations  and  intentions,  who  sent  her  to 
the  French  court,  then  at  Chinon.  Here,  on  being  intro- 
duced to  the  king,  she  offered,  in  the  name  of  the  Supreme 
Being,  to  raise  the  siege  of  Orleans,  and  conduct  his  ma* 
jesty  to  Rheims,  to  be  there  crowned  and  anointed ;  and 
'she  demanded,  as  the  instrument  of  her  future  victories,  a 
particular  sword  which  was  kept  in  the  church  of  St.  Ca* 
therine  de  Fierbois.  The  king  and  his  ministers  at  first' 
either  hesitated  or  pretended  to  hesitate ;  but  after  an  as- 
sembly of  grave  and  learned  divines  had  pronounced  hev 
mission  to  be  real  and  supernatural,  her  request  was 
granted,  and  she  was  exhibited  to  the  whole  people,  on 
horseback  in  military  habiliments.  On  this  sight,  her  dex- 
terity in  managing  her  steed,  though  acquired  in  her  for^ 
oier  station,  was  regarded  as  a  fresh  proof  of  her  mission ; 
her  former  occupation  was  even  denied;  she  was  con- 
verted into  a  shepherdess,  an  employment  more  agreeable 
to  the  fancy.  '  Some  years  were  subtracted  from  her  age, 
in  order  to  excite  still  more  admiration ;  and  she  was  re- 
ceived with  the  loudest  acclamations,  by  persons  of  all 

The  English  at  first  affected  to  speak  with  derision  of  the 
maid  and  her  heavenly  missian ;  but  were  secretly  struck 
with  the  strpng  persuasion  which  prevailed  in  all  around 
them.  They  found  their  qourage  daunted  by  degrees,  and 
thence  began  to  infer  a  divine  vengeance  hanging  over 
them.  A  silent  astonishment  reigned  among  those  troops 
formerly  so  elated  with  victory,  and  so  fierce  for  the  com- 
bat The  maid  entered  the  city  of  Orleans  at  the  head  of 
a  convoy,  arrayed  in  her  military  garb^  and  displaying  her 
consecrated  standard.     She  was  received  as  a  celestial 

JOAN.  2» 


deliverer  by  the  garrison  and  its  inhabitants ;  and  with  the 
instructions  of  count  Dunois,  commonly  called  the  Bastard 
of  Orleans,  who  commanded  in  that  place,  she  actually 
obliged  the  English  to  raise  the  siege  of  that  city,  after 
driving  them  from  their  entrenchments,  and  defeating 
them  in  several  desperate  attacks. 

Raising  the  siege  of  Orleans  was  one  part  of  the  maid^s 
promise  to  Charles;  crowning  him  at  Rheims.  was  the 
other  ;  and  she  now  vehemently  insisted  that  he  should  set 
out  immediately  on  tl)at  journey.  A  few  weeks  before, 
such  a  proposal  would  have  appeared  altogether  extrava-* 
gant.  Rheims  lay  in  a  distant  quarter  of  the  kingdom ; 
was  then  in  the  hands  of  a  victorious  enemy  ;  the  whole 
road  that  led  to  it  was  occupied  by  their  garrisons ;  and 
no  imagination  could  have  been  so  sanguine  as  to  hope 
that  such  an  attempt  could  possibly  be  carried  into  exe- 
cution. But,  as  it  was  the  interest  of  the  king  of  France 
to  maintain  the  belief  of  something  extraordinary  and  di- 
vine in  these  events,  he  resolved  to  comply  with  her  ex*  ' 
hortations,  and  avail  himself  of  the  present  consternation 
of  the  £ngUsh«  He  accordingly  set  out  for  Rheims,  at  the 
head  of  12,000  men,  and  scarcely  perceived  as  he  passed 
along,  that  he  was  marching  through  an  enemy^s  country* 
£very  place  opened  its  gates  to  him  ;  Rheims  sent  him  its 
keys,  and  the  ceremony  of  his  inauguration  was  performed 
with  the  holy  oil,  which  a  pigeon  is  said  to  have  brought 
from  heaven  to  Clovis,^  on  the  first  establishment  of  the 
French  monarchy. 

As  a  mark  of  his  gratitude,  Charles  had  a  medal  struck 
in  her  honour.  On  one  side  was  her  portrait,  on  the  other 
a  hand  holding  a  sword  with  these  words,  ConsUio  confirmata 
Dei.  "  Sustained  by  the  assistance  of  God."  Tlie  king 
also  ennobled  all  her  family,  sts  well  in  the  male  as  in  the 
female  line ;  the  former  became  extinct  in  1760.  In  1614 
the  latter,  at  the  request  of  the  procurator-general,  were 
deprived  of  their  privilege  of  ennobling  their  children,  in- 
dependent of  their  husband.  The  town  of  Domremi,  also, 
where  she  was  born,  was  exempted  from  all  taxes,  aids, 
and  subsidies  for  ever. 

The  Maid  of  Orleans,  as  she  is  called,  declared  after 
this  coronation,  that  her  mission  was  now  accomplished ; 
and  expressed  her  inclination  to  retire  to  the  occupations 
and  course  of  life  which  became,  her  sex.  But  Dunois^ 
sensible  of  the^great  ^dvantalges  which  might  still  be  reaped 

to  J  O  A  N. 

from  her  presence  in  the  army,  exhorted  her  to  perse\rere 
till  the  final  expulsion  of  the  English.  In  pursuance  of 
this  advice^  she  threw  herself  into  the  town  of  Comptegne, 
at  that  time  besieged  by  the  duke  of  Burgundy,  assisted 
by  the  earls  of  Arundel  ai>d  Suffolk.  The  garrison,  ofi 
bier  appearance,  believed  themselves  invincible ;  but  Joaii^ 
after  performing  prodigies  of  valour,  was  taken  prisoner 
IB  a  ssilly,  and  no  eiforts  having  been  made  by  the  French 
court  to  deliver  her,  was  condemned  by  the  English  to  be 
burnt  alive,  which  sentence  she  sustained  with  great  cou<^ 
rage  in  the  nineteenth  year  of  her  age,  1431.  Such  are 
the  outlines. of  the  history  of  this  extraordinary  heroine, 
which  however  is  involved  in  many  doubts  and  difficulties, 
and  has  loo  many  of  the  features  of  romance  for  serious 
belief.  It  has  lately  even  been  doubted  whether  she  was 
actually  put  to  death ;  and  some  plausible  evidence  has 
been  brought  forward  to  prove  that  the  judges  appointed 
by  the  duke  of  Bedford  to  try  her,  passed  a  sentence  from 
which  they  saved  her  on  the  day  of  execution  by  a  trick, 
and  that  »be  afterwards  made  her  appearance,  was  married 
to  a  gentleman  of  the  house  of  Amboise  in  1436,  and  her 
sentence  was  annulled  in  1456.  Be  this  as  it  may,  her 
memory  has  long  been  consecrated  by  her  countrymen, 
none  of  whom,  however,  have  done  her  so  much  honour 
as  our  present  poet-laureat,  in  bis  admirable  poem  of 
«  Joan  of  Arc."  * 

JOBERT  (Louis),  a  pious  and  learned  Jesuit,  was  a 
native  of  Paris,  where  he  was  bo*rn  in  1647.  He  taught 
polite  literature  in  his  own  order,  and  distinguished  him- 
self as^  a  preacher.  He  died  at  Paris  in  1719.  There  are 
several  tracts  of  piety  of  his  writing,  besides  a  piece  en- 
titled "  La  Science  des  Medailles,"  of  which  the  best 
edition  is  that  of  Paris,  in  1739,  2  vols.  12mo,  but  this 
superiority  it  owes  to  the  editor,  M.  le  Baron  Bimard  de 
la  Bastie ;  and  even  of  this  edition^  the  second  volume  is  a 
mere  farrago  of  useless  lumber.  Pihkerton,  who  expresses^ 
a  very  low  opinion  of  this  work,  affirms  that  Jobert  bor- 
rowed much  from  Charles  Patin's  "  Introduction  to  thfe 
History  of  Medals,"  without  any  acknowledgment.* 

JOCONDUS,  or  JUCUNDUS  (John),  an  eminent  an* 
tiquary,  architect,  and  critic,    was  probably  a  native  of 

^  Histories  of  England  and  France.— Southey*8  Joan  of  Arc. — Qleig's  Supple- 
ment to  the  Encyclopedia  Briannica. 
*  Mor«ri.— Pict.  Hist— Pinkerton's  MedalSj  preface.      ^ 


Vetona,  and  flourished  in  the  sixteenth  century.     He  was 
of  the  order  of  the  Dominicans,  but  in  his  travels,  and  du* 
ring  his  scientific  labours,  wore  the  habit  of  a  secular  priest. 
When  at  Rome,  where  he  was  first  known  as  an  architect, 
he  beg^n  to  apply  to  the  study  of  classical  antiquities,  and 
nade  a  judicious  collection  of  inscriptions,  which  he  dedi- 
cated to  Lorenzo  de  Medici.     He  was  some  time  at  the 
court  of  the  emperor  Maximilian  I.  and  thence  went  to 
France  about  1300,  where  Louis  X.  appointed  him  royal 
architect.     He  built  at  Paris  two  bridges  over  the  Seine, 
that  of  Notre  Dame,  and  the  little  bridge.     In  the  mean 
time,  while  be  had  leisfire,  he  employed  it  in  examining 
ancient  manuscripts,  and  had  the  felicity  to  recover  all  th^ 
lettei's  of  Pliny  the  younger,  and  the  work  of  Julius  Obse- 
quens  on  prodigies.     These  he  arranged  for  publication, 
and  sent  them  to  Aldus  Manutius,  by  whom  they  were 
both  printed  in  1508,  8vo.     He  also  collated  several  other 
classics,  and  illustrated  Csesar's  Commentaries  by  useful 
notes  and  figores,  and  was  the  first  to  give  a  design  of  the 
famous  bridge  which  Csesar  built  across  the  Rhine.     On 
his  return  to  Italy,  he  edited  the  fine  edition  of  Vitruvius, 
printed  by  Aldus  in  1511,  and  enriched  it  with  designs. 
When  the  famous  bridge  the   Rialto  was  burnt  down  in 
1513,  he  gave  a  magnificent  design  for  a  new  one ;  but 
that  of  an  inferior  architect  being  preferred,  he  quitted 
Venice,    and  went  to  Rome,   where,   after  the  death  of 
Bramante,  he  was  employed  on   St.  Peter's  church.     His 
last  work  was  the  bridge  over  the  Adige,  at  Verona,  which 
he  built  in  1520.     He  died  about  1530,  at  a  very  advanced 

JODELLE(Stephen),  acelebrated  French  poet,  was  born 
of  a  noble  family  at  Paris,  in  1532.  He  was  esteemed  by 
Henry  II.  and  Charles  IX.  but  so  entirely  devoted  to  poetry 
and  luxury,  that  he  reaped  no  advantage  from  their  pa- 
tronage, but  lived  in  poverty.  He  was  one  of  the  earliest 
tragic  poets  of  France,  but  abused  the  uncommon  facility 
he  had  in  writing  verses  ;  so  that  though  his  French  poems 
were  much  admired  when  their  author  was  living,  it  now 
requires  great  patience  to  read  them.  The  same  cannot, 
however,  be  said  of  his  Latin  poetry,  which  is  written  in  a 
more  pure  and  easy  style,  and  in  a  bettet  taste.  Jodelle 
Was  well  acquainted  with  Greek  and  Latin,  had  a  genius 

»  Tiral>oschir-M<>reri,— NiceroD,  toI,  XXX.— Saxii  Onoraast. 

S2  J  O  D  E  L  L  E. 

for  the  arts,  and  is  said  to  have  understood  architecture; 
painting,  and  sculpture ;  he  was  one  of  the  poets  in  the 
Pleiades  fancied  by  Ronsard,  and  is  considered  as  the  iri* 
veutor  of  the  Vers  rapportes.  This  author  died  very  poor, 
July  1573»  The  collection  of  bis  poems  was  published  at 
Paris,  1574,  4to,  and  at  Lyons,  1597,  12oao.  It  contains 
two  tragedies,  Cleopatra,  and  Dido ;  Eugene,  a  comedy  ;^ son* 
nets,  songs,  odes,  elegies,  &c.  Cardinal  du  Perron  valued 
this  poet's  talents  so  little,  that  he  used  to  say  Jodelle*B 
verses  were  but  pois piles} 


JOHNSON  (Charles),  a  dramatic  writer,  was  origi-> 
nally  bred  to  the  law,  and  a  member  of  the  Middle  temple, 
but  being  a  great  admirer  of  the  muses,  and  finding  in 
himself  a  strong  propensity  to  dramatic  writing,  he  quitted 
bis  profession,  and  by  contracting  an  intimacy  with  Mr« 
Wilks,  the  manager  of  the  theatre,  found  means,  through 
that  gentleman^s  interest,  to  get  his  plays  on  the  stage 
without  much  difficulty.  Some  of  them  met  with  very 
good  success,  and  being  a  constant  frequenter  of  the 
meetings  of  the  wits  at  Will's  and  Button's  coffee-bouses^ 
he,  by  a  polite  and  inoffensive  behaviour,  formed  so  ex-» 
tensive  an  acquaintance  and  intimacy,  as  constantly  in* 
sured  him  great  emoluments  on  his  benefit  night;  by  whicb 
means,  being  a  miln  of  ceconomy,  he  was  epabled  to  sub«i 
sist  very  genteelly.  He  at  length  married  a  young  widow, 
with  a  tolerable  fortune,  oit  which  he  set  up  a  tavern  ia 
Bow-street,  Covent-garden,  but  quitted  business  at  bia 
wife's  death,  and  lived  privately  on  an  easy  competence 
which  he  had  saved.  At  what  time  he  was  born  we  know 
not,  but  he  lived  in  the  reigns  of  queen  Anne,  king 
George  L  and  part  of  Qeorge  II.  and  died  March  1 1,  1748. 
As  a  dramatic  writer,  he  is  far  from  deserving  to  be  placed 
amongst  the  lowest  class  ;  for  though  his  plots  are  seldom 
original,  yet  he  has  given  them  so.  many  additions,  and 
has  clothed  the  designs  of  others  in  so  pleasing  a  dress, 
that  a  great  shs^re  of  the  merit  they  possess  ought  to  be  at- 
tributed to  him. 

Though,  as  we  have  observed,  be.  was  a  man  of  a  very 
inoffensive  behaviour,  he  could  not  escape  the  satire  of 
Pope,  who,  too  ready  to  resent  even  any  supposed  offeucey 
has,  on  some  trivial  pique,  immortalized  him  in  the  "Dua* 

1  een.  Diet— NicecoD,  toI.  X^iyitL— Moreri.--Dict,  Bitt 


ciad  ;'*  and  in  one  of  the  notes  to  that  poem  has  quoted 
from  another  piece,  called  **  The  Characters  of  the  Times/^ 
the  following  account  of  him  :  '^  Charles  Johnson^  famous 
for  writing  a  play  every  year,  and  for  being  at  .Button^s 
every  day.  He  bad  probably  thriven  better  in  bis  voca- 
tion, bad  be  been  a  small  matter  leaner;  be  may  be  justly 
called  a  martyr  to  obesity,  and  be  said  to  have  fallen  a 
victim  to  the  rotundity  of  his  parts.''  The  friends  of  John- 
son knew  that  part  of  this  account  was  false,  and  probably 
did  not  think  very  ill  of  a  man  of  whom  nothing  more  de«. 
grading  could  be  said  than  that  he  was  fat.  The  dramatic 
pieces  this  author  produced,  nineteen  in  all,  are  enume- 
rated in  the  Biograpbia  Dramatica.  ^ 

JOHNSON  (John),  an  eminent  divine  among  the  noU'^ 
jurors,  the  only  son  of  the  rev.  Thomas  Johnson,  vicar  of  • 
Frindsbury,  near  Rochester,  was  born  Dec.  30,  1662,  and 
was  educated  in  the  king's  school  in  Canterbury,  where 
be  made  such  progress  in  the  three  learned  languages, 
Latin,  Greek,  and  Hebrew,  under  Mr.  Lovejov,  then  mas- 
ter of  that  school,  that  when  be  was  very  little  more  than 
fifteen  years  of  age,  be  was  sent  to  the  university  of  Cam* 
bridge,  where  he  was  admitted  in  the  college  of  St.  Mary 
Magdalen,  under  the  tuition  of  Mr.  Turner,  fellow  of  that 
bouse,  March  the  4th,  1677-S.  In  Lent  term  1681-2, 
be  took  the  degree  of  B.  A.  and  soon  after  was  nominated 
by  the  dean  and  chapter  of  Canterbury  to  a  scholarship  in 
Corpus  Cbristi  college  in  that  university^  of  the  founda- 
tion of  arphbishop  Parker,  to  which  he  was  admitted  April 
the  29th,  1682,  under  the  tuition  of  Mr.  Beck,  fellow  of  that 
bouse.  He  took  the  degree  of  M.  A.  at  the  commence- 
9ient  1 6S5,  Spon  after  he  entered  into  deacon^s  orders,  and 
became  curate  to  the  rector  of  Upper  c^nd  Lower  Hardres, 
near  Canterbury.  He  was  ordained  priest  by  the  right  rev. 
Dr.  Thomas  Sprat,  lord  bishop  of  Rochester  and  dean  of 
Westminster,  December  the  19th,  1686  ;  and  July  the  9th, 
16S7,  he  wks  collated  to  the  vicarage  of  Boughton  under  the 
Blean,  by  Dr.  Saqcroft,  archbishop  of  Canterbury^  and  at  the 
fame  time  he  was  allowed  by  the  same  archbishop  to  hold  tlie 
adjoining  vicarage  of  Hern-bill  by  sequestration ;  both  which 
i:hurches  he  supplied  himself.  About  1689  one  Sale, 
i|  man  who  had  counterfeited  holy  orders,  having  forged 

'  Cibb«r'i  JJt.i,  vol.  V. — ^Biog.  Dramatici. 

Vot.  XIX.  D 

3i  J  O  H  N  S  O  If . 

letters  of  ordination  both  for  himself  and  Iris  ^itheff 
came  into  this  diocese,  and  taking  occasion  from  the  con«- 
ftision  occasioned  by  the  reiroiation  during  the  time  arch* 
bishop  Sancroft  was  under  suspension,  and  before  Dr.  Til-* 
lotson  was  consecrated  to  the  archbishopric,  made  it  hia 
business  to  find  out  what  litingswere  held  by  sequestradofi' 
only,  and  procured  the  broad  seal  for  one  of  these  for  bim^ 
self,  and  another  for  bis  father.  On  this  Mr.  Johnson 
thought  it  necessary  to  secnre  his  vicarage  of  Hem*hiii^ 
that  he  might  prerent  Sale  from  depriving  him  of  that  be^ 
ne6ce ;  and  archbishop  Sancroft  being  then  depriTed  tf^ 
dfficio  only,  but  not  a  beneficio,  presented  him  to  Hem-htii^ 
to  which  he  was  instituted  October  the  16th,  1689,  by  l>r« 
George  Ozenden,  vicar*general  to  the  archbishop,  but  at' 
that  time  to  the  dean  and  chapter  of  Canterbury,  guardians 
Of  the  spiritualities  during  the  suspension  of  the  archbishop. 
Bat  as  the  living  had  been  so  long  held  by  sequestration 
that  it  was  lapsed  to  the  crown,  he  found  it  necessary  to 
Corroborate  his  title  with  the  broad  seal,  .which  was  gtveif 
him  April  the  I2th,  1690.  In  1697  the  vicarage  of  St. 
John  in  the  Isle  of  Thaiiet,  to  which  the  town  of  MargatO' 
belongs,  becoming  void,  archbishop  Tenison,  the  patron, 
considering  the  largeness  of  the  cure,  was  desirous  to  place 
there  a  person  better  qualified  than  ordinary  to  supply  it| 
dnd  could  think  of  no  man  in  his  diocese  more  fit  than 
Mr.  Johnson,  and  therefore  Untreated  him  to  undertake 
the  pastoral  care  of  that  large  and  populous  parish.  And 
because  the  benefice  was  but  small,  and  the  cure  very 

f^resLty  the  archbishop,  to  induce  him  to  accept  of  it,  collated 
lim  to  the  vicarage  of  Appledore  (a  good  benefice)  on  th« 
borders  of  Romney  Marsh,  on  the  1st  of  May,  1697  :  btt( 
Mr.  Johnson  chose  to  hold  Margate  by  sequestration  only. 
And  having  now  two  sons  ready  to  be  instructed  in  learn** 
ing,  he  would  not  send  them  td  school,  but  taught  them 
himself;  saying  that  he  thought  it  as  much  the  du^Qf  ft 
father  to  teach  his  own  children,  if  he  was  capable  of  doing 
it,  as  it  was  of  the  mother  to  suckle  and  nurse  ^em  in 
their  infancy,  if  she  was  able ;  and  because  he  believed 
they  would  learn  better  in  company  than  alone,  he  to6k 
two  or  three  boarders  to  teach  with  them,  the  sons  of  some 
particular  fViends.  Re  was  much  importuned  by  several 
others  of  his  acquaintance  to  take  their  sons,  but  h» 
refused.    At  lengtti^  finding  be  could  not  attend  the  pupils 


lie  had,  his  great  cure,  and  bis  studies,  io  such  a  OMintier 
as  he  was  desirous  to  do,  he  entreated  his  patron  the  arch* 
bbhop^  to  give  him  leave  entirely  to  quit  Margate,  and 
to  retire  to  his  cure  of  Appledore,  which,  with  some  diffi* 
cttlty,  was  at  hut  granted  him ;  but  not  till  his  grace  had 
made  inquiry  throughout  his  diocese  and  the  university  of 
Cambridge  for  one  who  might  be  thought  qualified  to  suc^ 
ceed  him.     He  settled  at  Appledore  in  1703«  aud  as  soon 
as  his  eldest  son  was  fit  for  the  university  (which  was  in 
1705)  he  sent  him  to  Cambridge,  and  bis  other  smu  tp 
school  till  he  was  of  age  to  be  pu(  out  apprentice ;  and 
dismissed  all^  the  rest  of  bis  scholars.     He  seemed  n^uch 
pleased  with  Appledore  at  bis  first  retirement  thither,  as  a 
place  where  be  could  follow  his  studies  without  interrupt 
tiw.    But  this  satisfaction  was  not  of  long  continuance  ^ 
for  that  marshy  air,  in  a  year  or  two,  brought  a  severe  sick^ 
ness  on  himself  and  all  bis  family,  and  his  constitution  (which 
till  then  had  been  Very  good)  was  so  broken,  that  be  never 
afterwards  recovered  the  health  be  bad  before  enjoyedL 
This  made  him  desirous  to  remove  from  tbence  as  scon  m 
he  could ;  and  the  vicarage  of  Cranbrook  becoming  veidf 
he  asked  the  archbishop  to  bestow  it  on  him,  which  bis 
gnM^e  readily  did,  and  accordingly  collated  him  to  it  AprU 
ti^e  iS^b,  1707,  where  he  continued  till  his  deatht  b<>lding 
-Appledore  with  it.    In  1710,  and  again  in  1713,  he  was 
cboisti  by  the*  clergy  of  the  diocese  of  Canterbury  to  be 
oaeof  their  proctors  for  the  convocation  summoned  tp 
xoeet  with  the  parliament  in  those  years.    And  as  the  first 
of  these  convpoatioAs  was  permitted  to  sit  and  act»  and  to 
tmst  of  matters  of  religion  (thoegh  they  brought  no  busi«» 
iiess  to  any  perfection,  owing  to  the  differences  that  had 
been  r^sed  between  dbe  twolMUses)  he  consuntly  atteiuied 
the  bouse  of  whidi  he  was  a  member  whilst  any  n)atter  was 
there  under  debate ;  and  his  parts  and  learning  came  tp 
be  known  and  esteemed  by  tl^e  most  eminent  clergy  of  the 
province,  as  they  bad  been  before  by  those  of  the  diocese 
.  whene  he  lived  ;  so  that  from  this  tieie  he  wa9  frequently 
leaorted  io  for  his  opinion  in  particular  osses,  and  bad  let- 
ters eent  to  biei  foom  the  remotest  parts  of  the  province  of 
Caoterbory,  and  semetioies  from  the  other. proviHce  also, 
requiring  bis  opinion  in  matters  of  learning,  especially  as 
to  what  concerned  our  religion  and  ecclesiastical  laws.   He 
'Cestaiuied  «t  Crsnbrook  about  eighteen  years ;  aud  as  be 

D  2 

JO  A  N. 

male  habit,  and  went  to  Athens,  in  conipany  with^ne  of 
ber  friends,  who  was  called  her  favonrite  lover.  From 
Athens  she  went  to  Rome,  where  she  taught  divinity  ;  and, 
in  the  garb  of  a  doctor,  acquired  so  great  reputation  for 
understandings  learning,  and  probity,  that  she  was  uimni- 
mously  elected  pope  in  the  room  of  Leo  IV. 

T,o  this  s^ory  several  modern  historians  add  many  par- 
ticular^  of  a  more  delicate  nature,  and  assert  that  she 
formed  an  improper  connexion  with  the  friend  to  whose 
assistance  she  owed  her  advancement  in  learning.  This 
commerce,  however,  might  have  remained  a  secret,  had 
not  Joan,  mistaken  without  doubt  in  her  reckoning,  ven- 
tured to  go  to  a  procession,  where  she  had  the  misfortune 
to  be  brought  to  bed  in  the  middle  of  the  street,  between 
the  Colosseum  and  the  church  of  St.  Clement;  and  it  ^is 
added  that  she  died  there  in  labour,  after  having  held  the 
pontifical  see  about  two  years.^ 

Such  is  the  story,  as  related  in  the  history  of  the  popes, 
which  was  certainly  received  and  avowed  as  a  truth  for 
some  centuries.  Since  it  became  a  matter  of  dispute, 
some  writers  of  the  Romish  church  have  denied  it;  some^ 
have  apologized  for  it  absurdly  enough  ;  others  in  a  way 
that  might  be  admitted,  did  not  that  church  claim  to  be 
infallible :  for  it  was  that  claim  which  first  brought  the 
truth  of  this  history  under  examination.  The  protestants 
alleged  it  as  a  clear  proof  against  the  claim;  since  it  could 
not  be  denied  that  in  this  instance  the  church  was  deceived 
by  a  woman  in  disguise.  This  induced  the  Roman 
catholics  to  search  more  narrowly  than  before  into  the 
affair  ;  and  the  result  of  that  inquiry  was,  first  a  douBt,  and 
next  an  improbability,  of  Joan's  real  existence.  This  led 
to  a  further  inquiry  into  the  origin  of  the  story ;  whence  it 
appeared,  that  there  were' no  footsteps  of  its  being  known 
in  the  church  for  near  200  years  after  it  was  said  to  have 
happened*.  -/Eneas  Sylvius,  who  was  pope  in  the  fifteenth 
century  under  the  name  of  Pius  11.  was  the  first  who, 
called  it  iii  question,  and  he  touched  it  but  slightly,  ob- 
serving, that  in  the  election  of  that  woman  there  was  qo 
error  in  a  matter«of  faith,  but  only  an  ignorance  as  to  a 
matter  of  fact;  and  also  that  the  story  was  not  certain. 
Yet  this  very  Sylvius  suffered  Joan's  name  to  be  placed 

*  Marianas  is  the  first  who  mentions  it,  and  he  lived  200  years  after.  Blondel't 
Eclaircissem.  de  la  question  :  Si  une  fcmme  a  este  assise  4U  siege  papal,  p.  17» 

J  O  A  N- 


among  those  of  ths  other  popes  ifi  the  register  <i(  Siena, 
und  transcribed  the  story  in  his  historical  work  printed  «t 
Nuremburg  in  1493.  The  example  of  Sylvius  embold- 
ened others  to  search  more  freely  into  the  matter,  who, 
finding  it  to  have  no  good  foundation,  thoi^ht  proper  to 
give  it  up. 

.But  the  protestants  thought  themselves  the  more  obliged, 
to  labour  in  support  of  it,  as  an  indelible  blot  and  reproach 
4ipon  their  adversaries ;  and  to  aggravate  the  matter,  se- 
veral circnmstances  were  mentioned  with  the  view  of  ex- 
posing the  credulity  and  weakness  of  that  church,  which, 
it  was  maintained,  bad  authorized  them.  In  this  spirit  it 
was  observed,  that  Joan,  being  installed  in  her  office, 
Emitted  others  into  orders,  after  the  manner  of  otdier 
{K)peis ;  made  priests  and  deacons,  ordained  bishops 
•and  abbots,  sung  mass,  consecrated  churches  and  altars, 
administered  the  sacraments,  presented  her  feet  to  be 
kissed,  and  performed  all  other  actions  which  the  popes  of 
Kome  are  wont  to  do,  with  other  particulars  not  now  worth 
reciting,  as  the  best  informed  historians  seem  to  give  the 
whole  up  as  a  fable.^ 

JOAN  of  ARC,  commonly  called  the  Maid  of  Orleans, 
one  of  the  most  remarkable  heroines  in  history,  was  the 
;daughter  of  James  d'Arc,  and  of  Isabella  Rom£  his  wife, 
two  persons  of  low  rank,  in  the  village  of  Domremi,  near 
Vaucouleurs,  on  the  borders  of  Lorraine,  where  she  was  born 
4n  1402.     The  instructions  she  received  during  her.  child- 
hood and  youth  were  suited  to  her  humble  condition*  .  She 
quitted  her  parents  at  an  early  age,  as  they  were  ill  able 
to  maintain  her,  and  engaged  herself  as  a  servant  at  a  small 
inn.     In  this  situation  she  employed  herself  in  attending 
the  horses  of  the  guests,  and  in  riding  them  to  the  Cater- 
ing-place, and  by  these  exercises  she  acquired  a  robust 
and  hardy  frame.     At  this  time  the  affairs  of  France  weiie 
in  a  desperate  condition,  and  the  city  of   Orleans,  the 
most  important  place  in  the  kingdom,  was  besieged  by  the 
English  regent,  the  duke  of  Bedford,  as  a^  step  to  prepare 
the  way  for  the  conquest  of  all  France.     The  French  king 
used  every  expedient  to  supply  the  city  with  a  garrifson 
and  provisions ;  and  the  English  left  no  method  unem- 
ployed for  reducing  it.     The  eyes  of  all  j^urope  were 

1  Gen.  Diet. — PlatiQa  de  vitis  Foatificum.— Bower'4)  Hist  of  the  Popes.*- 
Mosbeiip's  Cb*  Hist, 

S«  /  O  H  N  9  O  N. 

Feb.  6,  1755.  He  acquired  a  general  esteem  from  the 
frfcnkne6s  and  benev(»lence  of  hia  character,  which  displayed 
itself  not  le&B  in  social  life  than  in  the  coainAnotdatiofi  of 
hia  literary  researches.  Strangerl  who  applied  to  hlttk  for 
inforitiation,  though  without  any  introduction  except  what 
arose  from  a  genuine  thirst  for  knowledge  cMgetiial  witk 
bis  own^  failed  not  to  experience  the  hospttattty  of  his. 
board.  While  their  spirit  of  curiosity  was  feasted  by  this 
liberal  conversation  of  the  man  of  letters,  their  social 
powers  were  at  the  same  time  gratified  by  the  hospitable 
frankness  of  the  benevolent  Englishman.  The  following 
eulogium  on  him  by  Dr.  Stukeley,  is  transcribed  from  the 
Original  in  the  **  Minutes  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries t^* 
*^  JMaurice  Johnson,  esq.  of  Spalding  in  Lincolnshire)  cooti* 
selldr  at  law,  a  Auent  orator,  and  of  eminence  in  hki  proles* 
.  Mon ;  one  of  the  Itist  of  the  founders  of  the  Society  of 
Antiquaries,  1717,  except  Br.  Willis  and  W.  Slukeley; 
founder  df  the  literary  society  at  Spalding,  Nov.  ^,  1712^ 
tt^hich)  by  his  Unwearied  endeavours,  interest,  and  applica- 
tiM  in  every  kind,  infinite  labours  in  writing)  collecting) 
methodizing,  bias  now  [1755]  subsisted  forty  years  in  great 
reputation,  and  excited  a  great  spirit  of  learning  and  ccHri* 
bsity  in  South  Holland  [in  Lincolnshire].  They  have  n 
public;  library,  and  all  conveniences  for  their  weekly  iM«t« 
iHg.  Mr.  Johnson  was  a  gtieat  lover  of  gardening,  awd  had 
a  fine  coli^ctibft  ^  plants,  and  an  excellent  cabinet  of 
liiedalis.  He  Collected  large  memoirs  fot  the  ^  History  4f( 
Car&nsius,*  all  which,  with  his  coins  of  that  prince)  fail 
ffent  to  me,  panictilarly  a  brass  one  whid)  be  suppoaed  bla 
son,  resembling  those  of  young  Tetricus.  A  gooo  radiMedl 
CABS  ISMA.  Rev.  a  woman  holds  a  eornueopi«,  vestJug  her 
Iright  h«nd  on  a  pillar  or  rudder,  locts  or  c^sLO.  In  ge* 
l^ral  the  antiquities  of  the  great  tttitred  )mory  Of  Spftlding'^ 
«nd  of  this  part  of  Lincolnshire,  are  for  ever  ebliged  to  the 
^aare  and  diligence  of  Maurice  JobfiMoO,  who  has  res<:«ied 
them  from  oblivroh.*^ 

An  accurate  koeoont  of  his  many  learned  eommutticadoM 
to  the  Society  of  Antiquaties  ^f  London,  las  well  fits  of  thoser 
which  he  made  to  the  society  he  founded  at  Spalding,  may 
he  iseen  in  the  curiotis  work  which  fotnishOs  this  «Hti<^.^ 

JOHNSON  (SAittC^i),  an  English  divitte  of  mna^kabto 
feamiog  and  steadiness  in  mifferrag  for  the  prineiples  of  the 


SerdaftioB  io  !M9»  was  Ikhii  id  1649,  in  Warwidfhim; 
ao4  being  ptt  lo  St.  Paul's  school  in  Loadooy  studied  witfa 
suck  snccifss  and  reputatioo,  that  as  sood  as  he  was  fit  for 
the  naiTenkjry  he  was  nude  keeper  of  the  library  to  that 
•chooL  la  this  station  he  applied  himself  to  the  Orieiital 
languages^  in  which  he  made  great  progress.  He  was  of 
Trinity-ooUege,  Cambridge,  but  left  the  university  with* 
out  taluog  a  degrae*  He  entered  into  orders,  and  was 
presented  by  a  friend,  Mr*  Robert  Biddulph,  io  1669-7Q, 
la  the  iipctory  of  Corringbam  in  Essex.  Tbis  living,  worth 
-only  SOL  a  year,  was  the  only  church  preferment  he  ever 
liad ;  and,  aa  the  air  of  the  plao^  did  not  agree  with  him, 
lie  plaeed  a  curate  upon  the  apot^  and  settled  himself  at 
-JLMdoa ;  a  situation  so  much  the  more  agreeable  to  him,  as 
lie  had  a  strong  disposition  for  politic3,  and  had  even  made 
jisme  progress  in  that  study  before  b,e  was  presented  tp 
this  iiviflg. 

Tlhe  times  were  turbulent ;  the  duke  of  York  declaring 
iiuttsdf  a  Papist,  his  succe^idn  to  the  prowa  begs^n  to  im 
wannly  opposed  ;  and  this  brought  the  doctritie  of  inde- 
feasible hereditary  right  into  dispute,  which  WM  strongly 
djsreUnhed  by  Johnson,  who  mm  naturally  of  no  submissive 
temper  *.  This  inolination  was  early  observed  by  bis  pa- 
ison,  who  warjied  him  against  the  danger  of  it  to  one  of 
his  •  paofesaion,.  and  adviaed  him,  if  he  would  turn  his 
ihongbts  to  that  subject,  to  )p^A  Bracton  end  Fortescue 
*^  (te  laudihus  tegum  Ang)i»,**  &c.  that  so  be  ipight  be 
acquainted  with  the  old  English  constitution ;  bnt  by  no 
Mieans  to  make  politiica  the  subject  of  his  serraons,  for  that 
naalliers  of  frith  and  pmctice  formed  more  suitable  admo- 
miuans  ftom  the  pulpit.     Johnson,  it  is  said,  fdigu^iisly 

*  Qt  tifis  truUi  ir«  cannot  kvf^  s  would  milM  nothinf  of  Uftiqs  a  coad^- 
stronger  evldeooe  than  from  himself,  inan  off  his  box,  and  beating  him,  and 
In  a  piece  printed  1-689,  ftpeakinf  of  tbrowingtiim  into  liifi  boy  again.  1  ha^a 
Ibishop  asnMl^a  Pa^tora)  LeMt(er»  pi^  aevefa)  tiaata4oo|Ail  -^at  tWi  tall  rnt^^ 
Wished  a  little  before*  in  ordctr  to  place  tering  fellow,  and  put  the  case :  Sup- 
l^ing  William's  right  to  the  crown  upon  pose  this  conqueror  should  take  me  up 
am^oaat,  ^  expretsas  ;liianaBlf  ^ua  %  andsr  bit  am,  like  i^g^ardi  and  run 
f*  I  wiU  preaeatly  join  mvifi  aith  tbif  4way  with  me ;  a9i  1  his  subject  ?  Np» 
conquering  bishop,  for  I  have  not  been  thought  I,  Jl  am  my  own,  and  oot  his : 
tafraid  of  « -eon^oeror  these  ^S  years  ^  and,  haTin|[  thus  invaded  mf ,  if  I  could 
iir  k>is  aaioo  )  vi9t^  to  mm^k  ^  ^^  «ot  otheratise  rosouo  myaaU  ^m  l^, 
^w  £xehange  gate,  where  stood  an  I  would  lunite  him  under  the  ^fth  rip. 
overgrown  porter  with  his  gown  and  The  application  is  easy.'*  Tract  con- 
staff,  giving  him  a  resemblance  of  au-  cerning  king  James's  Abrogation*  in 
4)ioriyr>aishq»e  6«pipesa  j^  ^irm  t^  actgulatfi  oar  author'*  aorki^  p.  ^O^*  ^Ck8 . 
the  coaebnea  before  the  entraage ;  ^  ^ 



obseired  this  advice ;  and  tboogb,  by  applytog  bimself  t6 
the  stody  of  tbe  books  recommended  to  him,  he  became 
well  versed  in  tbe  English  constitution,  yet  he  never  intro- 
duced it  in  bis  sermons,  but  employed  these,  with  zeat, 
to  expose  tbe  absurdity  and  mischief  of  the  Popish  reli*- 
gion,  which  was  tben  too  much  ent;ouraged,  and  wonld^ 
he  thought,  unavoidably  be  established  if  the  next  heir  to 
the  crown  was  not  set  aside.  This  point  he  laboured  inces-* 
santly  in  his  private  conversation,  and  became  so  good  a 
roaster  of  the  arguments  for  it,  that  tbe  opposers  of  the 
court  gave  him  suitable  encouragement  to  proceed.  The 
earl  of  Essex  admitted  him  into  his  company;  and  lord 
William  Russel,  respecting  his  parts  and  probity,  inade  him 
his  domestic  chaplain.  This  preferment  placed  him  in  a 
conspicuous  point  of  view;  and  in  1679  he  was  appointed 
to  preach  before  the  mayor  and  aldermen  at  Guildhall- 
chapel,  on  Palm-Sunday.  He  took  that  opportunity  of 
preaching  against  Popery  ;  and  from  this  time,  he  tells  us 
himself,  '^  he  threw  away  his  liberty  with  both  hands,  and 
vrith  his  eyes  open,  for  his  country*s  service.'*  In  short, 
he  began  to  be  regarded  by  his  party  as  their  immoveable 
bulwark ;  and  to  make  good  that  character^  while  the  bill 
of  exdu^on  was  carried  on  by  his  patron  at  tbe  bead  of 
that  party  in  the  House  of  Commons,  his  chaplain,  to  pro* 
mote  the  same  cause,  engaged  the  ecclesiastical  champion 
of  passive  obedience.  Dr.  Hickes*,  in  a  book  entitled 
^^  Julian  the  Apostate,  &c.^'  published  in  1682.  This 
tract  being  written  to  expose  the  doctrine^  then  generally 
received,  of  passive  obedience,  was  answered  by  Dr.  Hickes, 
in  a  piece  entitled  **  Jovian,  &c.*'  to  which  Johnson  drew 
up  a  reply^  under  the  title  of  ^^  Julian's  arts  to  undermine 
and  extirpate  Christianity,"  &c.  This  was  printed  and 
entered  at  Stationers'-hall,  1683,  in  drd^irto  be  published; 
but,  seeing  his  patron  lord  Russel  seized  and  imprisoned, 
Johnson  thought  proper  to  check  his'  zeal,  and  take  the 
advice  of  his  iriends  in  suppressing  it. 

Tbe  court,  however,  having  information  of  it,  he  was 
suminonedj  about  two  months  af^er  lord  Russel  was  be- 
headed, to  appear  before  the  king  and  council,  where  tbe 
lord  keeper  North  examined  him  upon  these  points  :  1. 
**  Whether  h6  was  the  author  of  a  book  called  *  Julian'^ 

*  Dr.  Hiekes'f  prodoetioB  here  attacked^  was  a  semion  preached  before  tb4 
lord  mayor  in  1681,  and  published  io  16S8, 

J  O  tt  N  S  O  l^i  4i 

Arts  and  Methods  to  undermine  and  extirpate  Christi^^ 
anity'  ?  "  To  wbich  having  answered  in  the  afBrmative,  he, 
was  asked,  ^'  Why,  after  the  boolL  had  been  so  long  entered 
at  Stationers*- hall,  it  was  not  published  ?^*  To  which  he 
replied,  ^'  That  the  nation  was  in  too  great  a  ferment  to 
have  the  matter  further  debated  at  that  time."  Upon  this  he 
was  commanded  to  produce  one  of  those  books  to  the  coun- 
cil, being  told  that  it  should  be  published  if  they  approved 
it ;  but  be  answered,  **  he  had  sup{N'essed  them  himself^ 
so  that  they  were  now  his  own  private  thoughts,  for  which 
he  was  not  accountable  to  any  power  upon  earth."  The 
council  then  dismissed  him ;  but  he  was  sent  for  twice 
afterwards,  and  the  same  questions  urged,  to  which  he 
returned  the  same  answers,  and  was  then  sent  prisoner  to 
the  Gatehouse,  by  a  warrant  of  commitment  dated  Aug.  S| 
1683,  and  signed  by  sir  Leoline  Jenkins,  one  of  the  privy 
council,  and  principal  secretary  of  state.  He  was  bailed 
out  of  prison  by  two  friends,  and  the  court  used  all  possible 
means  to  discover  the  book ;  but,  being  disappointed  in  the 
search,  recotirse  was  had  to  promises,  and  a  considerable 
sum,  besides  the  favour  of  the  court,  was  ofiered  for  one 
of  the  copies,  to  the  .person  in .  whose  hands  they  were 
supposed  to  be  lodged.  This  was  refused ;  and,  as  nether 
threats  nor  promises  prevailed,  the  court  was  obliged  to 
drop  the  prosecution  upon  that  book,  and  an  informatiota 
against  Johnson  was  lodged  in  the  KingVbench^  for  writing 
^.^  Julian  the  Apostate,"  &c.  The  prosecution^  was  begun 
and  carried  on  by  the  interest  of  the  duke  of  *York.  The 
following  was  one  of  the  first  of  the  passages  on  which  the 
information  was  founded :  **  And  therefore,  I  much  wonder 
at  those  men  who  trouble  the  nation  at  this  time  of  day^ 
with  the  unseasonable  prescription  of  prayers  and,  tears, 
and  the  passive  obedience  of  the  Thebean  legion,  and 
such-like  last  remedies^  which  are  proper  only  at  such  a 
time  as  the  laws  of  our  country  are  armed  against  our.  reli- 
gion." The  attack  of  this  apparently  innocent  sentence 
gives  a  strong  idea  of  the  violence  of  the  times. 

When  Mr.  Johnson  was  brought  to  trial,  he  employed 
Mr.  Wallop  as  his  counsel,  who  urged  for  his  client,  that 
be  had  offended  against  no  law  of  the  land ;  that  the  book^ 
taken  together,  was  innocent;  but  that  any  treatise  might 
be  made  criminal,  if  treated  as  those  who  drew  up  the 
information  bad  treated  this.  The  judges,  however,  bad 
orders  to  proceed  in  the  cause,  and  the  chief  justice.  Jef- 

it  ^rOHNSON. 


fries  upbraided  Johnson  lor  ibeddling  with  wfaat  did  utt 
beloug  to  bi0i9  and  scoffiogly  told  bioi»  tl^at  he  would 
give  him  a  text,  which  was,  '^  Let  every  man  study  to  he 
quiet,  and  mind  his  own  business :''  to  which  Johnson  rer 
plied,  that  he  did  mind  bis  business  as  an  Englishman  whea 
be  wrote  that  book.  He  was  condemned,  however,  in  a 
fine  of  j^OO  marks,  and  oommitted  prisoner  to  the  KingV 
bench  till  he  should  pay  it.  Here  he  lay  in  very  necesr 
sitous  iQireumrstanceSy  it  being  reckoned  criminal  to  visit  or 
shew  Mm  any  kindness ;  so  that  few  bad  the  courage  to 
come  near  him*  or  give  him  any  relief;  by  which  means  he 
waa  Deduced  verv  low.  Notwithstanding  which,  when  bis 
mothert  whom  be  bad  maintained  for  many  yeans»  aept  ^ 
him  for  subsistence,  such  was  his  filial  affectiop,  thal^  though 
be  knew  not  how  to  supply  his  own  wants,  and  those  of  bis 
wife  and  iehildren«  and  was  told  on  this  occasion,  that 
^^ebarity  begins  at  home,''  he  sent  her  Ibrty  shillingi^ 
diough  he  had  but  fifty  in  the  world,  saying,  he  woudd  do 
hjis  duty*  and  trust  Providence  for  bis  own  supply.  The 
event  shewed  that  his  hopes  were  not  vi^n;  for  the  neal; 
morning  he  received  io/»  by  an  unknown  band,  which  he 
diseovered  at  adistant  period  to  have  been  sent  by  Dri. 
Fowler,  afterwards  bishop  of  Gloucester. 

Havingi  by  the  bonds  of  himself  and  two  friends,  obtiuned 
the  liberty  of  the  rules,  he  was  enabled  to  incur  still  further 
dangers,  by  printing  some  pieces  againsi  Popery  in  1685^ 
and  dis|Mersiog  several  of  them  about  the  covntiy  at  his  own 
expence^  These  being  answered  in  three  "  Observaiors^V 
]^  m  Roger  L' Estrange,  who  also,  disoovering  the  printer^ 
aei;sed  aA  the  copies  that  were  in  bis  hands,  Johnson  caused 
a  paper  to  be  posted  up  everywhere^  entitled  <'  A  Paro^ 
of  wry  Reasons  and  wrong  Inferences,  but  right  Observa- 
sor/'  ^pon  the  encampment  of  the  army  the  following 
year,  1 666,  on  Hounslow-heath».  he  drew  up  ^'  An  humble 
and  hearty  Addness  to  all  the  .ProtesUtats  in  the  present 
Army,"  &c«  He  had  dispersed  about  1000  copies  of  this 
paper,  when  the  rest  of  the  imfn'ession  was  seiaedi  and 
liimself  committed  to  close  custody,  to  undergo  a  sexK>nd 
trial  at  the  King^s-bench  (  where  he  was  oondemned  Ip 
atand  in  the  pillory  in  Palaoe^yard,  Westminster,  Charingr- 
croes,  and  the  Old  Exchange,  to  pay  a  fine  of  S09  marlM, 
and  .to  be  whipped  from  Newgate  to  Tyburn,  after  he  had 
ibeen  degraded  from  the  priesthood.  This  last  ought  to 
Jiave  been  done,  according  to  the  canons,  by  his  0wn  dio-* 


cesan,  the  bishop  of  Loudon,  Dr.  Compton ;  but  that  pre* 
late  being  tben  under  suspension  himself  (for  not  obeyin{f 
the  king*s  order  to  suspend  Dr.  Sharp,  afterwards  arch* 
bishop  of  York,  for  preaching  against  Popery  in  his  own 
parish  church  of  St»  Gileses  in  the  Fields),  Dr.  Crewe,  bishop 
of  Durbam,  Dr.  Sprat,  bishop  of  Rochester,  and  Dr.  White, 
bishop  of  Peterborough,  who  were  then  commisaioners  for 
the  diocese  of  London,  were  appointed  to  degrade  Mr* 
Johnson.     This  they  performed  in  the  chapter-bouse  of 
St.  'Paul's,   where  Dr.  Sherlock,   and   other  clergymen^ 
attended;  but  Dr.  StiUing^eet,  then  dean  of  St  PanPa^ 
refused  to  be  present.    Johnson's  behaviour  on  this  occa* 
aioa  was  observed  to  be  so  becoming  that  character  of 
#hicb  Ms  enemies  would  have  deprived  him,  that  it  melted 
•ome  of  their  hearts,  and  forced  them  to  acknowledge^ 
that  there  was  something  very  valuable  in  him.     Among 
other  things  which  be  said  to  the  di? ines  then  present,  he 
told  tlieiD,  in  the  most  pathetic  maimer,  ^  It  could  not  but 
grieve  him  to  think,  that,  since  all  he  had  wrote  was  det 
signed  to  keep  their  gowns  on  their  backs,  they  dMMdd  be 
tnade  the  unhappy  instruments  to  puU  off  his ;  and'  he 
begged  them  to  consider  whether  they  -were  not  making 
rods  for  themselvte*'     When  they  came  to  the  formality 
of  putting  a  BiUe  in  his  band  and  taking  it  from  bin  again^ 
he  was  much  affected,  and  parted  from  it  with  difficulty^ 
kissed  it,   and  said,   with  tears,  <<  That  they  ooaM  not^ 
however,  deprive  htm  of  the  use  and  benefit  of  that  sacred 
depositum."     It  happened,  that  they  were  guilty  of  an 
omission,  in  not  stripping  him   of  his  cassock;    which, 
fihgbt  as  such  a  circumstance  may  seeo),   rendered  his 
d^;mdation   imperfect,    and  af^wards  saved  him  his 
living  *. 

A  Popish  priest  made  an  offer  for  200J.  to  get  the 
whipping  part  of  the  sentence  remitted :  the  money  was 
aicconiingiy  lodged,  by  one  of  Johnson's  friends,  in  a  thirl 
iiand,  for  tise  priest,  if  be  performed  what  he  undertook ; 
tot  to  m  purpose  i  the  king  was  deaf  to  all  intoeaties :  the 
answer  was,  <<  That  since  Mr.  Johnson  had  the  spirit  of 
mMTtyrdem,  it  was  6t  he  should  sufier^'*  Accordingly,  Dec* 
^j  1^86,  the  seo4ieoee  was  rigorously  put  in  enecution; 
^liiAdk  yet  he  boipe  ^wkh  great  fitmness,  and  went  through 

^  Be  tatlie  vitti  it  on  to  (be  ^\fory,  where  Mr.  Rouse,  the  imAer-sherHF,  tore  it 
^  end  pot  ft  kize  c(mt  tipoa  )iim.    Report  sf  the  eomniictee  io  1689. 

*$:  JOHN  so  N. 

even  with  alaerity.  He  observed  afterwards  to  an  intimate^ 
friend,  that  this  text  of  Scripture  which  came  suddenly 
into  bis  mind,  '^  He  endured  the  cross,  despising  the 
shame,"  so  much  animated  and  supported  him  in  his  bitter 
journey,  that,  had  he  not  thought  it  would  have  looked 
like  vain-glory,  he  could  have  sung  a  psalm  while  the 
executioner  was  doing  his  office,  with  as  much  composure 
and  cheerfulness  as  ever  he  had  done  in  the  church ;  though 
at  the. same  time  he  had  a  quick  sense  of  every  stripe 
which  was  given  him,  to  the  number  of  317,  with  a  whip 
of  nine  cords  knotted.  This  was  the  more  remarkable  in 
him,:because  he  had  not  the  least  tincture  of  enthusiasm  ^* 
''The  truth  is,  he  was  endued  with  a  natural  hardiness  of 
temper  to  a  great  degree ;  and  behig  inspirited  by  an 
eager  desire  to  suffer,  for  the  cause  he  had  espoused,  he 
was  enabled  to  support  himself  with  the  firihness  of  a 
martyr.  After  the  execution  of  this  sentence,  the  king 
gave  away  his  living;  and  the  clergyman •  who  had  the 
grant  of  it,  made  application  to  the  three  bishops  above- 
mentioned  for  institution;  but  they,  being  sensible  of  hi^ 
imperfect  degradation, .  would  tiot.  grant  it  without  a  bond 
of  indemnity  ;  after  which,  when  he  went  to  Corringham 
for  induction, .  the  parishioners  opposed  him,  so  that  be 
could  never  obtain, entrance,  bat  was  obliged  to  return  r« 
infectd.  Mn  Johnson  thus  kept  his  living,  and  with  it,  his 
resolution  also  to  oppose  the  measures  of  the  court ;  in- 
somuch that,  before  he  was  out  of  the  surgeon^s  bands,  he 
reprinted  3000  copies  of  his  '^'Comparison  between  Popery 
and  Paganism."  These^  however,  were  not  then  published ; 
but  not  long  after,  about  the  time  of  the  general  tolera- 
tipn,  he  published  f^  The  Trial  and  Examination  of  a  late 
Libel,"  &c.  which  was  followed  by  others  every  year  till 
the  Revolution.  The  parliament  afterwards,  taking  his 
case  into  consideration,  resolved,  June  11,  1689,  that  the 
judgement  against  him  in  the  King's-bench,  upon  an  in* 
formation  for  a  misdemeanor,  was  cruel  and  illegal; 
and  a  committee  was  £^t  the  same  time  appotiifted  ito 
bring  in  a  bill  for  reversing  that  judgement.  Being  also 
ordered  to  inquire  how  Mr.  Johnson  came  to  be^  degraded^ 
and:  by  what  was  done,  Mr.  Christy^  the  chairw 
man,  some  days  after  reported  his  case,  by  which  it  ap- 

*  Excepting  this,  he  seems  to  haye     iemblanee,  both  in  the  h«rdbie«|.o|;Ui 
IbeeD  cast  in  much  such  a  mould  as  John     temper,   and   ia  the  quarretsomeness. 
Lilbura,  to  whom  he  bore  a  great  re-     of  itt 


pearsy  that  a  libel  was  then  exhibited  against  him,  chaining 
tiim  with  great  misdemeanorsy  though  none  were  specified « 
or  proined ;  that  he  demanded  a  copy  of  the  libel,  and  an 
advocate,  both  which  were  denied ;  that  he  protested  against 
the  proceedings,  as  contrary  to  law  and  the  lS2d  canon, 
not  being  done  by  his  own^liocesan ;  but  his  protestation 
was  refund,  as  was  also  his  appeal  to  the  king  in  chancery ; 
and  that  Mrs.  Johnson  had  also  an  information  exhibited 
against  her,  for  the  lik^  matter  as  that  against  her  hus<* 
band.  The  committee  came  to  the  follomng  resolutions, 
which  were  all  agreed  to  by  the  house :  '*  That  the  Judge- 
ment against  Mr.  Johnson  was  illegal  and  cruel :  that  the 
ecclesiastical  commission  was  illegal,  and  consequently,  the 
.suspension  of  the  bishop  of  London,  and  the  authority 
committed  to  three  bishops,  null  and  illegal :  that  Mr. 
Johnson^s  not  being  degraded  by  his  own  diocesan,  if  he  had 
deserved  it,  was  illegal :  that  a  bill  be  brought  iu  to  reverse 
the  judgement,  and  to  declai:e  all  the  proceedings  before 
the  three  bishops  null  and  illegal :  and  that  an  address  be 
oaiade  to  his  majesty,  to  recommend  Mr.  Johnson  to  some 
ecclesiastical  preferment,  suitable  to  bis  services  and  suf- 
ferings." The  house  presented  two  addresses  to  the  king^ 
10  behalf  of  Mr.  Johnson :  and,  accordingly,  the  deanery 
4>f  Durham  was  offered  him,  which  however  he"^  refused,  a§ 
an  unequal  reward  for  his  services. 

The  truth  is,  he  was  his  own  chief  enemy ;  and  his  dis« 
appointment,  in  his  expectations  of  preferment,  was  the 
effect  of  his  own  temper  and  conduct.  For,  with  very 
^od  abilities,  considerable  learning,  and  great  clearness, 
strength,  and  vivacity  of  sentiment  and  expression,  of  which 
his  writings  are  a  sufficient  evidence ;  and  with  a  firmness 
of  mind  capable  of  supporting  the  severest  trials,  for  any 
cause  which  he  considered  as  important,  he  was  passionate, 
impatient  of  eontradiction,  conceited  in  his  own  opinions, 
haughty,  apt  tojoverrate  his  own  services,  and  undervalued 
those  of  others,  whose  advancement  above  himself  was  aii 
insupportable  mortification  to  him.  The  roughness  of  his 
temper,  and  turbuleucy  of  his  genius,  rendered  him  also 
unfit  for  the  higher  stations  of  the  church,  of  which  he  was 
immoderately  ambitious.  Not  beinz  able  to  obtain  a 
i^ishopricy  lady  Russel  made  use  of  we  influence  she  had 
with  br.  Tillotson,  to  solicit  a  pension  for  him  *  ;  and  in 
consequence  of  this  application,  king  William  granted  him 

*  TtUptMn  Ubovred  tte  nialter  Vetf     sbuiiDg  him  and  raTilifif  him  sU  tb^ 
heartilfp  Ihoofh  Johnioa  cooUnoiii    lime.    While  h«  wa»  in  priioa  »liO| 


906/.  a  year  out  of  the  post*>office,  for  his  own  and  hx^  son-« 
]ife,  with  10002.  in  money,  and  a  place  of  100^  a  year  for 
hU  son. 

Violence  produces  violence ;  and  his  enemies  were  so 
much  exasperated  agaitisthim,  that  his  life  was  frequently 
endangered.    -After  publishing  his  £amous  tracts  entitled 
'^  An  Argument  proving  thtit   the  Abrogation  of  King 
James,*'  &^c,  which  was  levelled  against  all  those  who  com* 
plied  with  the  Revolution  upon  any'  other  principles  than 
his  own,  in  1692,  a  remarkable  attempt  was  actually  made 
upon  him.     Seven  assassina  broke  into  his  house  in  Bond* 
utreet,  Nov.  27,  very  early  in  the  mornhig ;  and  five  of 
them,  with  a  lantern,  got  into  his  chamber,  where  he,  with 
bis  wife  and  young  son^  were  in  bed.     Mr.  Johnson  was 
jfast  asleep ;  but  bis  wife,  being  awaked  by  their  opening 
the  door^  cried  out.  Thieves ;  and  endeavoured  to  awaken 
lier  husband :  the  villains  in  the  mean  time  threw  open  the 
curtains,  three  of  them  placed  themselves  on  that  side  of 
the  bed  where  he  lay,  with  drawn  swords  and  clubs,  and 
two  stood  at  the  bed's  feet  wit^  pistols.      Mr«  Johnson 
started  up;   and,  endeavouring  to  defend  himself  from 
their  assaults,  received  a  blow  on  the  head,  which  knocked 
him  backwards.     His  wife  cried  out  with  great  eamestnesa, 
and  begged  them  not  to  treat  a  sick  man  with  such  bidrba^ 
rity;   upon  which  they  paused  a  iittle,  and  one  of  the 
miscreants  called  to  Mr.  J<^nson  to  hold  up  his  face,  which 
his  wife  begged  him  to  do,  thinking  they  only  designed 
to  gag  him,  and  that  they  would  rifie  the  house  and  be 
gone.     Upon  this  he  sat  upright ;  when  one  of  the  roguev 
cried,  **  Pistol  him  for  the  book  be  wrote ;"  which  disco- 
vered their  design ;  for  it  was  just  after  the  publishing  of 
the  book  last  mentioned.    Whilst  be  sat  upright  in  his  bed, 
one  of  them  cut  him  with  a  sword  over  the  ^-e-brow,  and 
the  rest  presented  their  pistols  at  him ;  hot,  upon  Mrs. 
Johnson's  passionate  intreaties,  they  went  off  without  doing 
.  him  farther  mischief,  or  rifling  the  house.    A  surgeon  was 
immediately  sent  for,  who  found  two  wounds  in  his'  head, 
and  his  body  much  bruised.     With  due  care,  however,  he 
recovered ;  and  though  his  health  was  much  impaired  and 
broken  by  this  and  other  troubles,  yet  he  handled  his  pen 
with  the  same  unbroken  spirit  as  before.     He  died  in  May 

1703.  ' 

TillotSQM  had  mnt  him   SO/,   which,     utmost  coBtempt    BircVt  Life  of  Tt|« 
Ihoiifb  bis  necewitiei  oblige  him  tQ     Ints^Oy  jp.  S01« 
fSOV^  7^  ^^^  it  witti  M  «tr  of  Ki« 

JOHN  S  O  N.  4f 

In  1710  all  his  treatises  vrere  colleetedy  and  ptrt^lislied 
ia  oae  folio  volume ;  to  which  were  prefixed  some  memo* 
rials  of  his  life.  The  second  edition  came  ottt  in  1713^ 

JOHNSON  (Samuel),  one  of  the-  most  eminetit  and 
highly-distinguished  writers  of  the  eighteenth  century,  ^»m 
born  on  the  18th  erf  September!  1709,  at  Lichfield  in  Staf« 
fordsbire,  where  his  father,  Michael  Johnson,  a  native  of 
Derbyshire,  of  obscure  extraction,  was  at  that  time  a 
bookseller  and  stationer.  His  motberi  Barah  Ford,  wis  a; 
native  of  Warwickshire,  and  sister  to  Dr.  Ford,  physician; 
who  was  father  to  Cornelius  Ford,  a  clergyman  of  loose 
character,  whom  Hogarth  has  satirized  in  the  print  of 
Modern  Midnight  Conversation. .  Our  author  was  the 
eldest  of  two  sons.  Nathaniel,  the  youngest,  died  in 
1737  in  his  twenty^fifth  yeaf.  The  father  was  a  man  of 
robust  body  and  active  mind,  yet  occasionally  depressed 
by  melancholy,  which  Samuel  inherited,  and,  with  the  aid 
of  a  stronger  mind,  was  not  always  able  to  shake  of£  He 
was  also  a  steady  high^cburchman,  and  an  adherent  of  the 
house  of  StuM*t,  a  prejudice  which  his  son  outlived  in  the 
nation  at  large,  without  entirely  conquering  in  himself.  Mrs* 
Johnson  was  a  woman  of  good  natural  understanding,  un* 
improved  by  education ;  and  our  author  ackno%#ledged  with 
gratitude,  that  she  endeavoured  to  instil,  sentiments  of 
piety  as  soon  as  his  mind  was  capable  of  any  instruction. 
There  is  little  else  in  bis  family  history  worthy  of  notice, 
nor  had  he  much  pleasure  in  tracing  his  pedigree.  He 
venerated  others,  however^  who  could  produce  a  recorded 
ancestry,  and  used  to  say,  that  in  him  this  was  disinterested, 
&r  he  could  scarcely  tell  who  was  his  grandfather.  Thai 
he. was  remarkable  in  bis  early  years  has  been  supposed, 
t^ut  many  proofs  have  not  been  advanced  by  his  biographers. 
He  had,  indeed,  a  retentive  memory,  and  soon  discovered 
*  symptoms  of  an  impetuous  temper;  but  these  circum* 
stances  are  not  enough  to  distinguish  him  from  hundreds 
of  children  who  never  attuu  eminence.  In  his  infancy  he 
was  afflicted  with  the  scrophula,  which  injured  his  sig^t^ 
^md  he  was  carried  to  London  to  receive  the  iroyal  touch 
Item  the  hand  of  queen  Anne,  the  last  of  our  soveteigns 
#lie  eoGoursged  that  popular  superstition. 

1  Biog.  B^iU-^-Q«S.  DAGt.-^Liife  pwfixcd  to  hU  Work?.— Bivck't  Life  oT  til« 
lotsQB.— Knisht*!  Lift  of  Col«t.*^K«ttlcweU*s  Life,  p.  331. ^Comber's  Life  sC 


:    He'Was  first  taught  to  read  English  by  a  womati  vvto 
kept  a  school  for  young  children  at  Lichfield  ;  and  after* 
wards  by  ooe  Brown.  Latin  be  learned  at  Lichfield  schoot, 
under  Mr.  Hunter,  a  man  of  severe  discipline,  bnt  ati 
attentive  teacher.     Johnson  owned  that  be  needed  correc- 
tion, and  that  his  master  did  not  spare  him ;  but  this,  in« 
stead  of  being  the  cause  of  unpleasant  recollections  in  his 
advanced  life,  served  only  to  convince  him  that  severity  in 
schooUeducation  i^  necessary ;  and  in  all  his  conversations 
on  the  subject,  he  persisted  in  pleading  for  a  liberal  use  of 
the  rod.     At  this  school  his  superiority  was  soon  ackaow- 
ledged  by  his  companions,  who  could  not  refuse  submis- 
sion, to  the  ascendancy  which  he  acquired.  His  proficiency, 
however,  as  in  every  part  of  his  life,  exceeded  his  appa* 
rent  diligence.     He  could  learn  more  than  others  in  the 
same  allotted  time  :  and  he  was  learning  when  he  seemed 
to  be  idle.     He  betrayed  an  early  aversion  to  stated  tasks, 
but,  if  roused,  he  could  recover  the  time  he  appeared  to' 
have  lost  with  great  facility.     Yet  he  seems  afterwards  to 
have  been  conscious  that  much  depends  on  regularity  of 
study,  and  we  find  him  often  prescribing  to  himself  stated 
portioi^  of  reading,  and  recommending  the  same  to  others. 
No  man  perhaps  was  ever  more  sensible  of  his  failings,  or 
avowed  theto  with  more  candour ;  nor,  indeed,  would  many 
of  them  bavebeen  known,  if  he  had  not  exhibited  them 
as  warnings.    His  memory  was  uncommonly  tenacious,  and 
to  his  last  days  he  prided  himself  on  it,  considering  a 
defect  of  memory  as  the  prelude  of  .total  decay.     Perhaps 
he  carried  this  doctrine  rather  too  far  when  be  asserted^ 
that  the  occasional  failure  of  memory  in  a  man  of  seventy' 
must  imply  something  radically  wrong;  but  it  may  be  iti 
general  allowed,    that  the  memory  is  a  pretty  accurate 
standard  of  mental  strength.     Although  his  weak  sight 
prevented  him  from  joining  in  the  amusements  of  bis 
schoolfellows^  for  which  he  was  otherwise  well  qualified  by 
personal  courage  and  an  ambition  to  excel,  he  found  aa 
equivalent  pleasure  in  sauntering  in  the  fields,  or  reading 
such  books  as  came  in  bis  way,  particularly  old  romances. 
For  these  he  retained  a  fondness  throughout  life  ;  but  was 
wi&e  and  candid  enough  to  attribute  to  them,  in  some  de- 
gree, that  unsettled  turn  of  mind  which  prevented  his  fixing 
in  any  profession. ' 

About  the  age  o^  fifteen  he  paid  a  long  visit  to  his  uncle' 
Cornelius  Ford;   but  on  bis  return,  his  master^  Hunter^, 

J  OH  N  S  O  N,       ,  4» 

tcFused  to  receive  him  again  on  the  foundation  of  Lichfield 
school.  What  his  reasons  were  is  not  known.  .  He  was 
now  removed  to  the  school  of  Stourbridge  in  Worcester-^ 
shire^  where  he  remained  about  a  year,  with  very  little 
acquisition  of  knowledge ;  but  here,  as  well  as  at  Lichfield^ 
he  gave  several  proofs  of  his  inclination,  to  poetry,  and 
afterwards  published  some  of  these  juvenile  productions 
in  the  Gentleman's  Magazine.  From  Stourbridge  fie  re* 
turned  home,  where  he  remained  about  two  years  without 
any  regular  application.  His  time,  however,  was  not 
entirely  wasted,  as  he  employed  it  in  reading  many  of  the 
ancient  writers,  and  stored  his  mind  with  so  much  yarious 
information,  that  when  he  went  to  Oxford^  Dr.  Adams  said 
he  *'  was  the  best  qualified  for  the  university  that  he  had 
ever  known  come  there.'* 

By  what  means  his  father  was  enabled  to  defray  the 
expence  of  an  university  education  has  not  been  very 
accurately  told.  It  is  generally  reported  that  he  went  to 
assist  the  studies  of  a  young  gentleman  of  the  name  of 
Corbet*  His  friend.  Dr.  Taylor,  assured  Mr.  Boswell 
that  he  never  could  have  gone  to  college,  had  not  a  gen*- 
tleman  of  Shropshire,  one  of  his  schoolfellows,  sponta- 
neously undertaken  to  support  him  at  Oxford,  in  the  cha« 
racter  of  his  companion,  though,  in  fact,  he  never  re- 
ceived any  assistance  whatever  from  that  gentleman.  He 
was,  however,  entered  a  commoner  of  Pembroke  college 
on  the  31st  October,  1728.  His  tutor  was  Mr.  Jordan,  ^ 
fellow  of  Pembroke,  a  man  whom  Johnson  mentioned  with 
respect  manv  years  after,  but  to.  whose  instructions  he  did 
not  pay  much  regard,  except  that  he  formally  attended  his 
lectuir^s,  as  well  as  those  in  the  college  hall.  It  was  at 
Jordan^s  request  that  he  translated  Pope^s  Messiah  into 
Latin  verse,  as  a  Christmas  exercise.  Pope  is  said  to  have 
expressed  bis  high  approbation  of  it ;  but  critics  in  that 
language,  among  whom  Pope  could  never  be  ranked,  have 
not  considered  Jobnson^s  Latin  poems  as  the  happiest  of  his 
compositions.  When  Jordan  left  college  to  accept  of  a 
living,  Johnson  became  the  scholar  of  Dr.  Adams,  who 
was  afterwards  the  head  of  Pembroke,  and  with  whom 
Jbhnsoin  maintained  a  strict  friendship  to  the  last  hour 
of  bis  lifcb 

During  the  vacation  in  the  following  year,  he  suffered  se-^ 
verely  by  an  attack  of  his  constitutional  melancholy,  accoio- 
panied  oy  alternate  irritation^  fretfulne^s,  and  languor.    It 

Vol.  XIX.  E 


appears,  howeter,  that  he  resisted  his  disorder  by  every 
effort  of  a  great  mind,  and  proved  that  it  did  not  arise  from 

'  want  qf  mental  resources,  or  weakness  of  understanding* 
On  his  return  to  the  university,  he  probably  continued  his 
desultory  noanner  of  reading,  and  occasionally  formed  reso- 
lutions of  regular  study,  in  which  he  seldom  persisted. 
Among  his  companions  he  was  looked  up  to  as  a  you  tig  man 
of  wit  and  spirit,  singular  and  unequal  in  temper,  impa* 
tient  of  college  rules,  and  not  over-respectful  to  his 
seniors.  Such  at  least  seems  to  be  the  result  of  Mr.  Bos- 
well's  inquiries,  but  little  is  known  with  certainty,  except 
what  is  painful  to  relate,  that  he  either  put  on  an  air  of 
gaiety  to  conceal  his  anxious  cafes,  or  secluded  himself 
from  company  that  that  poverty  might  not  be  known, 
which  at  length  compelled  him  to  leave  college  without  a 

He  now  (173 1)  returned  to  Lichfield,  with  very  gloomy 
prospects.  His  father  died  a  few  months  after  his  return, 
and  the  little  he  left  behind  him  was  barelv  sufficient  fof 
thp  temporary  support  of  his  widow.  In  the  following 
year  he  accepted  the  place  of  usher  of   the  school  of 

'  Market  Bos  worth  in  Leicestershire,  an  employment  which 
the  pride  of  Sir  Wolstan  Dixie,  the  patron,  soon  rendered 
irksome,  and  he  threw  it  up  in  a  disgust  which  recurred 
whenever  he  recollected  this  part  of  his  history.  For  six 
months  after  he  resided  at  Birmingham  as  the  guest  of 
Mr.  Hector,  an  eminent  surgeon,  and  is  supposed  during 
that  time  to  have  furnished  some  periodical  essays  for  a 
newspaper  printed  by  Warren,  a  bookseller  in  Birming- 
ham. 'Here,  too,  he  abridged  and  translated  Fathjer  Lobo^s 
Voyage  to  Abyssinia,  which  was  published  in  J735  by 
Bettesworth  and  Hitch  in  Paternoster-row,  London.  For 
this,  his  first  literary  performance,  he  received  the  small 
sum  of  five  guineas.  In  the  translation  there  is  little  that 
marks  the  hand  of  Johnson;  but  in  the  preface  and  de^di- 
cation  are  a  few  passages  in  the  same  energetic  and  manly 
style  which  he  may  be  said  to  have  invented,  and  to  have 
taught  to  his  countrymen. 

In  1734  he  returned  to  Lichfield,  and  issued  proposals 
for  an  edition  of  the  Latin  poems  of  Politian,  with  the 
history  of  Latin  poetry,  from  the  aera  of  Petrarch  to  the 
time  of  Politian,  and  also  the  life  of  Politian  ;  the  book  to 
be  printed  in  thirty  octavo  sheets,  price  five  shillings. 
Thow  wha  have  not  attended  to  the  literary  history  of  this 


country  will  be  surprized  that  such  a  work  could  not  be 
undertaken  without  the  precaution  of  a  subscription ;  and 
ihey  will  regret  that  in  this  case  the  subscription  was  so 
inadequate  to  the  expence  of  printing,  as  to  deter  our  au^ 
thor  from  executing  what  probably  would  have  made  bica 
known  and  patronized  by  the  learned  world. 

Disappointed  in  this  scheme,  he  offered  his  services  to 
Mr.  Cave,  the  proprietor  and  editor  of  the  Gentleman's 
Magazine,  who  had  given  some  proofs  of  a  liberal  spirit  of 
enterprize,  in  calling  forth  the  talents  of  unknown  and  in^ 
genious  writers.  On  this  occasion  he  suggested  some  im^ 
provements  in  the  management  of  the  Magazine,  and  spe^^ 
cified  the  articles  which  lie  was  ready  to  supply.  Cave 
answered  his  letter,  but  it  does  not  appear  that  any  agree-^ 
ment  was  formed  at  this  time.  He  soon,  however,  en- 
tered into  a  connection  of  a  more  tender  kind,  which  ended 
in  xnarriage.  His  wife,  who  was  about  twenty  years  older 
than  himself,  was  the  widow  of  Mr.  Porter,  a  mercer,  of 
Birmingham,  a  lady  whose  character  has  been  variously  re- 
presented, but  seldom  to  her  discredit.  She  was,  however, 
the  object  of  his  first  passion,  and  although  they  did  not 
pass  the  whole  time  of  their  union  in  uninterrupted  bar-* 
mony,  be  lamented  her  death  with  unfeigned  sorrow,  and 
retained  an  enthusiastic  veneration  for  her  memory. 

She  had  a  fortune  of  eight  hundred  pounds,  and  with 
part  of  this,  he  hired  a  large  house  at  Edial  near  Lichfield, 
which  he  fitted  up  as  an  academy  where  young  gentlemen 
were  to  be  boarded  and  taught  the  Latin  and  Greek  lan- 
guages. Gilbert  Walmsley,  a  man  of  learning  and  worth, 
whom  he  has  celebrated  by  a  character  drawn  with  un- 
paralleled elegance,  endeavoured  to  promote  this  plan,  but 
it  proved  abortive.  Three  pupils  only  appeared,  one  of 
whom  was  David  Garrick.  With  these  he  made  a  shift  to 
keep  the  school  open  for  about  a  year  and  a  half,  and  was 
then  obliged  to  discontinue  it,  perhaps  not  much  against 
his  inclination.  No  man  knew  better  than  Johnson  what 
ought  to  be  taught,  but  the  business  of  education  was  con- 
fessedly repugnant  to  his  habits  and  his  temper.  During 
this  short  residence  at  Edial,  he  wrote  a  considerable  part 
of  kis  "  Irene,"  which  Mr.  Walmsley  advised  him  to  pre- 
pare for  the  stage,  and  it  was  probably  by  this  gentlemao^s 
advice  that  he  determined  to  try  his  fortune  in  London. 
His  papil  Garrick  had  formed  the  same  resolution ;  and  ia 
Marc^  1737,  they  arrived  in  London  together.     Garrick, 

E  2 


after  some  farther  prepafottory  education,  was  designed  for 
the  stu4y  of  the  law,  but  in  three  or  four  years  went  on  the 
stage,  and  obtained  the  highest  honours  that  dramatic  fame 
could  confer,  with  a  fortune  splendid  beyond  all  prece- 
dent. The  difference  in  the  lot  of  these  two  yoqng  men 
might  lead  to  many  reflections  on  the  taste  of  the  age,  and 
the  value  of  its  patronage;  but  they  are  too  obvious  to  be 
obtruded  on  any  reader  of  feeling  or  judgment,  and  to 
others  they  would  be  unintelligible. 

In  what  manner  Johnson  was  employed  for  some  time 
after  his  arrival  in  London,  is  not  known.  He  brought  a 
small  sum  of  money  with  him,  and  be  husbanded  it  with 
frugality,  wliile  he  mixed  in  such  society  as  was  accessible 
^o  a  friendless  and  uncourtly  scholar,  and  amused  himself 
in  contemplating  the  manners  of  the  metropolis.  It  ap* 
pears  that  at  one  time  he  took  lodgings  at  Greenwich, 
and  proceeded  by  fits  to  complete  his  tragedy.  He  re- 
newed his  application  also  to  Cave,  sending  him  a  speci- 
men of  a  translation  of  the  **  History  of  the  Council  of 
Trent,"  and  desiring  to  know  if  Cave  would  join  in  th6 
publication  of  it.  Cave  appears  to  have  consented,  for 
twelve  sheets  were  printed,  for  which  pur  author  received 
forty-nine  pounds ;  but  another  translation  being  announced 
about  the  same  period  (1738)  by  a  rival  whose  name  was 
also  Samuel  Johnson,  librarian  of  St.  Martin's  in  thi6 
Fields,  our  author  desisted,  and  this  other  design  Wds  also 
dropped.  .         ^  ' 

,  In  the  course  of  the  summer  he  went  to  Lichfield, 
where  he  had  left  Mrs.  Johnson,  and  there,  during  a  resi- 
dence of  three  months,  finished  his  tragedy  for  the  stage. 
On  his  return  to  London  with  Mrs.  Johnson,  lie  endea-*- 
voured  to  prevail  on  Fleetwood,  the  patentee  of  Drury- 
lane  theatre,  to  accept  '^  Irene,"  but  in  this  was  unsuccess- 
ful, and  having  no  interest  with  any  other  manager,  he 
laid  aside  his  play  in  pursuit  of  literary  employment.  He 
had  now  become  jpersonally  known  to  Cave,  and  began  to 
contribute  to  the  Magazine  original  poetry,  Liatin  and 
English,  translations,  biographical  sketches,  and  other  mis- 
cellaneous articles,  particularly  the  debates  in  parliament, 
under  the  name  of  the  Senate  of  Lilliput.  At  that  time 
the  debates' were  not  allowcid  to  be  published,  as  now,  the 
morning  after  the  day  of  meeting,  and  the  only  safe  mode 
of  conveying  the  substance  of  ^em  to  the  public  was  by 
adopting  a  historical  form  at  more  distant  periods.    At  first 




Johnson  merely  revised  the  mapuscript  as  written  hj 
Guthrie^,  who  then  supplied  this  department  of  the  Maga* 
zine  ;  but  when  he  had  attained  a  higher  rank  among  au- 
thors, the  whole  devolved  on  his  coadjutor*  His  only  ma- 
terials were  a  few  notes  supplied  by  persons  who  attended 
the  houses  of  parliament,  from  which,  and  sometimes  from 
information  even  more  scanty,  he  compiled  a  series  of 
speeches,  of  which  the  sentiments  as  well  as  the  style  were 
often  his  own.  In  his  latter  days  he  disapproved  of  this 
practice,  and  desisted  from  writing  the  speeches  as  soon  as 
he  found  they  were  thought  genuine. 

The  value  of  his  contributions  to  this  Magazine  must 
have  been  soon  acknowledged.  It  was  then  ih  its  infancy, 
and  there  is  a  visible  improvement  from  the  time  he  began' 
to  write  for  it.  Cave  had  a  contriving  head,  but  with  too 
'much  of  literary  quackery.  Johnson,  by  recomme/iding 
original  or  selected  pieces  calculated  to  improve  the  taste 
and  judgment  of  the  public,  raised  the  dignity  of  the  Ma- 
gazine above  its  contemporary^ ;  and  to  him  we  certainly 
owe,  in  a  great  measure,  the  various  information  and  lite- 
rary history  for  which  that  miscellany  has  ever  been  distin- 
guished, and  in  which  it  has  never  been  interrupted  by  « 
successful  rival.  By  some  manuscript  memorandums  con- 
cerning Dr.  Johnson,  written  by  the  late  Dr.  Farmer,  and 
^obligingly  ffiven  to  the  writer  of  this  life  by  Mr.  Nichols, 
it  appears  mat  he  was  considered  as  the  conductor  or  edi** 
tor  of  the  Magazine  for  some  time,  and  received  an  hun- 
dred pounds  per  annum  from  Cave. 

In  1738  he  made  his  name  at  once  known  and  highly 
respected  among  the  eminent  men  of  his  time,  by  the  pub^ 
lication  of  ^*  London,'*  a  po^n  in  imitation  of  the  third 
satire  of  Juvenal.  The  history  of  this  publication  is  not 
uninteresting.  Young  authors  did  not  then  present  them- 
selves to  the  public  without  ipuch  cautious  preparation. 
.Johnson  conveyed  his  poem  to  Cave  as  the  production  of 
another,  of  one  who  was  *'  under  very  disadviantageous 
ciccumstances  of  fortune ;"  and  as  some  small  encourage- 
ment to  the  printer,  he  not  only  offered  to  correct  the 
press,  but  even  to  alter  any  stroke  of  satire  which  he  might 
dislike.  Cave,  whose  heart  appears  to  more  advantage  in 
^his  than  in  some  other  of  his  transactions  with  authors^ 

*  Gatfarie  composed  the  parliMnentary  spe^cbos  from  July  1736,  and  John» 
succeeded  him  NoTember  1740,  and  coatinued  them  to  February  1749-3. 


tent  a  present  ta^  Johnson  for  the  use  of  his  fM)or  frtend, 
and  afterwards,  it  appears,  recommended  Dodsley  as  a* 
purchaser.  Dodsley  had  just  b^gun  business,  and  bad  spa* 
culated  but  on  a  few  publications  of  no  great  consequence. 
He  had,  boweyer,  judgment  enough  to  discern  the 'merit 
of  the  poem  now  submitted  to  him,  and  bargained  for  the 
w4iole  property.  The  sum  Johnson  received  was  ten  gui- 
neas^ and  such  were  his  circum^tauces,  or  such  the  state  of 
literary  property  at  that  time,  that  he  was  fully  content, 
aud  was  ever  readj*  to  acknowledge  Dodsiey's  useful  pa* 
tronage.  The  poem  was  accordingly  published  in  May 
173^,  and  on  the  same  morning  with  Pope's  satire  of 
^'  Seventeen  hundred  and  thirty-height."  Johnson's  was  so 
eagerly  bought  up,  that  a  second  edition  becama  necessary 
in  less  than  a  week.  Pope  behaved  on  this  occasion  with 
great  liberality.  He  bestowed  high  praise  on  the  *^  Lon<- 
don,"  aod  intimated  that  the  author,  whose  name  bad  not 
yet  appeared,  could  not  be  long  concealed.— In  this  poem 
may  be  observed  some  of  those  palitioal  prejudices  for 
which  Johnson  frequently  contended  afterwards.  He 
thought  {>roper  to  join  in  the  popular  c^nrour  against  tke 
ftdiHinistratfton  of  sir  Robert  Walpole ;  but  lived  to  YeBeot 
with  more  compktceDcy  on  the  conduct  of  that  minister, 
tvhen  compa^red  with  some  of  his  successors. 
.  His  '^London"  procured  him  fame,  and  Cave  was  not 
sorry  to  have  engaged  the  services  of  a  nan  whose  talents 
had  now  the  stamp  of  public  approbation'.  Whether  iie 
had  offers  of  patronage,  or  was  tbaught  a  formidable  enem^ 
to  the  njiinister,'  is  not  certain  ;  but,  having  leisure  to  eal«- 
culate  bow  Utile  his  lalMMsrs  were  Ukely  to  produce,  hlft 
soon  began  to  wish  iW  some  establishvaeot  of  a  more  pei?'* 
manent  kind.  With  this  Ttew  an  offer  was  iaad«  to  bim  &f 
the  masteiship  of  the  school  of  Appleby  in  Leicestetsfalndv 
the  8ala4*y  of  which  was  about  sixty  pounds,  but  Che  laws 
of  the  sckuK)l  requived  that  the  candidate  should  be  a  master 
ctf  arts.  The  university  of  Oxford,  when  applied  to,  te^ 
fused  to  grant  this  farour.  Earl  Gower  was  then  soli^it^d^, 
in  behalf  of  Johnson,  by  Pope^  who  knew  htm  only  as  the 
author  of  ^  London.^'  His  lordship  accordingly  wrote  to 
8wift,  soHciitiK^  a  diploma  from  the  university  of  Dubhtih, 
but,  for  what  reason  we  are  not  told,  this  application,  tdo-, 
was  unsuccessful,  Mr.  Murphy  says,  <*  There  is  reason  to 
think,  that  Swift  declined  to  meddle  in  the  business ;  ami 
to  Xh^t  circumstance  Johnson's  known  dislike  of  Swift  has 


been  often  imputed."  That  Swift  declined  to  meddle  in 
the  business  is  not  improbable,  for  it  appears  by  his  letters 
of  this  date  (August  1738)  that  he  was  incapable  of  attend- 
ing to  any  business;  but  Johnson's  Life  of  Swift  proves 
that  his  dislike  had  a  more  honourable  foundation. 

About  this  time  Johnson  formed  a  design  of  studying  the 
civil  law,  in  order  to  practise  in  the  Commons^  yet  this 
also  was  rendered  impossible  for  want  of  a  degree,  and  be 
was  obliged  to  resume  bis  labours  in  the  Gentleman's  ]VIa« 
gazine*  The  various  articles  which  came  from  his  pen  ar^ 
enumerated  in  chronological  series  by  Mr.  Boswell.  It 
will  be  sufficient  for  our  purpose  to  notice  only  his  more 
important  productions,  or  such  as  were  of  sufficient  conse* 
quence  published  separately.  In  1739,  he  wrote 
''  A  Complete  Vindication  of  the  Licensers  of  the  Stage^ 
from  the  malicious  and  scandalous  aspersions  of  Mr.  Brooke, 
author  of  Gustavus  Vasa ;"  and  a  political  tract  entitled 
'^  Maranor  Norfolciense, .  or  an  Essay  on  an  ancient  pro** 
pbetical  inscription,  in  monkish  rhyme,  lately  discovered 
near  Lynne  in  Norfolk,  by  Probus  Britannicus,'*  These 
pieces>  it  is  almost  needless  to  add,  were  ironical,  a  mode 
pf  writing  in  which  our  author  was  Dot  eminently  success** 
fuL  Some  notice  has  already  been  taken  of  ^*  Gustavus 
Vasa''  in  the  Life  of  Brooke^  The  *^  Marmor  Norfolciense'* 
was  a  severe  attack  on  the  Walpole  administration,  and  on 
the  reigning  family;  but  whether  it  was  not  well  under- 
aloodi  or  when  undeirstood,  considered  as  feeble,  it  cer^^' 
taiolj  wiis  not  much  attended  to  by  the  friends  of  govern^* 
VMut,  tMNT  procured  to  the  author  the  reputation  of  a  dan* 
gerousi  opponeot.  Sir  Johti  Hawkins  indeed  says  that  a 
pfosecution  was  ordered,  but  of  this  no  traces  can  be  found 
in  uny  of  the  public  offices.  One  of  bis  political  enemies 
reprioted  it  in  1775,  to  shew  what  a  change  had  been 
effected  in  bis  principles  by  a  pension  ;  but  the  publisher 
does  not  seem  to  have  known  what  a  very  small  change  was 
leally  efieded,  and  bow  little  was  necessary  to  render 
Johnson  a  loyal  subject  to  his  munificent  sovereign,  and  a 
deteraiiiied  enemy  of  the  popular  politics  of  that  time. 

His  next  pul^lication  of  any  iit>ce  was  his  ^^  Life  of  Sa- 
vage,'* which  he  afterwards  prefixed  to  that  poet's  works 
when  admitted  into  his  collection.  With  Savage  he  had 
been  for  some  time  intimately  acquainted,  but  how  long  i» 
iftOt  known.  They  met  at  Cave's  house.  Johnson  admired 
his  abilities^  ud  while  he  sympatluzed  with  the  yery  sio-^ 

*e  JOHNSON.^ 

gular  train  of  misfortunes  which  placed  him  among  the  in- 
digent, was  not  less  touched  by  bis  pride  of  spirit,  and 
the  lofty  demeanour  with  which  be  treated  those  who  neg- 
lected him.  '  In  all  Savage's  virtues,  there  was  much  in 
common  with  Johnson,  but  his  narrative  shows  with  what 
nicety  he  could  separate  bis  virtues  from  his  vices,  and 
blame  even  firmness  and  independence  when  they  degene* 
rated  into  obstinacy  and  misanthropy.  He  has  concealed 
none  of  Savage's  failings;  and  wbat  appears  of  the  excul- 
patory kind  is  merely  an  endeavour  to  present  a  just  view 
pf  that  unfortunate  combination  of  circumstances,  by  which 
Savage  was  driven  from  the  paths  of  decent  and  moral  life ; 
and  to  incite  every  reflecting  person  to  put  the  iropcNrtant 
question  ^^  who  made  me  to  differ  ?*'  This  Life,  of  which 
two  editions  were  very  speedily  sold,  affords  an  extraor- 
dinary  proof  of  the  facility  with  which  Johnson  composed^ 
He  wrote  forty-eight  pages  of  the  printed  copy  in  the 
course  of  a  day  or  night,  for  it  is  not  very  clear  which. 
His  biographer,  who  records  this,  enters  at  the  ^ame  time, 
into  a  long  discussion  intended  to  prove  that  Savage  was 
not  the  son  of  the  countess  of  Macclesfield ;  but  had  this 
been  possible,  it  would  surely  have  been  accomplished 
when  the  proof  might  have  been  rendsred  unanswerable* 

In  174i  be  published  ^^  Miscellaneous  Observations  on 
the  Tiragedy  of  Macbeth,  with  remarks  on  sir  Thomas  Han-  . 
mer's  edition  of  Sbakspeare,'*  to  which  he  affixed  propo* 
sals  for  a  new  edition  of  that  poet ;  and  it  is  probable  that 
he  was  now  devoting  his  whole  time  to  this  undertakings 
as  we  find  a  suspension  of  his  periodical  contributions 
during  the  years  1745  and  1746.  It  is  perhaps  too  rash  to 
conclude  that  he  declined  writing  in  the  Magazine,  because 
he  would  not  join  in  the  support  otgovernment  during  the 
rebellion  in  Scotland ;  but  there  are  abundant  proofs  in  Mr. 
Boswell's  Life,  that  his  sentiments  were  favourable  to  that  - 
attempt.  As  to  his  plan  of  an  edition  of  Shakspeare,  :he 
had  many  difl[iculties  to  encounter.  Little  notice  was  taken 
of  his  proposals,  and  Warburton  was  known  to  be  engaged, 
in  a  similar  undertaking.  Warburton,  however,  hsid  the 
liberality  to  praise  his  **  Observations  on  Macbeth,"  as  the 
production  of  a  man  of  parts  and  genius;  and  Johnson 
n^ver  forgot  the  favour.  Warburton,  he  said,  praised  him 
when  praise  was  of  value. 

la  1747  he  resumed  his  labqurs  in  the  Gentleman^a^. 
|Ia§[a^ine,  fmd  although  man^  entire  pieces  cftn^Qt  b§ 

;  I 


ascertained  to  bare  come  from  hit  pen,  be  was  frequently^ 
if  not  constantly,  employed  to  superintend  tbe  materials  of 
tbe  Magazine,  land neveral  introductory  passages  maybe 
pointed  out  which  bear  evident  marks  of  bis  composition. 
In  this  year  his  old  pupil  and  friend,  Garriok,  became 
manager  of  Drury-lane  theatre,  and  obtained  from  Johnson 
a  prologue,  which  is  generally  esteemed  one  of  tbe  finest 
productions  of  that  kind  in  our  language.  In  this  year  also 
be  issued  his  plan  for  a  ^' Dictionary  of  tbe  English  lan- 
guage." ^ 

The  design  of  this  great  work  was  at  first  suggested  by 
Dodsley ;  and  Johnson,  having  consented  to  undertake  it, 
entered  into  an  agreement  with  the  booksellers  for  the  sum 
of  fifteen  hundred  guineas,  which  he  was  to  receive  in 
small  payments  proportioned  to  the  quantity  of  manuscript 
sent  to  the  prfess.  -  The  plan  was  addressed  to  the  cete«' 
brated  earl  of  Chesterfield,  who  bad  discovered  au  inclhiaV 
tion  to  be  the  patron  of  the  author ;  and  Johnson,  Havings 
matde  suitable  preparations,  hired  a  house  in  Gough-square,' 
engaged  amanuenses,  and  began  a  task  which  he  carried 
on  by  fits,  as  inclination  and  health  permitted,  for  nearly 
^igfat  years.  His  amanuenses  were  six  in  number,  and 
employed  upon  what  may  be  termed  the  mechanical  part 
of  die  work,  but  their  expences  and  bis  own  weresoc6n-^ 
siderable,  that  before  the  work  was  concluded  be  had  re*' 
ceived  tbe  whdle  of  the  money  stipulated  for  in  his  agree- 
ment with  the  proprietors.  In  what  time  it  might  have 
been  completed,  bad  he,  to  use  his  own  phrase,  ^set  dog- 
gedly about  it,"  it  is  useless  to  conjecture,  and  it  would 
perhaps  have  been  hurtful  to  try.  Whoever  ba9  been  em« 
ptoyed  on  any  great  literary  work  knows,  not  only  the 
pleasure,  but  the  necessity  of  occasional  relaxation ;  and 
*  JohnsOn^s  mind,  stored  with  various  knowledge,  and  a  rich 
fund  of  sentiment,  afforded  him  many  opportunities  of  this 
kind,  in  addition  to  the  loVe  of  society,  which  was  bis  pre- 
dominant passion.  We  find  accordingly  that  during  tbe 
years  in  which  his  Dictionary  was  on  hand,  he  accepted 
some  inferior  employment  from  the  booksellers,  and  pro- 
duced some  of  the  most  valuable  of  his  original  works. 
•  In  1749  he  published  his  second  imitation  of  Juvenal, 
under  the  title  of  the  "  Vanity  of  Human  Wishes,"  for 
which,  with  all  the  fame  he  had  now  acquired,  he  received 
only  fifteen   guineas.     In  his  "  London,"   we  have  tbe 

manners  of  common  Uf^;   in  the  <<  Vanity  of  Human 

68  JO  H  N  SON, 

Wishes/^  he  has  giv:eD  us  more  of  his.  own  mind,  moreof 
that  train  of  sentiment,  excited  sometimes  by  poverty^  ^nc^ 
sometimes  by  disappointment,  which  always  inclined  him 
to  view  the  gloomy  side  of  human  affairs.  In  the  samQ 
year  Garrick  offered  to  produce  his  "  Irene"  on  the  Drury-» 
lane  theatre,  but  presumed  at  the  same  time  to  suggest 
such  alterations  as  his  superior  knowledge  of  stage  effect 
Plight  be  supposed  to  justify.  Johnson  did  iu)C  much  like 
that  his  labours  should  be  revised  and  amended  at  the 
pleai^ure  of  an  actor,  and  with  some  difficulty  was  persuaded 
to  yield  to  Garrick's  advice.  ,  The  play,  however,  was  at 
length  performed,  but  without  much  success;  although 
the  manager  contrived  to  have  it  played  long  enough  to 
entitle  the  author  to  the  profits  of  his  three  nights,  and 
Dodsley  bought  the  copyright  for  one  hundred  pounds.  It 
bas  ever  been  admired  in  the  closet,  for  the  propriety  of 
Us  sentiments  and  the  elegance  of  its  language. 

lu  1750  he  commenced  a  work  which  raised  his  fame 
higher  than  it  had  ever  yet  reached,  and  will  probably 
convey  his  name  to  the  latest  posterity.  He  appears  ta 
have  enterc^d  on  ^^  The  Rambler"  without  any  communica*^ 
tion  with  his  friends,  or  desire  of  assistance.  Whether  b<i 
proposed  the  scheme  himself,  is  uncertain,  but  he  wa» 
fortunate  in  forming  a  connexion  with  Mn  John  Payne,  a 
bookseller  in  Paternoster-row,  and  afterwards  chief  aa-» 
oountant  in  the  Bank  of  England,  a  man  with  whom  be 
lived  many  years  in  habits  of  friendship,  and  who  on  tbci 
present  occasion  treated  him  with  great  liberality.  He 
engaged  to  pay  him  two  guineas  for  each  paper,  or  foue 
guineas  per  week,  which  at  that  time  mjust  have  been  to 
Jobnsoa  a  very  considerable  sum ;  and  he  admitted  him  to  , 
^  share  of  the  future  profits  of  the  work,  when  it  should 
be  collected  into  volumes ;  this  share  Johnson  afterwards 
sold.  As  a  full  history  of  this  paper  has  been  given  in 
another  work  *,  it  may  suffice  to  add,  that  it  began  I'ues^" 
day,  March  20,  1749-50,  and  closed  on  Saturday,  March 
]4,  1752.  So  conscious  was  Johnson  that  his  fame  would 
in  a  great  measure  rest  on  this  production,  that  he  cor* 
rected  the  first  two  editions  with  the  most  scrupulous  care^ 
pf  which  specimeita  are  given  in  the  volume  referred  to  in 
the  note. 

In  1751  he  was  carrying  on  bis  '^  Dictionary*'  and  ^/Tbo 

,  *  Britisb  Essayists,  vol.  XIX.    Preface  to  the  Rambler. 


Bambler;^'  and  besides  some  occasional  contributions  to 
the  Magazine,  assisted  in  the  detection  of  Lauder,  who  bad 
imposed  on  him  and  on  tlie  world  by  advancing*  forged 
evidence  that  Milton  was  a  grogs  plagiary.  Dr.  Douglas^ 
the  late  bbbop  of  Salisbury,  was  the  first  who  refuted  this 
QBprincipled  impostor ;  and  Johnson,  whom  Lauder's  inge- 
nuity had  induced  to  write  a  preface  and  postscript  to  his 
work,  DOW  dictated  a  letter  addressed  to  Dr.  Douglas,  ac« 
knowledgtng  his  fraud  in  terms  of  contrition,  which  Lau- 
der subscribed.  The  candour  of  Johnson  on  this  occasion 
vras  as  readily  acknowledged  at  that  time^  as  it  has  sinca 
been  misrepresented  by  the  bigotted  adherents  to  Milton's 
politics.  Lauder,  however,  returned  to  his  ^<  dirty  work,'* 
and  published  in  1754,  a  pamphlet  entitled  '^The  Grand 
Impostor  detected,  or  Milton  convicted  of  forgery  against 
Charles  L"  which  was  reviewed,  with  censure,  in  the 
Gentleman's  Magazine  of  that  year,  and  probably  by 

^^  The  Rambler"  was  concluded  on  March  14,  1752  ;  and 
three  days  ^fter,  the  author's  wife  died,  a  loss  which  he 
long  deplored, '  and  never,  at  the  latest  period  of  his  life, 
recollected  without  emotion.  Many  instances  of  his  affec* 
tion  for  her  occur  in  the  collection  of  ^^  Prayers  and  Me* 
ditations^  published  after  his  death,  which,  however  they 
may  expose  him  to  ridicule,  combine  to  prove  that  his  at- 
tachment to  herwas  uniforaily  sincere.  She  was  buried  at 
Bromley,  and  Johnson  placed  a  Latin  inscription  on  her 
tomb.  She  left  a  daughter  by  her  former  husband,  and  by 
lier  means  our  author  became  acquainted  with  Mrs.  Anne 
Wiltiams,  tbe  daughter  of  Zacbary  Williams,  a  physician 
who  died  aboHt  this  time^ .  Mrs.  Williams  was  a  woman  of 
coAsiderable  talents,  and  her  conversation  was  interesting. 
tShe  was  left  in  poverty  by  her  fath^  and  had  the  addi- 
tional affliction  of  being  totally  blind.  To  relieve  bis  me* 
lancfaoly  reflections,  Johnson  took  her  home  to  his  bouse 
in  Gough-square,  procured  ber  a  benefit  play  from  Gar* 
liclc,  and  assisted  her  in  publishing  a  volume  of  pocuns,  by 
both  of  wjnicb  schemes  she  raised  about  three  hundred 
pounds.  With  this  fund  she  became  an  inmate  in  Jobn<» 
son's  house,  where  she  passed  tbe  remainder  of  ber  days, 
protected  and  cheered  by  every  act  of  kindness  and  ten> 
demess  which  he  could  have  showed  to  the  nearest  relation. 

When  he  had  in  some  measure  recovered  from  the  shock 
pf  Mrs.  Johnson's  death,  he  contributed  several  papers  to 


the  ^*  Adventurer,''  which  was  carried  on  by  Dr.  Hawkes« 
worth  and  Dr.  Warton.  The  profit  of  these  papers  he  is 
said  to  have  given  to  Dr.  Bathurst,  a  physician  of  little 
practice,  but  a  very  ami#ible  man,  whom  he  highly  re* 
spected.  Mr.  Boswell  thinks  he  endeavoured  to  make  them 
pass  for  Bathurst's,  which  is  highly  improbable  *.  In  1754 
we  find  him  approaching  to  the  completion  of  his  ^^  Dtc« 
tionary."  Lord  Chesterfield,  to  whom  he  once  looked  up 
as  to  a  liberal  patron,  had  treated  him  with  neglect,  of 
which,  after  Johnson  declined  to  pay  court  to  such  a  man, 
he  became  sensible,  and,  as  an  effort  at  reconciliation, 
wrote  two  papers  in  the  **  World,"  recommending  the 
Dictionary,  and  soothing  the  author  by  some  ingenious 
comptiments.  Had  there  been  no  previous  offence^  it  m 
probable  this  end  would  have  answered,  and  Johnson  would 
iiave  dedicated  the  work  to  him.  He  loved  praise,  and 
from  lord  Chesterfield,  the  Msecenas  of  the  age,  and  tfale 
most  elegant  of  noble  writers,  praise  was  at  this  time  va-^ 
luabie.  But  Johnson  departed  from  exacting  the 
just,  respect  due  to  a  man  of  letters,  and  was  not  to  be 
appeased  by  the  artifice  of  these  protracted  complime&ts; 
He  could  not  even  brook  that  his  lordship  should  for  a 
moment  suppose  him  Veconciled  by  his  flattery,  but  imme'* 
diately  wrote  that  celebrated  letter  which  has  been  so  much 
admired  as  a  model  of  dignified  contempt.  The  allusion 
to  the  lo^s  of  his  wife,  and  to  his  present  situation,  is  ex« 
quisitely  beautiful.— -^^  The  notice  which  you  have  beea 
pleased  to  take  of  my  labours,  had  it  been  early,  bad  been 
kind;  but  it  has  been  delayed  till  I  am  indifferent,  aad 
cannot  enjoy  it ;  till  I  AM  SOLITARY,  and  cannot  impart 
It ;  till  I  am  knciwn,  and  do  not  want  it.^'  Lord  Chester^ 
field  is  said  to  have  concealed  his  feelings  on  this  oooasion 
with  his  usual  art,  conscious,  perhaps,  that  they. were 'OOt 
to  be  envied. 

In.  1755  the  degree  of  M.  A.  was  conferred  upon  him  by 
the  university  of  Oxford,  after  which  (in  May)  his  ^^  Dic^ 
tion^aryj^  was  published  in  two  large  volumes,  folio.  -  Of  a 
work  so  well  known  it  is  unnecessary  to  say  more  in.  this 
place,  than  that  after  the  lapse  of  half  a  century,  neitfaes 
^nvy  has  injured,  nor  industry  riv|klled  its  use^lness  or 
popularity.     In  the  following  year  he  abridged,  his  ^^  Dic« 

*  See  this  matter  ezplaiaed  in  the  preface  to  the  Adve^tarer.  British  £$s«yi8ts« 


tionary  into  an  octavo  size,  and  engaged  to  superintend  a 
monthly  publication  entitled  ^^  The  Literary  Magazine,  or 
Universal  Register."     To  this  he  contributed  a  great  many 
'  articles  enumerated  by  Mr.  Boswell,  and  several  reviev^s 
of  new  books.     The  most  celebrated  of  his  reviews,  and 
one  of  his  most  finished  compositionsi  both  in   point  of 
style,  argument,  and  wit,  was  that  of  Soame  Jenyns^s  '^  Free 
Inquiry  into  the  nature  and  origin  of  Evil."    This  attracted 
so  much  notice  that  the  bookseller  was  encouraged  to  pub- 
lish it  separately,  and  two  editions  were  rapidly  ^old.   The 
Itfagazine  continued  about  two  years,  after  which  it  was 
dropped  for  want  of  encouragement.     He  wrote  also  in 
1756  some  essays  in   the  ^^  Universal  Visitor,"  another 
magazine,  which  lasted  only  a  year.     His  friend  Cave  died 
in. 1 754,  and,  for  whatever  reason,  Johnson's  regular  con- 
tributions appear  no  more  in  the  Gentleman's  Magazine. 
But  he  wrote  a  very  elegant  life  of  Cave,  and  was  after- 
wards an  occasional  contributor.     This,  it  would  appear^ 
was  one  of  his  worst  years  as  to  pecuniary  matters.  *  We 
find  him,  in  the  month  of  March,  arrested  for  the  sum  of 
five  pounds  eighteen  shillings!  and  relieved  by  Mr.  Ri- 
chardson.    His  proposal  for  an  edition  of  ^hakspeare  was 
again  revived,  and  subscription  tickets  issued  out,  but  it 
did  not  go  to  press  for  many  yeara  after. 

In  175i$.tEe  worthy  John  Newbery,  bookseller,,  who  fre- 
quently employed  Johnson  in  his  literary  projects,  began 
a  news-paper  called  the  "  Universal  Chronicle,  or  Weekly 
Gazette,"  in  conjunction  with  Mr.  John  Payne.  To  give 
it  an  air  of  novelty^  Johnson  was  engaged  to  write  a  short 
periodical  paper,  which  he  entitled  ^*The  Idlen"  .Most  of 
these  papers  were  written  in  baste,  in  various  places  where 
be  happened  to  be,  on  the  eve  of  publication,  and  with, 
very  little  preparation.  A  few  of  them  exhibit  the  train  of 
thought  which  prevails  in  the  ^'  Rambler,"  but  in  general 
they  have  more  vivacity,  and  exhibit  a  species  pf  grave 
humour  in  which  Johnson  excelled.  When  the  **  Universal 
Chronicle"  was  discontinued,  these  papers  were  collected 
into  two  small  volumes,  which  he  corrected  for  the  press, 
making  a  few -alterations,  and  omitting  one  whole  paper, 
which  has  since  been  restored.  No.  41  of  the  ^'  Idler  al- 
ludes to  the  death  of  his  mother,  which  took  place  in  1759* 
He  had  ever  loved  her  with  anxious  affection  ^,  and  had 

*  See  his  very  Under  letters  on  this     referred  to,  tfs  they  are  not  to  befSDuni 
tnbject  in  Boswell's  ;.ife,  vol.  I.  p.  315     before  th*  edition  of  1807. 
et  leqq.  whicb  are  Uies  particulerty 


contributed  liberally  to  her  support,  often  whert  lie  ktietr 
not  where  to  recruit  his  finances.  On  this  event  be  wrote 
his  Rasselas,  with  a  Tiew  to  raise  a  sum  sufficient  to  defray 
the  expences  of  her  funeral,  and  pay  some  little  debts  she 
had  left.  His  mind  appears  to  have  been  powerfully  ex- 
cited and  enriched  both  with  the  subject  and  the  motive, 
for  he  wrote  the  whole  of,  this  elegant  and  philosophical 
fiction  during  the  evenings  of  one  week,  and  sent  it  to 
press  in  portions  as  it  was  written.  He  received  one  hun- 
dred pounds  from  Messrs.  Strahan,  Johnston,  and  Dodsley, 
for  the  copy,  and  twenty-five  more  when  it  came,  as  it 
soon  did,  to  a  second  edition.  Few  works  of  the  kind  hav^ 
been  more  generally  or  more  extensively  diffiised  by  nteans 
of  translation.  Yet  the  author,  perhaps  from  the  pain  he 
felt  in  recollecting  the  melancholy  occasion  which  called 
forth  bis  pen,  appears  to  have  dismissed  it  with  some  dcf- 
gree  of  indifference,  as  soon  as  published ;  for  from  that 
time  to  1781,  when  he  found  it  accidentally  in  a  chaise 
while  travelling  with  Mr.  Boswell,  he  declared  he  had  never 
looked  into  it.  His  translation  of  "  Lobo"  probably  sug- 
gested his  placing  the  scene  in  Abyssinia,  but  there  is  a 
little  scarce  volume,  unnoticed  by  his  biographers,  from 
which  it  may  be  suspected  be  took  some  hints.  It  is  en^ 
titled  "  The  late  Travels  of  S.  Giacomo  Boratti,  an  Italian 
gentleman,  into  the  remotest  countries  of  the  Abysslns,  or 
of  Ethiopia  Interior,'*  London,  1670,   12mo. 

Among  bis  occasional  productions  about  this  time  were 
his  translation  of  a  "  Dissertation  on  the  Greek  Comedy," 
for  Mrs.  Lennox's  English  version  of  Brumoy,  the  general 
conclusion  of  the  book,  and  an  introduction  to  the  "  World 
Displayed,"  a  collection  of  voyages  and  travels,  projected 
by  his  friend  Newbery. — When  a  new  bridge  was  about  to 
be  built  over  the  Thames  at  Blackfriars,  he  wrote  some 
papers  against  the  plan  of  the  architect,  Mr.  Mylne.  His 
principal  motive  appears  to  have  been  his  friendship  for 
Mr.  Gwyn,  who  had  given  in  a  plan  ;*  and  probably  he  only 
cloathed  Gwyn's  arguments  in  his  own  stately  language. 
Such  a  contest  was  certainly  not  within  his  province,  and 
he  could  derive  little  other  advantage  than  the  pleasure  of 
Serving  his  friend.  He  appeared  more  in  character  when 
he  assisted  his  contemporaries  with  prefaces  and  dedica- 
tions, which  were  very  frequently  solicited  from  him.  Poor 
as  he  was  at  this  time,  he  taugh^  how  dedications  might  be 
written  without  »ervile  submission  or  ilattery,  and  yet  with 


all  the  courtesy,  coiDpHment,  and  elegance  which  a  liberal 
mind  could  expect. 

But  an  end  was  now  approaching  to  bis  pecuniary  em- 
barrassments. In  1762,  while  he  was  proceeding  with  his 
edition  of  Shakspeare,  he  was  surprised  by  the  information 
that  his  present  majesty  had  been  pleased  to  grant  him  a 
pension  of  three  hundred  pounds  a  year,  not,  as  has  been 
invidiously  asserted,  in  order  to  induce  him  to  write  for^ 
administration,  but  sis  the  reward  of  his  literary  merit.  Had 
it  been  otherwise,  he  had  surely  the  strongest  inducement 
to  have  exerted  his  talents  in  favour  of  lord  Bute,  by  whose 
recommendation  the  pension  was  granted,  and  who  at  this 
time  wanted  much  abler  support  than  the  hired  writers  of 
government  could  supply.  But  it  is  well  known  that  he 
wrote  no  political  tract  for  nearly  eight  years  afterwards. 
He  now  took  a  bouse  in  Johnson's  court.  Fleet-street,  and 
allotted  an  apartment  for  Mrs.  Williams.  In  1765  he  was 
introduced  to  the  late  Mr.  Thrale  and  family,  a  circum- 
stance which  contributed  much  to  alleviate  the  solicitudes 
of  life,  and  furnished  him  with  the  enjoyment  of  an  elegant 
table  and  elegant  society.  Here  an  apartment  was  fitted 
up  for  him,  which  he  occupied  when  he  pleased,  and  he 
accompanied  the  family  in  their  various  summer  excursions, 
which  tended  to  exhilarate  his  mind  and  render  the  return 
of  his  constitutional  melancholy  less  frequent. 

In  the  same  year  he  received  a  diploma  from  Trinity 
college,  Dublin,  complimenting  him  with  the  title  of  doc- 
tor of  laws ;  and  after  many  delays,  his  edition  of  Shak- 
speare  was  published  in  eight  volumes  octavo.  The  pre- 
face is  universally  acknowledged  to  be  one  of  the  most 
elegant  and  acute  of  all  his  composiitions.  But  as  an  illus- 
trator of  the  obscurities  of  Shakspeare,  it  must  be  allowed 
he  has  not  done  much,  nor  was  this  a  study  for  which  he 
was  eminently  qualified.  He  was  never  happy  when  obliged 
to  borrow  from  others,  and  he  had  none  of  that\iseful  in- 
dustry which  indulge  in  research.  Yet  his  Criticisms  have 
rarely  been  surpassed,  and  it  is  no  small  praise  that  he  was 
the  precursor  of  Steevens  and  Malone.  The  success  of  the 
.  Shakspeare  was  not  great,  although  upon  the  whole  it  in- 
creased the  respect  with  which  the  literary  world  viewed 
his  taleuts.  Kenrick  made  the  principal  attack  on  this 
work,  which  was  answered  by  an  Oxford  student  named 
Barclay.  But  neither  the  attack  nor  the  answer  attracted 
tnuch  notice. 


'  In  1766  be  furnished  the  preface,  and  some  of  the  piecei 
which  compose  a  volume  of  poetical  *^  Miscellanies**  by 
Mrs.  Anna  Williams.  This  lady  was  still  an  inmate  in  his 
house,  and  was  indeed  absolute  mistress.  Although  her 
temper  was  far  from  pleasant,  and  she  had  now  sained  an 
ascendancy  over  him  which  she  often  maintainedfin  a  fret- 
ful and  peevish  maimer,  be  forgot  every  thing  in  her  dis^ 
tresses,^  and  was  indeed  in  all  his  charities,  which  were 
numerous,  the  most  remote  that  can  be  conceived  from  the 
hope  of  gratitude  or  reward.  His  house  was  filled  by  de- 
pendants whose  perverse  tempers  frequently  drove  him  out 
of  it,  yet  nothing  of  this  kind  could  induce  him  to  relieve 
himself  at  their  expence.  His  noble  expression  was,  *^  If 
I  dismiss  them,  who  will  receive  them  ?'*  Abroad,  his 
4Kociety  was  now  very  extensive,  and  included  almost  every 
man  of  the  age  distinguished  for  learning,  and  many  per- 
sons of  considerable  rank,  who  delighted  in  his  company 
and  conversation. 

In  1767,  he  had  the  honour  to  be  admitted  to  a  per- 
sonal interview  with  his  majesty,  in  the  library  of  the 
queen's  palace.  Of  the  conversation  which  passed,  Mr. 
Boswell  has  given  a  very  interesting  and  authentic  ac> 
count,  which,  it  may  here  be  mentioned,  he  prized  at  so 
high  a  rate,  as  to  print  it  separately  in  a  quarto  sheet, 
and  enter  it  in  that  form  at  Stationers' -hall,  a  few  days  be- 
fore the  publication  of  his  *^  Life  of  Johnson/'  ^  He  at- 
tempted in  the  same  manner  to  secure  Johnson's  letter  to 
lord  Chesterfield. — In  1767,  on  the  institution  of  the  royal 
academy  of  arts,  Johnson  was  appointed  professor  in  an- 
cient literature,  and  there  probably  was  at  that  time  some 
design  of  giving  a  course  of  lectures. '  But  this,  and  the 
professorship  of  ancient  history,  are  as  yet  mere  sinecures. 

In  1770,  his  first  political  pamphlet  made  its  appear- 
ance, in  order  to  justify  the  conduct  of  the  ministry  and 
the  House  of  Commons  in  expelling  Mr.  Wilkes,  and  af- 
terwards deckuring  col.  Luttrell  to  be  duly  elected  repre- 
sentative for  the  county  of  Middlesex,  notwithstanding 
Mr.  Wilkes  had  the  majority  of  votes.  The  vivacity  and 
pointed  sarcasm  of  this  pamphlet  formed  its  chief  recom- 
mendation, and  it  continues  to  be  read  as  an  elerant  po* 
litical  declamation ;  but  it  failed  in  its  main  object*  It 
made  no  converts  to  the  right  of  incapacitating  Mr.  Wilkes 
by  the  act  of  expulsion,  and  the  ministry  had  not  the  cou* 
rage  to  try  the  question  of  absolute  incapacitation.  Wilkes 


Ihred'to  see  tbe  dfensive  resolutions  expunged  from  ihe 
J^barnals  of  the  House  of  Commons  ;  and  what  seemed  yet 
more  improbable,  to  be  reconciled  to  Johnson,  who,  with 
iinabatea  dislike  of  his  moral  character,  could  not  help  ad« 
miring  his  classical  learning  and  social  talents.  His  pam« 
phlet,  which  was  entitled  the  **  False  Alarm,"  was  answered 
by  two  or  three  anonymous  writers  of  no  great  note. 

In  1771,  he  appeared  to  more  advantage  as  the  author 
of  "  Thoughts  on  the  late  Transactions  respecting  Falk- 
land Islands,"  from  materials  partly  furnished  by  tbe  mi« 
nistry,  but  highly  enriched  by  his  vigorous  style  and  pe- 
culiar train  of  thought.  The  object  of  this  pamphlet  was 
to  represent  the  dispute,  respecting  a  barren  island,  as  an 
insufficient  cause  for  war ;  and  in  the  course  of  his  reason- 
ing,  he  has  taken  an  opportunity  to  depict  the  miseries  as 
well  as  the  absurdity  of  unnecessary  war,  'in  a  burst  of  ani« 
mated  and  appropriate  language  which  will  probably  never 
be  exceeded.  His  character  of  Junius  in  this  pamphlet 
is  scarcely  inferior.  The  sale  of  die  first  edition  was  stopped 
for  a  while  by  lord  North,  and  a  few  alterations  made  be- 
fore it  appeared  in  a  second.  Jobnson^s  opinion  of  these 
two  pampblets  was,  that  '^  there  is  a  subtlety  of  disquisi- 
tion in  the  <  False  Alarm,'  which  is  worth  ail  the  fire  olT  the' 

About  this  time,  an  ineffectual  attempt  was  made  by  his 
steady  friend  Mr.  Strahan,  his  majesty's  printer,  to  pro- 
cure him  a  seat  in  parliament.  His  biographers  have 
amused  their  reladers  by  conjectures  on  the  probable. figure 
he  would  make  in  that  assembly,  and  he  owned  frequently 
that  he  should  not  have  been  sorry  to  tr}\  •  Why  the  in- 
terference of  his  friends  vvere  ineffectual,  the  minister  only 
could  tell,  but  he  was  probably  not  ill  advised.  It  is  not 
improbable  that  Johnson  would  have  proved  an  able  assist- 
ant on  some  occasions,  wher6  a  nervous  and  manly  speech 
was  wanted  tol  isil^nce  the  inferiors  in  opposition,  but  it 
may  bedbubted  whether  he  wotild  have  given  that  uniform 
and  open  consent  which  is  expected  from  a  party  man.. 
Whatever  aid  he  might  be  induced  to  give  by  his  pen  on 
certain  subjects,  which  accorded  with  his  own  sentiments, 
and  of  which  he  thought  himself  master,  he  by  no  means 
approved  of  many  parts  of  the  conduct  of  those  ministers 
who  c'arried  on  the  American  war';  arid  he  was  ever  dfe- 
*id^dly  against  the  principle  (if  it  may  be  so  called),  that 
a  m*n  should  go  along,  with  his  party^  right  or  wrong; 
Vol.  XIX.  F 

60  '  J  O  H  N  S  O  N. 

^*  This,**  he  once  said,  "  is  so  remote  from  native  TirtQe, 
from  scholastic  virtue,  that  a  good  man  must  have  under* 
gone  a  great  change  before  he  can  reconcile  himself  to 
such  a  doctrine.  It  is  maintaining  that  you  may  lie  to  the 
public,  for  you  do  lie  when  you  call  that  right  which  you 
think  wrong,  or  the  reverse." 

In  1773,  he  carried  into  execution  a  design  which  he 
had  long  meditated,  of  visiting  the  western  isles  of  Scotland. 
He  arrived  at  Edinburgh  on  the  i8th  qf  August,  and 
finished  his  journey  on  the  22d  of  November.  During  this 
time  be  passed  some  days  at  Edinburgh,  and  then  went  by 
St.  Andrew's,  Aberdeen,  Inverness,  and  Fort  Augustus, 
to  the  Hebrides,  visiting  the  isles  of  Sky,  Rasay,  Col,  Mull, 
Incbkenneth,  and  Icolmkill.  He  then  travelled  through 
Argyleshire  by  Inverary,  and  thence  by  Lochlomond  and 
Dumbarton  to  Glasgow  and  Edinburgh.  The  popularity 
of  his  own  account,  which  has  perhaps  beenT  more  gene- 
rally read  than  any  book  of  travels  in  modern  times,  and 
the  "  Journar*  of  his  pleasant  companion  Mr.  Boswell,  ren-- 
der  any  farther  notice  of  this  journey  unnecessavy.  The 
censure  he  met  with  is  now  remembered  with  indifference, 
.  and  his  **  Tour'*  continues  to  be  read  without  any  of  the 
unpleasant  emotions  which  it  first  excited  in  those  who 
contended  that  he  had  not  stated  the  truth,  or  were  unwill- 
ing that  the  truth  should  be  stated. 

.  During  bis  absence,  his  humble  friend  and  admirer, 
Thomas  Davies,  bookseller,  ventured  to  publish  two  vo- 
lumes, entitled  **  Miscellaneous  aiid  Fugitive  Pieces," 
which  be  advertised  in  the  newspapers,  as  the  productions 
of  the  "  Author  of  the  Rambler.'*  Johnson,  was  inclined 
to  resent  this  liberty,  until  be  recollected  Davies's  narrow 
cii'camstanceis,  when  he  cordially  forgave  him,  and  con- 
tinued his  kindness  to  him  as  usual.  A  third  volume  ap- 
peared soon  after,  but  all  its  contents  are  not  from  Dr.  John- 
spn^s  pen.  On  the  dissolution  of  parliament  in  1774,  he 
published  a  short  political  pamphlet  entitled  <'  The  Pa- 
triot,'*' the  principal  object  of  which  appears  to  have  been 
to  repress  the  spirit  of  faction  which  at  that  time  was  too 
prevalent,  especially  in  the  metropolis.  It  was  a  hasty 
composition,  called  for,  as  he  informed  Mr.  Boswell,  on 
one  day^  and  written  th^  next.  The  success,  since  his 
days,  of  those  mock -patriots  whom  he  ba^  so  ably  deli- 
neated^ is  too  decisive  a  proof  that  the  reign  of  political 
delusion  is  not  to  be  shortened  by  eloquence  or  argument^ 


Buring  his  tour  in  Scodanrd,  he  made  fre^tlent  in^iries 
respecting  the  authenticity  of  ^'  Ossian's  Poems/'  and  re^** 
ceived  answers  so  unsatisfactory  that  both  in  his  book  oi 
travels  and  in  conversation,  he  did  not  hesitate  to  treat  the 
whole  as  an  imposture.  This  excited  the  resentment  of 
Macpbersouy  the  editor,  to -such  a  degree  that  he  wrote  a 
threatening  letter  to  Johnson,  who  answered  it  in  a  compo- 
sition, which  in  the  expression  of  firm  and  unalterable 
contempt,  is  perhaps  superior  to  that  he  wrote  to  lord 
.  Chesterfield.  In  it  he  mixed  somewhat  of  courtesy ;  but 
Macpfaerson  he  despised  both  as  a  man  and  a  writer,  and 
treated  him  as  a  ruffian. 

The  rupture  between  Great  Britain  and  America  once 
more  roused  our  author's  political  energies,  and  produced 
his  ^^  Taxation  no  Tyranny,"  in  which  be  endeavoured  to 
prove  that  distant  colonies  which  had  in  their  assemblies  a 
legislature  of  their  ^wn,  were  notwithstanding  liable  to  be 
taxed  in  a  British  parliament,  where  they  had  no  repre- 
sentatives, and  he  thought  that  this  country  was  strong 
enough  to  enforce  obedience.  This  pamphlet,  which  ap- 
peared in  1775,  produced  a  controversy,  which  was  carried 
on  for  some  time  with  considerable  spirit,  although  Jofanr 
son.  took  no  share  in  it ;  but  the  right  of  taxation  was  no 
longer  a  question  for  discussion ;  the.  Americans  .were  in 
arms,  blood  bad  been  spilt,  and  *^  successful  rebellion  be« 
came  revolution."  No  censure  wiis  more  generally  ad- 
vanced at  this  time  against  our  authori  than  that  his  opi- 
nions were  regulated  by  his  pension,  and  none  could  be 
more  void  of  foundation.  His  opinion,  whether  just  or 
not,  of  the  Americans,  was  uniform  throughout  his  life ; 
and  he  continued  to  maintain  them,  when  in  striqt  prudence 
they  might  as  well  have  been  softened,  to  the  measure  of 
changed  times.  .  - 

It  is  not  improbable,  however,  that  he  felt  the  force  of 
some  of  the  replies  made  to  his  pamphlet^. seconded  as 
they  were  by  the  popular  voice,  and  by  the.  discomfiture 
of  the  measures  of  administration.  It  is  certain  that  he 
complained,  and  perhaps  about  \his  time,  of  being  called 
upon  to  write  political  pamphlets^  and  threatened  to  give 
up  bis.  pension.  Whether  this  complaiAt  was  carried  to 
the  proper  quarter,  Mr.  Boswell  has  not  informed  us ;  but 
he  wrote  no  more  in  defence  .of  the  ministry,  and  he  re- 
ceived no.  kind  of  reward  for  what  he  had  done*  His 
pension,  .neither  he  or  his   friends  ever  considered  in 

F  2 

M  sxxHuaaiL 

ilMtt  Hgtity  dltbongii  it  miglit  make  bim  icqiiiesce  itsore 
reddily  in  wlMit  the  minister  required.  He  wias  willing  to 
do  som^tMttg  for  grdktituiiB,  bvt. nothing  for  hire. 

A  fett*  moiuh^  aftisr  the  puUication  of  lus  last  pan^Uet^ 
he  risceived'  bi6  cKpldaifi  of  LL.  D.  from  the  university  erf  Qx^ 
fbrd^  in  cop^equence  of  a  recoaunencbation  from  the  chan- 
cellory lord  North*  It  is  remarkable^  however,  that  he 
l^ver  assumed  this  title  in  wrkiiig  notes  or  cards.  In  the 
aLutiimn  of  this  year,  be  went  on  a  tour  to  France  with  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  Tbrale.  Of  this  tonr  Mr.  Boswdl  has  printed  a^ 
few  memorandums^  which  were  probably  intended  as  the 
foundation  of  a  more  regQiar  narrative,  but  this  be  does 
not  appear  to  hav^  ever  begun.  As  the  tour  lasted  only 
about  two  months^  it  would  probably  hare  produced  more 
sentiment  than  de^ription. 

In  177t>  he  was  engaged  by  the  London  booksellers  to 
write  shVHt  lives  oi*  prefaces  to  an  ed^ion  of  the  Eoglisfa 
Pdets;  and  this  being  one  of  the  most  important  of  his 
literary  nndertaikings,  som«  aicct)unt  of  its  origin  is  neces-* 
snry,  especially  as  the  precise  share  which  bcjbngs  to  hion 
Has  been  frequently  misrepresented*  It  is  perhaps  too 
late  now  to  inquire  into  the  propriety  of  the  decision  o€ 
the  House  of  Lord«  respecting  literary  property. ,  It  had 
not,  howewr,  taken  place  many  months  before  some  of 
the  predicted  consequences  appeared.  Among  other  in«* 
stances,  an  edition  of  the  "English  Poets  was  pnbliahed  at 
Edinburgh,  in  direct  violation  of  that  honourable  compact 
by  wtrich  the  booksellers  of  London  had  agreed  to  respect 
each  others*  property,  notwithstanding  their  being  de- 
prived of  the  nK>re  effectual  support  of  t^e  law.  This^ 
tfherefore,  induced  the  latter  to  undertake  an  edition  of  the 
Poet^  in  a  more  cdmmodions  form,  and  with  suitable  ac^* 
curacy  of  text.  A  meeting  was  called  of  about  forty  df 
the  most  respectable  booksellers  of  London,  the  proprie* 
tors,  or  the  successors  and  descendants  of  the  proprietors^ 
of  copyrights  in  these  works ;  and  it  was  agreed  that  an 
elegant  and  nniform  edition  of  "  The  English  Poets?' 
shouk)  be  printed,  with  a  concise  account  of  the  life  of 
each  author,  by  Dr.  Sanniel  Johnson,  and  that  Messrs^ 
Strahan,  Cadell,  and  T.  Davies,  shoiild  wait  upon  hi«« 
with  their  proposals. 

Johnson  was  delighted  with  the  task,  the  utility  of  whieii 
had  probably  occurred  to  his  mind  long  befoce,  and  be  haft 
certainly  more  acquaintance   than  any  maa  then  Uviog 

JOMN^ON.  »» 

with  tbe  po^4»eal  hlopd^j  of .  ins  c«iifiliyi.  ^md  ftppe^ced 
to  be  best  qualified  to  illMtrate  it*  b$L  ^udiciout  critioiMH* 
Wbetber  we  conaMer  wbat  he  uDtlenook,  or  wbat  be  jperr 
formed)  the  sum  of  two  huiidired  ^ine«%  wfaicb  be  <de« 
Rianded,  will  ap|i^r  a  very  triml  reooiPipe«Ac.     His  ofir 

'  giifai  inteBtton,  and  all  indeed-  tbat  was  eiqpected  from 
faim^  WIS  a  very  coneite  biograpbical  and  cril^al  atCGOunt 
of  each  poet ;  but  be  bod  oot  proceecleid  far  htfore  be  be? 
gan  to  enlarge  the  iives  to  the  fNrestfnt  lextebft)  aoid  ai  U»t 

»  presented  the  world  willi  such  a  body  of  orittcAsni  as  was 
scarcely  to  be  expected  from  one  man,  and  sti^t  less  from 
oae  now  verging  on  bis  seventieth  year. 

Of  this  edition  it  is  yet  necessary  to  sayi  that  Dr.  Jobor 
sen  was  oot  in  all  respects  to  be  considered  |is  libe  odiitor. 
He  had  not  the  choice  of  the  poets  to  be  admiued,  altboagh 
in  addition  to  the  list  propaned  by  bis  em^oyers,  t>e  rer 
eomttiended  Blackmore,  Walls,  Fomfret;,  and  Yaldfnau 
Tfae  seleotion  was  made  by  the  booksellers,  .vvfho  appear 
to  have  been  guided  pafdy  by  the  aoknowledged  merit  of 
die  poet,  and  partly  by  Ins  popnlarity^  a  .quality  which 
is  somettines  independent  of  tbe>  forner.  Our  ,author, 
hom^vor,  felt  himself  under  no  restraint  in-  acoepling  the 
list  offered,  nor  did  he  in  any  insiaao^  eoasider  bimsetf 
bound  to  lean  with  partiaiily  to  aoy  author  finerdLy  that  tb4 
admission  of  his  wovks  anight  be  justified.  This  absurd 
species  of  prejudice  wiiichrbascontaminaited  so.  many  single 
Uvea  and  critical  prefaces,  was  repugaaotto/his^  must 
ever  be  to  the  opinion  of  every  map  who  considers  truth  as 
essential  to  biography,  aiid  tiiat  the  possession,  of  taleuts, 
however  brilliant,  ought  •to  be  no  jexcuse  for  the  abuse  of 
them.  Every  preliminary  having  been:  settled  in  the  month 
of  April,  17 T7,  the  new.  edition  of  the  Poets  was  sent  to 
press,  and  Johusdtl">was  informed  that  his  lives  might  be 
vnritten  in  ^tbe  mean  time,  so  as  to  be  ready  to  accompany 
the  publication. 

Not  k)i)g  after  be  undertook  this  work,  .he  was  invited 
to  contribute  tbe  aid  of  his  eloquent  pen  in  saving  the  for- 
feited life  of  Dr.  >WilKam  Dodd^  a  clergyman  who  was  con* 
▼icied  of  foogery.  This  unhappy  man  hf  d  long  been  a 
popular'  preacher  in. the  metropolis  ;  and  the  public  senti- 
ment was  ahnost'  universal  ^in  deprecating  so  shameful  a 
sight  as  that  of  a  elorgyman  of  the  church  of  £ngland  suf- 
fering %y- a  public  execution.  Whether  thene. was  much 
in  f>odd*s  character  to  justify  iba«i  sentiment,  or  to  demand 

10  JOHNSON.' 

Ibe  tnterfermcd  of  the  corporation  of  London,  backed  bjir 
the  petitioni  of  tbontands  of  the  most  difttinguished  and 
wealthy  cttizent,  may  perhaps  be  doubted.  Johnson, 
however,  conld  not  resist  what  pot  every  otlier  considera- 
tion out  of  the  question,  <'  a  call  for  mercy,'*  and  accord- 
ingly contributed  every  thing  that  the  friends  of  Dodd 
could  suggest  in  his  favour.  He  wrote  his  <*  Speech  to 
the  Recorder  of  London,"  delivered  at  the  Old  Bailey 
when  sentence  of  death  was  about  to  be  passed  on  him  : 
^*  The  Convict's  Address  to  his  unhappy  brethren/'  a  ser- 
mon ddivered  by  Dodd  in  the  chapel  of  Newgate :  Two 
Letters,  one  to  the  Lord  Chancellor  Bathurst,  and  one  to 
Lord  Chief  Justice  Mansfield :  A  petition  from  Dr*  Dodd 
to  the  King ;  another  from  Mrs.  Dodd  to  the  Queen ;  Ob^ 
servations  inserted  in  the  newspapers,  on  occasion  of  Earl 
Percy's  having  presented  to  bis  Majesty  a  petition  for 
mercy  to  Dodd,  signed  by  twenty  thousand  penkms;  a  pe- 
tition from  the  city  of  London ;  and  Dr.  Dodd's  kist  solemn 
declaration,  which  he  left  with  the  sheriff  at  the  place  of 
execution.  All  these  have  been  printed  in  Dr.  Johnson's 
Works,  with  some  additional  correspondence  which  Mr* 
Boswell  inserted  in  his  Life.  Every  thing  is  written  in  a 
style  of  pathetic  eloquence ;  but,  as  the  author  could  not 
be  concealed,  it  was  impossible  to  impress  a  stronger  sense 
of  the  value  of  Dodd's  talents  than  had  already  been  enter- 
tained. The  papers,  however,  contributed  to  heighten 
the  clamour,  which  was  at  that  time  raised  against  the  exe- 
cution of  the  sentence,  and  which  was  confounded  with 
what  was  then  thought  more  censurable,  the  coodui^t  of 
those  by  whom  the  unhappy  man  might  have  been  saved 
before  the  process  of  law  had  been  begun* 

In  1779  the  first  four  volumes  of  bis  Lives  of  the  Poets 
were  publiithed,  and  the  remainder  in  i781,  which  he  wrote 
by  his  own  confession,  *^  dilatorily  and  hastily,  uiiwilHng 
to  work,  and  working  with  vigour  and  haste."  He  had, 
however,  performed  so  mi^ch  more  thahwas  expected,, 
that  his  employers  presented  him  with  an  hundred  pounds 
in  addition  to  the  stipulated  sum.  As  he  never  was  in<« 
sensible  to  the  pleasure  or  value  of  fame,  it  is  not  impro- 
bable that  he  was  yet  more  substantially  gratified  by  the 
eagerness  with  which  his  Lives  of  the  Poets  were  read  and 
praised.  He  enjoyed  likewise  another  satisfaction,  which 
it  appears  he  thought  not  unnecessary  to  the  reputation  of 
a  great  writen*  -  He  was  attacked  on  all  aides  for  his  coi^. 

JO  H  N  S  O  NJ  ft 

tempt  for  Milton's  polkies,  -  and  the  sparing  praise  or  dt«^ 
rect  censure  be  had  bestowed  on  the  poetry  of  Prior,  Ham* 
mond)  CoUios,  Gray,  and  a  few.  others.  The  errors,  in«' 
deed,  which  on  any  other  subject  inigbt  have  passed  f4r 
errors  of  judgment,  were  by  the  irascible  tempers  of  his 
adversaries,  magnified  into  high  treason  against  the  ma* 
jesty  of  poetic  genius.  During  his  life,  these  attacks  were 
not  few,  nor  very  resfiectful,  to  a  veteran  whom  common' 
consent  had  placed  at  the  bead  of  the  literature  of  hia 
country ;  but  the  courage  of  his  adversaries  was  observed 
to  rise  very  considerably  after  his  d^atb,  and  the  name 
which  public  opinion  had  consecrated,  was  now  reviled 
with  the  utmost  malignity.  Even  some  who  during  his  life 
were  glad  to  conceal  their  hostility,  now  took  an  oppor*^ 
tonity  to  retract  the  admiration  in  which  they  had  joined 
with  apparent  cordiahty  ;  and  to  discover  faults  in  a. body 
of  criticism  which,  after  all  reasonable  exceptions  are  ad<' 
mitted,  was  never  equalled,  and  perhaps  never  will  be 
equalled  for  justice,  acuteoess,,  and  elegance.  Where  cao 
we  hope  to* find  discussions  thet  can  be  compared  with 
those  introduced  in  the  lives  of  Cowley,  Milton,  Dryden^ 
and  Pope?  His  abhorrence,  iiMleed,  of  Milton's  political 
conduct,  led  him  to  details  and  observations  which  can 
never  be  acceptable  to  a  certain  class  of  politicians;  but 
when  he  comes  to  analyse  bis  poetry,  and  to  fix  his  repu* 
tation  on  its  proper  basia,  it  must  surely  be  confessed  that 
DO  man,  since  the  first  appearance  of  Paradise  Lost,  has 
ever  bestowed  praise  with  a  more  munificent  hand.  He 
appears  to  have  collected  his  whole  energy  to  immortalize 
the  genius  of  Milton ;  nor  has  any  advocate  for  Milton's 
democracy  appeared,  who  has  not  been  glad  to  surrender 
the  guardianship  of  bis  poetical  fame,  to  Johnsou. 

Ill  1781,  the  public  demand  rendered  it  necessary  to 
print  an  edition  of  the  Lives  in  four  8vo.volumes,  and  in 
1783,  another  edition  of  the  same  nuo^ber,  but  considerably 
enlarged,  altered,  and  corrected  by  the  author.  We  can- 
not here  suppress  a  circumstance  communicated  by  our 
worthy  friend  Mr.  Nichols,  which  may  check  the  murmurs 
of  the  public,  respecting  improved  editions.  Although  the 
corrections  and  alterations  of  the  edition  of  1783  were 
printed  separately  and  offered  gratis  to  the  purchasers  of 
the  former^  scarcely  a  single  copy  was  called  for ! 
.  With  this  work  the  public  labours  of  Johnson  ended ; 
and  when  we  consider  bis  advanced  time  of  life,  and  the 

7«  J  O  H  N  S  O-Ni 


ahnost  «hab^ted  vigour  of  his  mind,  it  may  be  suvely 
abided,  that'  his  sun  set  mth  unrivalled  splendour,  l^t 
the  infirmities  of  age  were  now  undermining  a  constitution 
that  had  kept  ^perpetual  war  with  hereditary  disease,  and 
his  most  valued  friends  were  dropping  into  the  grave  be- 
fore him.  He  lost  Mr.  Thrale  and  Mrs.  Williams;  his 
home  became  cheerless,  and  much  visiting  was  no  longer 
convenient.  His  health  began  to  decline  more  visibly 
from  the  month  of  June  1783,  when  he  had  a  paralytic 
stroke ;  and  although  he  recovered  so  far  as  to  be  able  to 
take  another  journey  to  Lichfield  and  Oxford,  towards  the 
dose  of  the  year,  symptoms  of  a  dropsy  indicated  the  pro* 
bability  of  his  dissolution  at  no  distant  period.  Some  re« 
lief,  however,  having  been  administered,  he  rejoined  the 
society  <of  hi»  friends,  and  with  a  mind  still  curious,  intel- 
ligent, and  active,  renewed  his  attention  to  the  concerns 
of  literature,  dictating  information  whenever  it  was  wanted, 
and  trying  his  faculties  by  Latin  translations  from  the 
Greek  poets.  Nothing  was  so  much  the  subject  of  alarm 
with  him,  as  the  decayofjnemory  and  judgment,  of  which, 
however,  to  the  last  he  never  betrayed  the  least  symptom. 

In  Midsummer  1784,  he  acquired  sufficient  strength  to 
go  for  the  last  time  into  Derbyshire.  During  his  absence, 
bis  friends,  who  were  anxious  for  the  preservation  of  so 
valuable  a  life,  endeavoured  to  procure  some  addition  to 
his  pension,  that  he  might  be  enabled  to  try  the  efficacy 
of  a  tour  to  the  southern  part  of  the  continent.  Applica- 
tion was  accordingly  made  to  the  lord  chancellor,'  who  se- 
conded it  in  the  proper  quarter,  but  without  success.  He 
evinced,  however,  bis  high  respect  for  Johnson,  by  of- 
fering to  advance  the  sum  of  five  hundred  pounds;  and 
Johnson,  when  the  circumstance  was  conamunicated, 
thanked  his  lordship  in  a  letter  elevated  beyond  the  com- 
mon expressions  of  gratitude,  by  a  dignity  of  sentiment 
congenial  to  the  feelings  of  his  noble  and  liberal  corre- 
spondent. Dr.  Brocklesby  also  made  a  similar  offer,  al- 
though of  a  less^  sum  ;  and  such  indeed  was  the  estima- 
tion in  which  Johnson, was  held,  that  nothing  would  have 
been  wanting  which  money  or  affection  could  procure, 
either  to  protract  his  days,  or  to  make  them  comfortable. 

But  these  offers  were  not  accepted.  The  scheme  of  a 
continental  tour,  which  he  once  thought  n^pessftry,  was 
never  much  encouraged  by  his  physicians,  aiid  had  it  pro- 
mised greater  effects,  was  now  beyond  hi?  strength.   -  Th^ 


dropsy  and  asthma  were  making  baity  approaches,  and 
although  he  longed  for  life,  and  was  anxiously  desirous  that 
every  means  might  be  used  to  gain  another  day,  he  sooa 
became  convinced  that  no  hopes  were  Jeft.  During  this 
period,  he  was  alternately  resigned  to  die,  and  tenacious 
of  life,  tranquil  in  the  views  of  eternity,  and  disturbed  by 
gloomy  appreliensions ;  but  at  last  his  mind  was  soothed 
with  the  consolatory  hopes  of  religion,  and  although  the 
love  pf  life  ocoasiopaliy  recurred,  he  adjusted  bis  worldly 
concerns  with  composure  and  exactness,  as  one  who  was 
eoBscious  that  he  was  soon  to  give  an  ^ccount«  On  Mon- 
day the  IStfa  of  December,  he  tried  to  obtain  a  temporary 
relief  by  puncturing  his  legs,  as  had  been  before  per* 
formed  by  the  surgeon,  but  no  discharge  followed  tiie 
operation,  and  about  seven  o'dock  in  the  evening,  be 
breathed  his  last,  so  gently  t^at  some  time  elapsed  before 
his  death  was  perceived. 

On  the  20tfa,  his  body  was  interred  with  great  solemnity 
in  Westminster*abbey,  close  to  the  grave  of  his  friend 
Garrick^.  Of  the  other  honours  paid  to  his  memory,  it 
may  suffice  to  say  that  they  were  more  in  number  and 
quality  than  were  ever  paid  to  any  man  of  literature.  It 
was  his  singular  fate  that  the  age,  which  he  contributed  to 
improve,  repaid  him  by  a  veneration  of  which  we  have  no 
example  in  the  annals  of  literature ;  and  that  when  his 
failings  as  well  as  his  virtues  were  exhibited  without  dis« 
guise  and  without  partiality,  be  continued  to  be  revered 
by  the  majority  of  the  nation,  and  is  now,  after  scrutiny 
and  censure  have  done  their  worst,  enrolled  among  the 
greatest  names  in  the  history  of  English  genius. 

But  to  delineate  the  character  of  Johnson  is  a  task  which 
the  present  writer  wishes  to  decline*  Five  large  editions 
of  Mr.  Bosweirs  Life  have  familiarized  Johnson  to  the 
knowledge  of  the  public  so  intimately,  that  it  would  be 
impossible  to  advance  any  thing  with  which  every  reader 
is  not  already  acquainted.  The  suffrages  of  the  nation 
have  been  taken,  and  the  question  is  finally  decided.  On 
mature  consideration,  there  appears  no  reason  to  depart 

.  *  Hia  moBumeiit  was  rewtrrtd  for  scii)ptar9  was  ^esigoed  aod  fina^  exe« 
St.  Paul's  church ;  and  the  expences  cuted  by  Bacon.  The  epitaph  is  the 
h'aying  been  defrayed  by  a  liberal  and  composition  of  Dr.  Parr,  and  is  eon- 
voluntary  contribution,  it  stands  with  cise,  but  strongly  appropriated.  Thi) 
Ibat  of  Howard,  one  of  the  first  tributes  monument  was  coippleted  early  in 
of  national  admiration  and  gratitude  1796, 
jMkM  into  .tbiit  catb«dff I.    Tb« 


front  the  generally  received  opinions  as  to  the  rank  John*^ 
son  holds  among  men  of  genius  and  virtue,  a  rank  which 
those  who  yet  capriciously  dwell  on  his  failingsy  will  find 
it  difficult  to 'disturb.  His  errors  have  been  brought  for* 
ward  with  no  sparing  hand  both  by  his  friends  and  bis 
enemies,  yet  when  every  fair  deduction  is  made  from 
the  reputed  excellence  of  his  character  as  a  man  and  a 
writer,  enough  in  our  opinion  will  remain  to  gratify  the 
partiality  of  his  admirers,  and  to  perpetuttte  the  public 

It  is  unpleasant,  however,  to  quit  a  subject,  which,  the 
more  it  is   revolved,   serves  to  gladden  the  mind   with 
pleasing  recollections.     There  are  surely  circumstances  in 
the  history  of  Johnson  which  compel  admiration  in  defiance 
of  prejudice  or  envy.     That  a  man  of  obscure  birth,  of 
manners  by  no  m^ans  prepossessing,  whose  person  was  for- 
bidding, whose  voice  was  rough,  inharmonious,  and  ter- 
rifying,   whose  temper  was  frequently  harsh  and  over- 
bearing ;  that  such  a  man  should  have  forced  his  way  into 
the  society  of  a  greater  number  of  eminent  characters  than 
perhaps  ever  gathered  round  an  individual ;  that  he  should 
not  only  have  gained  but  increased  their  respeot  to  a  de- 
gree of  enthusiasm,  and  preserved  it  unabated  for  so  long 
a  series  of  years ;  that  men  of  all  ranks  in  life»  and  of  the 
highest  degrees  of  mental  excellence,  should  have  thought 
it  a  duty,  and  found  it  a  pleasure,  not  only  to  tolerate  his 
occasional  roughness,  but  to  study  his  hugiour,  and  sub- 
mit to  his  controul,  to  listen  to  him  with  the  submission  of 
a  scholar,  and  consult  him  with  the  hopes  of  a  client — ^AU 
this  surely  affords  the  strongest  presumption  that  such  a 
man  was  remarkable  beyond  the  usual  standard  of  human 
excellence.     Nor  is  this  inference  inconsistent  with  the 
truth,  for  it  appears  that  whatever  merit  may  be  attributed 
to  his  works,  he  was  perhaps  yet  more  to  be  envied  in  con- 
versation, where  he  exliibited  an  inexhaustible  fertility  of 
imagination,  an  elegance  and  acuteness  of  argument,  and 
a  ready  wit,  such  as  never  appear  to  have  been  combined 
in  one  man.     And  it  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  whatever 
opinion  was  entertained  by  those  who  knew  him  only  in 
his  writings,  it  never  could  have  risen  to  that  pitch  of  ad- 
miration which  has  been  excited  by  the  labours  of  his  in-  > 
dustrtous  biographer. 

His  death  formed  a  very  remarkable  sra  in  the  literary ' 
world.    For  a  considerable  time  the  periodical  journals^',  act- 


VF^U  as  general  convenatioD,  were  eagerly  occupied  on  an 
event  which  was  the  subject  of  universal  regret ;  and  every 
man  hastened  with  such  contributions  as  memory  supplied^ 
to  illustrate  a  character  in  which  all  took  a  lively  interests 
Numerous  aiiecdotes  were  published,  some  authentic  and 
some  imaginary,  and  the  general  wish  to  know  more  of 
Johnson  was  for  some  years  insatiable.  At  length  the  pro* 
prielors  of  his  printed,  works  met  to  consider  of  a  complete 
and  uniform  edition,  but  as  it  was  feared  that,  the  curiosity 
which  follows  departed  genius  might  soon  abate,  some 
doubt  was  entertained  of  the  policy  of  a  collection  of  pieces, 
the  best  of  which  were  already  in  the  hands  of  the  public 
in  various  forms ;  but  this  was  fortunately  overruled,  apd 
these  collected  Works  have  very  recently  been  printed  for 
the  fifth  time,  and  will  probably  be  long  considered  as  a 
standard  book  in  every  library.  Less  fortunately,  however^ 
sir  John  Hawkins,  who  was  one  of  Johnson's  executors, 
and  professed  to  be  in  possession  of  materials  for  his  Lif^ 
was  engaged  to  write  that  Life,  as  well  as  to  collect  his 
Works.  They  accordingly  appeared  in  1787,  in  11  vols* 
Bvd.  Of  the  Life  it  is  unnecessary  to  add  any  thing  to 
the  censure  so  generally  passed*  Sir  John  spoke  his 
mind,  perhaps  honestly ;  ]»ut  his  judgment  must  have 
been  as  defective  as  his  memory,  when  he  decided  with 
so  much  prejudice  and  so .  little  taste  or  candour,  on 
the  merits  of  his  author,  and  of  other  eminent  persons^ 
whom,  as  a  critic  humorously  said,  **  he  brought  to  be 
tried  at  the  Middlesex  quarter  sessions.'*  In  collecting 
the  Works,  he  inserted  some  which  no  man  could  suspect 
to  be  Johnson's,  while  he  omitted  other  pieces  that  had 
been  acknowledged.  A  more  correct  arrangement,  how* 
ever,  has  been  since  adopted. 

Two  years  before  this  edition  appeared,  Mr.  Bosweli 
published  his  Tour  to  the  Hebrides,  and  exhibited  such  % 
sample  of  Dr.  Johnson's  conversation-talents  as  raised  very 
high  expectations  from  the  Life  which  be  then  aunounced 
to  be  in  a  state  of  preparation.  Mr.  Boswell's  acquaintance 
with  Dr.  Johnson  commenced  in  1763;  and  from  that  time 
be  appears  to  have  meditated  what  be  at  length  executed, 
the  most  complete  and  striking  portrait  ever  exhibited  of 
any  human  being.  His  ^*  Tour"  having  shown  the  manner 
in  which  he  was  to  proceed,  Johnson's  friends  willingly 
contributed  every  document  they  could  collect  from '  me- 
mory ox  writiiigj  and  Mr*  Bosw^U^  who  meditated  on^ 

t«  J  O  H  N  SO  N. 

Tdtttne  only,  was  soon  obliged  to  eiuetud  his  work  to  tvm 
1|ttlky  qoanos.  These  vrere  published  m  1791,  and  foougtrt 
up  with  All  avidity  wtiicii  tiieir  wonderful  variety  <if  enusr- 
tainment,  viVaeity,  anecdote,  and  sentiment,  ^Mnpiy  jtm- 
tifi«d.  Five  or  ^x  very  large  editions  have  sim^  appeared, 
and  it  seems  to  be  one  of  those  Tefy  fortunate  and  Osci- 
llating books  of  which  the  public  is  net  likely  to  tire. 

Mr.  Boswetl,  indeed,  has  proved,  contrary  to  the  com* 
VOfi  opinion,  and  by  means  which  will  not  soon  be  re* 
peated,  that  cbe  life' of  a  mere  scholar  may  be  rendered 
more  instractive,  more  entertaining,  and  more  intereettngy 
than  dian  that  of  any  other  human  being.  And  although 
the  ^^  confidence  of  privb^te  conversation^'  has  been  tfaotrght 
to  be  Bdmetimes  violated  in  this  work,  for  which  no  apology 
ia  here  intended,  yet  the  world  seems  agreed  to  forgive 
this  failing  in  consideration  of  the  pleasure  it  has  afforded; 
that  wonderful  variety  of  subjects,  of  wit,  sentiment,^  and 
anecdote,  with  which  it  abounds ;  and  above  all,  the  va- 
luable instruction  it  presents  on  many  of  the  most  impor- 
tant duties  of  life.  It  must  be  allowed  that  it  created  some 
enemies  to  Dr.  Johnson  among  thos^  who  were  not  ene« 
mies  before  this  disclosure  of  his  sentiments.  Vanity  has 
been  sometimes  hurt,  and  vaK>ity  has  taken  its  usual  re« 
irenge.  It  in  generally  agreed,  however,  that  Mr.  Boswell's 
account  of  his  illustrious  friend  is  impartial:  he  conceals 
no  failing  that  revenge  or  animosity  ha«  since  been  able  to 
discover ;  all  his  foibles  of  manner  and  conversation  are 
faithfully  recorded,  and  recorded  so  frequently  that  it  is 
easier  to  form  a  just  estimate  of  Dr.  Johnson  than  of  any 
eminent  character  in  the  whole  range  of  biography. 

One  singular  effect  was  produced  by  dm  extraordinary 
book.  When  it  was  determined  to  discard  sir  John  Haw- 
kinses Life  of  Johnson,  application  was  made  to'Mr»  Mur- 
phy to  furnish  another,  to  be  prefixed  to  the  second  edi- 
tion of  the  works  published  in  1793.  This  Mr.  Murphy 
executed  under  the  title  (which  he  had  u^ed  in  the  case  of 
Fielding), of  "  An  Essay  on  the  Life  and  Genius  of  Dr. 
Johnson  ;'*  but  he  had  conceived  a  prejudice  of  jealousy  of 
Mr.  BosweU's  fame,  and  notwithstanding  the  latter  has 
strengthened  his  narrative  by  every  possible  pixKif,  Mur- 
phy persisted  in  taking  his  facts  from  the  very  ifiaccurate 
Barrative  of  sir  John  Hawkins,  and  the  more  flippant  anec-' 
dotes  published  by  jVlrs.  Piozzi.  In  his  Essay,  therefore, 
it  is  not  wonderful  that  many  eircumstaoces  Mre^  grossly, 

J  O  H  N  SON-  71 

^Md  considering  that  jDiVoofs  were  within  bis  reach,  we  may 
add,  wilfully  misrepresented.' 

JOHNSON  (Thomas),  an  English  botanist,  of  the 
serenteenth  centni^y,  was  born  at  Selby,  in  Yorkshire,  and 
bred  an  stpbthecary  in  London.  He  afterwards  kept  a  shop 
on  Snow-bitl,  where,  sayn  Wood,  by  his  uftweaTi;ed  paiaii 
and  good  natural  parts,  he  attained  to  be  the  best  berbaiist 
of  his  age  in  England.  He  was  first  known  to  the  publia 
by  d,.  small  piece  ufider  the  title  of  ^  Iter  in  agrum^  Can- 
ttanum,"  1620;  and  <<  Ericetnm  Hamstediaimai,'-  1632  ) 
which  were  the  first  Focal  catalogues  of  plants  published  ia 
England.  He  ^0n  after  acquired  great  credit  by  bi<i  new 
edition  and  emendation  of  Gerard^s  ^*  Herbal.'*  I«  thtt 
rebellion,  his  2eal  for  the  royal  cause  led  him  into  tim 
arniy,  in  which  he  greatly  distinguished  himself;  anddM 
aniversity  ^f  Oxford,  in  consideration  of  his  itiertt,  leflnufng*, 
and  loyalty,  conferred' upon  htm  the  degree  of  M.  D.  Majr 
9,  1643.  In  the  army  he  bad  the  rank  of  lieutenant* 
eolodel  to  sir  Marmaduke  Rawdon,  governor  of  Basangf- 
bouse.  Near  this  place,  in  a  skirmish  with  the  enemy,  in 
Sept.  1644,  he  received  a  shot  in  the  shonider,  of- which 
he  died  in  a  fortnight  after,  and^  as  tbeite  is  reason  ta 
think,  in  the  meridian  of  life.  Besides  the  works  abo^^e^ 
mentioned,  and  his  improved  edition  <»f  Gerard's  *<  Herbal,'* 
which  was  twice  printed  in  bis  lifetime,  in  1633  and  in 
1636,  foL  he  published  in  1634,  "  Mercurius  Botanicus, 
sire  planjtarum  gratia  suscepti  Itineris,  anno  1634,  de- 
scriptio,'*  Lond.  8?o.  This  was  the  result  of  a  journey, 
with  some  associates  of  the  company  of  apotbeeariea^ 
through  Oxford,  to  Bath  and  Bristol,  and  back  by  South* 
ampton,  the  Isle  of  Wight,  and  Guildford,  with  the  pro- 
fessed design  to  investigate  rare  plants.  To  this  wad 
added  his  small  tract,  "  De  Thermis  Bathonicis,"  with 
plans  of  the  baths,  and  one  of  the  city,  which,  to  antiqila- 
ries,  are  now  interesting.  This  was  followed  by  a  sj^cond 
part  of  his  excursion,  "  Pars  altera,**  which  extends  to 
Wales.  He  was  among  the  earliest  botanists  who  visited 
Wales  and  Snowdon,  with  the  sole  intention  of  discover- 

.  '  The  pria<Hpal  of  these  are  corrected  in  a6tes  appended  to  the  Utk  <d:tR>ft  of 
Johnson's  Works.  Murphy's  narrative  was  in  truth  little  more  thai)  what  ««88 
compHed  in  n&7,  from  sir  John  Hawkins,  by  the  Monthly  Reviewers,  i»hoa« 
style  and  reflections  he  has  in  geuera)  copied  verbatim,  without  a  word  of  ackno«r« 
iedgment.-^BorMPeU*8  Life  of  Johnson.— Hawkins's.  — JoiwMn  and  'Chakuerl's 
BaglisirFiMts^  ldiO/21  fols.  for  «4ncb  edition. tiiis  skcteli  wasorigiaaU^jt^ro^ 


ingtbe  rarities  of  that  country  in  the  vegetable  kingdom* 
He  also  translated  the  works  of  Ambrose  Parey,  the  cele* 
brated  French  surgeon,  published  at  London  in  1643,  and 
reprinted  in  167S.  Miller  consecrated  the  name  of  John* 
son  by  assigning  it  to  a  berry-bearing  shrub  of  Carolina, 
belonging  to  the  ietrandraus  class,  but  it  has  not  been  re* 
tained  in  the  Linnaean  system^  where  the  plant  is  called 
caUicarpa, ' 

JOHNSON  (Thomas),  an  excellent  classical  scholar 
and  editor,  was  born  at  Stadhampton^  in  Oxfordshire,  and 
educated  at  King's-coUege,  Cambridge,  as  Mr.  Cole  says,  but 
according  to  others,  at  Magdalen -^college,  of  which  he  was 
afterwards  a  fellow.  He  took  his  bachelor's  degree  in  1688, 
and  that  of  M.  A.  in  1692,  after  which  he  left  the  univer- 
sity, and  married*  He  bad  also  an  Eton  fellowship,  and 
was  assistant  at  the  school.  He  was  likewise  udber  of  Ips* 
wick  school,  and  taught  school  once  at  Brentford,  and  in 
other  places.  Little  else  is  known  of  his  history^  nor  have 
we  been  able  to  ascertain  the  time  of  his  death.  Cole  says 
his  character  is  represented  as  having  been  dissolute^  but 
he  was  an  excellent  scholar.  He  is  best  known  as  the 
editor  of  ^^  Sophocles,'*  Oxon.  and  London,  1705,  and 
1746,  S  vols.  He  published  also  '^  Gratius,  de  Vena*- 
tione,  cum  notis,"  Lond.  1699,  8vo;  ^' Cebetis  Tabula,'* 
Lond.  1720,  8vo;/*  Novum  Grsecorum  Epigrammatum 
delectus,"  for  the  i;ise  of  Eton  school,  repeatedly  printed 
from  1699,  &c. ;  ^^  The  Iliad  of  Homer  made  English  from 
the  French  version  of  Madame  Dacier ;  revised  and  compared 
with  the  Greek;"  ^*  Questiones  Philosophies  in  usum. 
juventutis  academics^,"  1735,  8vOy  at  that  time  a  most- 
useful  manual ;  and  an  edition  of  ^^  PuffendorfF  de  Offieio 
hominis  et  civis,"  4to.  To  these  may  be  added,  ^^  An 
Essay  on  Moral  Obligation,  with  a  view  towards  settling 
the  controversy  concerning  moral  and  positive  duties,'* 
Cambridge,  1731 ;  "A  letter  to  Mr.  Chandler,  in  vindi« 
cation  of  a  passage  in  the  bishop  of  London's  second  Pas- 
toral Letter,"  17 34/8 vo.  In  this  last»mentioned  year  ap- 
peared the  new  edition  of  Stephens's  *^  Thesaurus  Linguae 
Latinse,"  of  which  our  author  was  one  of  the  editors.* 

JOHNSTON  (Arthuk))  was  born  at  Caskieben>  near 
Aberdeen,  the  seat  of  his  ancestors,  in  1587,  and  probably 

1  Ath.  Ox;  Tol.  II. — Lloyd's  Metnoin,  fol. — ^Palteney's  Sketches. 
9  Cole's    MS  Athena,   ia  Briu  Mas,— iianrood'»  Aluimu  BtomiMes.— ^ 
Nichols's  Bowyer, 


was  edacated  at  Aberdeen^  as  be  was  afterwards  advanced 
to  the  highest  dignity  in  that  university.     The  study  to 
which  be  chiefly  applied,  was  thalj  of  physic  ;  and  to  im- 
prove himself  in  that  science,  he  travelled  into  foreign 
countries.     He  wad  twice  at  Rome,  but  the  chief  place  of 
bis  residence  was  at  Padua,  in  which  university  the  degree 
of  M.  D.  was  conferred  on  him  in  1610,  as  appears  by  a 
MS  copy  of  verses  in  the  advocates'  library  in  Edinburgh* 
After  leaving  Padua,  be  travelled  through  tbe  rest  of  Iiaiy, 
and  over  Germany,  Denmark,    England,    Helland,  :and 
other  countries,  and  M  last  settled  in  France,  where  be 
met  with  great  applause  as  a  Latin>  poet.     He  lived  there 
twenty  years,  and  by  two  wives  bad  thirteen  children.     Al 
last,  after  twenty-four  years  abi^ence,    be.  returned  into 
Scotland,  as  some  say  in  1632,  but  probably  much  sooner, 
as  there  is  an  edition  of  his  <^  Epigramii^ata,''  printed  at 
Aberdeen  in  1632,  in  which  he  is  styled  the  king's  physi* 
cian.     It  appears  by  the  counciUbooks  at  Edinburgh,  that 
the  doctor  had  a  suit  at  law  before  that  court  about  the 
same  time.     In  the  year  following,  Charles  I.  went  into 
Scotland,  and  made  bishop  Laud,  then  with  him,  a  mem- 
ber of  that  council ;  and  by  this  accident  it  is  probable  the 
acquaintance  began  between  tbe  doctor  and  that  prelate, 
which  produced  his    *^  Psalmorum    Davidis  Paraphrasis 
Poetica.''     We  find,    that  in  the  same  year  the  doctor 
printed  a  specimen  of  his  Psalms  at  London,  and  dedicated 
the.m  to  bis  lordship,  which  is  considered  as  a  proof  that 
the  bishop  prevailed  upon  Johnston  to  remove  to  London 
from  Scotland,  and  then  set  him  upon  this  work  ;  neither 
can  it  be  doubted  but,  after  he  had  seen  this  sample,  he 
also  engaged  him  to  perfect  the  whole,  which  took  him  up 
four  years;,  for  the  first  edition  of  all  the  Psalms  was  pub* 
lished  at  Aberdeen  in  1637,  and  at  London  in  the  same 
year.     In  1641,  Dr.  Johnston  being  at  Oxford  on  a  visit 
to  one  of  his  daughters,  who  was  married  to  a  divine  of 
the  church  of  England  in  that  place,  was  seized  with  a 
violent  diarrhoea,  of  which  he  died  in  a  few  .days,  in  the 
fifty-fourth  year  of  his  age,  not  without  having  seen  the 
beginning  of  those  troubles  which  proved  so  fatal  to  his 
patron.      He   was    buried  in -the  place  where   he  died, 
which  gave  occasion  to  the  following  lines  of  his  learned 
friend  Wedderburn  in  his  *^  Suspiria,^'    on  the  doctor^s 
death : 


*'  Scotia  mcesta^  dole,  taati  vidaatafiepulchro 
Vatis  ^  is  Aagygenis  contigit  alius  honoB/' 

In  1 6329^  as  already  remarked,  was  published  at  Aberdeen 
^  Epigrammata  Arturi  Jobnstoni  ;'*  and  in  1633,  be  trans* 
kued  Solomon's  Song  into  Latin  elegiac  verse,  and  dedi" 
cated  it  to  bis  mi^esty ;  in  1637,  be  edited  the '*  Delicias 
Poetarum  Scoticorum,"  to  whieb  be  was  himself  a  large 
contributor,  and  which,  says  Dr.  Johnson,  would  bav^ 
done  honour  to  any  country.  His  Psalms  were  reprinted 
at  Middleburg,  1642;  London,  1657  ;  Cambridge,  .  .  .  .; 
Amsterdam,  1706;  Edinburgh,  by  William  Lauder,  1739; 
and  at  last  on  the  plan  of  the  Delpfain  classics,  at  London^ 
1 74 1,  8vo,  at  the  expence  of  auditor  Benson,  who  dedi* 
cat^d  them  to  bis  late  majesty,  and  prefixed  to  this  edition 
memoirs  of  Dr.  Johnston,  with  the  testimonies  of  various 
learned  persons.  A  laboured,  but  partial  and  injudicious 
eomparison  between  the  two  translations  of  Buchanan  and 
Johnston,  was  printed  the  same  year  by  Benson,  in  Eng- 
lish, in  8vo,  entitled  *^  A  Prefatory  Discourse  to  Dr.  John-* 
ston's  Psalms,"  &c.  and  *^  A  Conclusion  to  it.'*  This  was 
ably  answered  by  the  learned  Ruddiman  in  ^^  A  Vindica* 
tion  of  Mr.  George  Bucbanan^s  Paraphrase  of  the  Book  of 
Psalms,'*  1745,  8vo.  Johnston's  translations  of  the '^  Te 
Deum,  Creed,  Decalogue,"  &c.  were  subjoined  to  the 
Psalms.  His  other  poetical  works  are  his  *^  Parerga,"  and 
bis  *^  MussB  Aulicfie,"  or  commendatory  verses  upon  per- 
sons of  rank  in  church  and  state  at  that  time.  Johnston  is 
,  evidently  entitled  to  very  high  pjaise  as  a  Latin  poet;  and 
the  late  lord  Woodhouselee  seems  to  admit  that  from  his 
days  the  Latin  muses  have  deserted  the  northern  part  of 
our  island  :  Benson's  comparison  between  Buchanan  and 
Johnston  was  absurd  enough,  but  it  is  not  fair  that  John-^ 
ston  should  suffer  by  his  editor's  want  of  taste.  The  abler 
critic  we  have  just  metitioned,  does  not  think  Johnston's 
attempt  to  emulate  Buchanan  as  a  translator  of  the  Psalms, 
greatly  beyond  bis  powers ;  for,  although  taken  as  a  whol^, 
his  version  is  certainly  inferior  (as  indeed  what  modern  has, 
in  Latin  poetry,  equalled  Buchanan  ?)  yet  there  are  a  fev^ 
of  his  Psalms,  such  as  the  24th,  30th,  74th,  81st,  82dy 
102d,  and  above  all,  the  137tb,  which,  on  comparison^ 
lord  Woodhouselee  says,  will  be  found  to  excel  the  cor- 
responding paraphrase  of  his  rival.  And  Dr.  Beattie  seems 
to  speak  in  one  respect  more  decidedly.  Johnston,  he 
says,  <*  is  not  so  verbose  as  Buchanan,  and  has  of  course 

J  OH  iJ  S  t  O  N.  81 

•  1 

Diorie  ngour  ;^*  but  he  very  justly  censures  the  rS^dical  evil 
of  Johnston's  Psalms,  his  choice  of  a  couplet^  which  l^eeps 
the  reader  always  in  mind  of  the  puerile  epistles,  of  Ovid.' 

JOHNSTON,  or  JOHNSON  (Charles),  author  of 
•^  Cbrysal,  or  the  Adventures  of  a  Guinea,"  and  other  works 
of  a  similar  kind,  was  a  native  of  Ireland,  and  descended 
from  a  branch  of  the  Johnstons  of  Annandale*  He  was 
born  in  the  early  part  of  the  last  century,  but  in  what  year  . 
we  have  not  been  able  to  discover.  After  receiving  a  good 
classical  education,  he  was  called  to  the  bar,  and  came 
over  to  England  for  practice  in  that  profession,  but  being 
unfortunately  prevented  by  deafness  from  attending  the 
courts,  be  confined  himself  to  the  employment  of  a  cham- 
ber counsel.  It  does  not  appear  that  his  success  was  great, 
and  embarrassed  circumstances  rendered  him  glad  to  em- 
br'ace  any  other  employment,  in  which  his  talents  might 
have  a  chance  to  succeed.  His  "  Chrysal"  is  said  to  have 
been  his  first  literary  attempt,  two  volumes  of  which  he 
wrote  while  on  a  visit  to  Mount  Edgecumbe,  the  seat  of  the 
late  earl  of  Mount  Edgecumbe.  He  appears  to  have  had 
recourse  to  some  degree  of  art,  in  order  to  apprize  the 
public  of  what  they  were  to  expect  from  it.  In  the  news- 
papers for  April  17^0,  it  is  announced  that  "  there  will  be 
speedily  published,  under  the  emblematical  title  of  the 
^  Adventures  of  a  Guinea,'  a  dispassionate,  distinct  account 
of  the  most  remarkable  transactions  of  the  present  times  all 
over  Europe,  with  curious  and  interesting  anecdotes  of 
the  public  and  private  characters  of  the  parties  principally 
concerned  in  these  scenes,  especially  in  England;  the 
whole  interspersed  with  several  most  whimsical  and  enter- 
taining instances  of  the  intimate  connection  between  high 
and  low  life,  and  the  power  of  little  causes  to  produce^reat 
events.**  This,  while  it  has  the  air  of  a  pufF,  is  not  an  uur 
faithfuLsummary  of  the  contents  of  these  volumes,  which 
were  published  in  May  of  the  same  year,  and  read  with 
such  avidity,  that  the  author  was  encouraged  to  add  two 
more  volumes  in  1765,  not  inferior  to  the  former,  in  meri^ 
or  success  ;  and  the  v<rork  has  often  been  reprinted  since. 
The  secret  springs  of  some  political  intrigues  on  the  con^ 
tinent,  are  perhaps  unfolded  in  these  volumes,  but  it  was 
the  personal  characters  of  many  distinguished  statesmen, 

^  Memoirs  <  by  Beasen. — Chalmers's   Life  of  Rnddiman,  p.  42,  176.  &c.«— 
Tytlttr's  Life  of  Karnes.— Beattie't  Dissections,  4to,  p.  (»45« 

Vol.  XIX.  G 


women  of  quality,  and  citizens,  which  rendered  the  work 
palatable.  A  few  of  these  were  depicted  in  such  striking 
colours  as  not  to  be  mistaken ;  and  the  rest,  being  sup- 
posed to  be  equally  faithful,  although  less  •  obvious,  the 
public  were  long  amused  in  conjecturing  the  originals. 
With  some  truth,  however,  there  is  so  much  fiction,  and  in 
a  few  instances  so  much  of  what  deserves  a  worse  epithet, 
that  **  ChrysaP'  does  not  appear  entitled  to  much  higher 
praise  than  that  of  the  best  <^  scandalous  chronicle  of  the 
day.*'  In  one  case,  it  may  be  remembered,  the  author 
occasioned  no  little  confusion  among  the  guilty  parties,  by 
^unfolding  the  secrets  of  a. club  of  profligates  of  rank,  who 
used  to  assemble  at  a  nobleman's  villa  in  Buckinghamshire. 
In  this,  as  well  as  other  instances,  it  must  be  allowed,  that 
-although  he  describes  his  bad  characters  as  worse  than  they 
were,  he  everywhere  expresses  the  noblest  sentiments  of 
indignatioi)  against  vice  and  meanness. 

Mr.  Johnston's  other  publications,  of  the  same  kind, 
delineating  in  caricature  the  striking  outlines  of  popular 
characters  and  public  vices,  were,  "The  Reverie;  or  a 
Flight  to  the  Paradise  of  Fools,"  1762,  2  vols.  12mo;  "The 
History  of  Arbases,  prince  of  Betlis,"  1774,  2  vols. ;  "The 
Pilgrim,  or  a  Picture  of  Life,"  1775,  2  vols. ;  and  "  The 
History  of  John  Juniper,  esq.  alias  Juniper  Jack,"  1781, 
3  vols.  None  of  these,  however,  attracted  the  attention  of 
the  public  in  any  considerable  degree.  In  1782,  he  had 
some  prospect  of  passiilg  his  days  in  comfort,  if  not  in  opu- 
lence, in  India,  and  accordingly  embarked  for  Bengal,  with 
«apt.  Charles  Mears,  in  the  Brilliant,  which  was  wrecked 
off  Johanna,  an  island  situated  between  Madagascar  and  the 
continent  of  Africa;  but  capt.  Mears,  with  his  son  and 
daughter,  and  Mr.  Johnston,  and  some  others,  were  saved, 
and  ultimat^ely  reached  India.  Here  he  employed  his  ta- 
lents in  writing  essays  for  the  Bengal  newspapers,  under 
the  signature  of  "  Oneiropolos,"  and  at  length  became  a 
joint  proprietor  of  a  paper,  and  by  this  and  some  other 
speculations,  acqtiired  considerable  property.  He  died 
there  about  1 800.  These  memoirs  of  a  man,  certainly  de- 
serving of  some  notice,  have  been  derived  from  various 
ianonymous  authorities,  and  are  therefore  given  with  diffi- 
dence.* * 

JOHNSTONE  (James),  an  eminent  physician  at  Wor- 
cester, was  the  fourth  son  of  John  Johnstone,  esq.  of  Gala« 

>  Gent  Mag.  iXIV.  p.  591, 780s  LXXYII.  p.  631  i  USCSX.  mr 


baaky  one  of  the  most  ancient  branches  of  the  family  of 
Johnstone  of  Johnstone:  he  was  born  at  Annan  in  17 SO, 
and  received  the  rudiments  of  his  classical  education  under 
the  rev.  Dr.  Henry,  author  of  the  History  of  Great  Britain. 
In  the  school  of  Edinburgh,  under  Whytt,  Plummer^ 
Monro,  and  Rutherford,  he  learned  the  science  of  medicine ; 
and  in  Paris,  under  Ferrein  and  Rouelle,  he  studied  ana- 
tomy and  chemistry.  In  17^0,  before  he  had.  completed 
twenty-one  years,  he  took  the*  degree  of  doctor  of  medi- 
cine, publishing  a  thesis  *^  De  Aeria  factitii  imperio  in 
corpore  humane,*'  which  gained  him  much  credit,  and 
some  valuable  friends.  The  following  year  he  seated  him- 
self at  Kidderminster,  in  Worcestershire;  which  at  that 
time,  and  some  years  afterwards,  was  subject  to  a  putrid 
fever  of  such  peculiar  malignity,  as  to  be  called  the  Kid- 
derminster fever.  His  name  first  became  known  by  the 
successful  treatment  he  adopted  for  the  cure  of  this  dread- 
ful disorder.  Instead  of  bleeding  and  purging,  means  then 
in  common  use,  he  recommended  bark,  wine,  mineral  acids^ 
free  ventilation  of  air,  and  the  affusion  of  water  an4  vine- 
gar ;  and  so  prominent  was  his  success,  that  he  was'iaim6- 
diately  introduced  into  considerable  practice.  Of  this  fe- 
ver, as  it  appeared  in  1756,  he  published  an  account  in 
1758,  which  proves  him  to  be  the  discoverer  of  the  power 
of  mineral  acid  vapours  to  cprrect  or  destroy  putrid  febrile 
contagion  :  He  orders  for  this  purpose,  vitriolic  acid  to  bci 
poured  upon  common  salt,  in  a  convenient  vessel,  over  a 
proper  heat.  It  is  not  a  little  singular,  that  the  same  means 
should  be  recommended  by  the  celebrated  Guy  ton  de 
Moirveau  for  the  same  purpose,  more  than  twenty  years 
after  they  were  published  by  Dr.  Johnstone,  and  be  then 
cried  up  as  a  great  discovery. 

The  first  sketches  of  Dr.  Johnstone's  physiological  in- 
quiry into  the  uses  of  the  ganglions  of  the  nerves,  were 
published  in  the  54th,  57th,  and  60th  vols,  of  the  Phil. 
Trans..  They  were  afterwards  enlarged,  and  printed  sepa- 
rately. In  this  inquiry,  he  considers  ganglions  as  ^'  little 
brains,  subordinate  springs  and  reservoirs  of  nervous  power, 
the  immediate  sources  of  the  tierves  sent  to  organs'moved 
involuntarily,  and  the  check  or  cause  which  hinders  our 
volitions  from  extending  to  them.  In  a  word,  ganglions 
limit  the  exercise  of  the  soul's  authority  in  the  animal  oseo* 
Domy,  and  put  it  out  of  our  power,  by  a  single  volition, 
.to  stop  the  motk>i\s  of  the  heart,  and  in  one  capricious 

G  2 


moment  irrecoverably  to  ^nd  our  lives.*'  But  his  physio- 
logical researbhes  did  not  stop  here : — In  a  treatise  on  the 
Walton  water,  which  in  quality  strongly  resembles  the 
Cheltenham,  he  has  pointed  out  the  probable  function  of 
the  lymphatic  glands,  supposing  them  to  be  organs  destined 
to  purify,  digest,  and  aninialize  the  matters  selected  and 
absorbed  by  the  lacteals  and  other  lymphatics ;  thus  fitting 
them  for  their  union  with  the  blood,  and  the  nutrition  of 
the  body.  '  . 

At  Kidderminster  Dr.  Johnstone  continued  to  act  in  a 
wide  sphere  of  country  practice,  till  the  death  of  his  eldest 
son,  a  physician  fast  rising  into  eminence,  who  fell  a  martyr 
to  humanity  in  attending  the  prisoners  at  Worcester  in- 
fected with  jail-fever;  and  the  coincidence  of  the  death  of 
his  dearest  friend  the  rev.  Job  Orton,  induced  him  to  re- 
move to  Worcester.  In  this  city,  famous  from  the  days  of 
Dr.  Cole,  the  friend  of  Sydenham,  for  its  physicians,  he 
continued,  vigorous,  active^  and  sprightly,  useful  to  the  com- 
munity, and  beloved  by  his  friends,  to  practise,  till  a  few 
dajs  ^previous  to  his  death.  He  had  been  subject  to  pul- 
monary complaints  in  his  youth,  which  had  been  averted 
by  temperance  and  caution.  la  his  later  years  they  re- 
curred^ and  during  the  last  spring  he  had  bled  himself  ra- 
ther too  profusely.  In  the  last  attack,  which  was  aggra- 
vated by  excessive  fatigue  and  exertion,  his  weakness  was 
such  as  to  forbid  the  repetition  of  more  than  one  bleeding ; 
and  his  strength  gradually  decayed,  leaving  his  intellect 
clear  and  unimpaired.  His  death  was  a  perfect  eutha^ 
nasia :  he  expired  April  28,  1802,  after  a  short  and  in  no 
wise  painful  struggle,  having  sat  up  and  converged  with 
his  family,  till  within  a  few  hours  of  the  awful  change, 
cheerful,  patient,  and  resigned.  He  survived  his  wife, 
with  whom  he  lived  fifty  years,  only  two  months. 

Dr.  Johnstone  was  the  correspondent  and  friend  of  Hal- 
ler,  Whytt,  Cullen,  and  Fothergill ;  the  bosom-friend  of 
the  virtuous  Lyttelton  and  the  pious  Orton,  and  of  many 
other  wise  and  learned  men,  who  still  improve  and  adorn 
society  : — the  active  and  humane  physician,  the  sagacious 
physiologist,  the  recondite  antiquary ;  and  few  men  have 
occupied  a  larger  space  of  professional  utility  and  private 
regard,  than  Dr.  Johnst;one.  Firm  and  undeviatiog  in  his 
own  moral  carriage,  his  vigorous  and  manly  mind  was  per- 
haps, on  some  occasions,  too  little  accommodating  to  cha- 
racters and  circumstances.    In  bis  temper  he  was  cheerful, 


fjiough  sometimes  hasty — in  his  conversation  lively  and  in- 
structive— in  his  affections  warm  and  attached — in  his  do- 
mestic relations,  he  was  the  best  of  fathers,  his  whole  life 
was  a  sacrifice  to  the  advantage  of  his  children — in  fine^ 
although  the  memory  of  his  personal  services  cannot  be 
soon  forgotten,  yet  has  he.  erected  a  still  more  durable 
monument. to  his  fame,  in  those  various  practical  improve* 
ments  of  the  medical  art,  which  rank  his  name  among  the 
benefactors  of  mankind.^ 

JOHNSTON  (John),  an  eminent  naturalist,  was  born 
at  Sambter,  in  Great  Poland,  in  1603:  he  received  the 
greater  part  of  his  education  in  his  own  country ;  but  in 
1622,  became  to  England,  and  from  thence  he  went  to 
Scotland,  where  he  studied  with  great  diligence  in  the 
university  of  St.  Andrew's  till  1625.  He  afterwards  studied 
at  Leyden  and  Cambridge.  He  undertook  the  education 
of  the  two  sons  of  the  count  de  Kurtzbach,  and  accompa- 
nied them  to  Holland.  While  he  resided  with  his  pupils 
at  Leydeo,  he  took  his  degree  as  doctor  of  physic  ;  and 
when  he  went  a  third  time  to  England,  the  same  honour 
was  conferred  on  him  by  the  university  of  Cambridge.  He 
died  in  June  1675,  in  the  seventy-second  year  of  his  age* 
He  is  known  in  the  literary  world  by  a  number  of  works  in 
the  different  departments  of  natural  history,  particularly 
^^  Thftumatographia  naturalis  in  classes  decem  divisa,"' 
Amst  1632,  12mo;  ^^  Historia  naturalis  de  Piscibus  et 
Cetis,  &c."  Francfort,  1649,  folio  ;  "  Historia  naturalis  de 
Quadrupedibus,"  ibid.  1652,  folio;  ^^Hist.  nati  de  Insecti- 
bus,*'  ibid.  1653,  folio  ;  "  Hist.  nat.  de  Avibus,*'  ibid,  folio; 
**  Syntagma  Dendrologicum,"  and  **  Dendrographia,"  folio. 
He  published  also  some  historical  works,  and  some  oa 
ethics,  &c.  enumerated  in  our  authorities.' 

JOINVILLE  (John,  Sire  de),  an  eminent  French  states- 
man, who  flourished  about  1260,  was  descended  from  one 
of  the  noblest  ajid  most  ancient  families  at  Champagne, 
He  was  seneschal,  or  high-steward,  of  Champagne,  and  one 
of  the  principal  lords  of  the  court  of  Louis  IjL  whom  he 
attended  in  all  bis  military  expeditions;  and  was  greatly 
beloved  and  esteemed  for  his  valour,  his  wit,  and  the. 
frankness  of  his  manners.  That,  monarch  placed  so  much 
confidence  in  him,  that  all  matters  of  justice,  in  the  palace;^ 

1  Gent,  and  Month.  Magazines,  1809. — Doddridge's  Letters,  p.  354. 
f  Chaufepie, — Moreri. — ^Saxii  Oaomast. 

8«  J  O  I  N  V  I  L  L  E. 

were  referred  to  bis  decision;  and  his  majesty  .under* 
took  nothing  of  importance  without  consulting  him.  He 
died  about  1318,  at  not  much  less  than  ninety  years  of  age^ 
Joinville  is  known  as  an  author  by  his  *^  History  of  St. 
Louis/'  in  French,  which  he  composed^  in  1305:  a  very 
curious  and  interesting  work/  The  best  edition  is  that  of 
Du  Cange,  in  1668,  folio,  with  learned  remarks.  On  per* 
using  this  edition,  however,  it  ii»  easily  seen,  that  the  lan- 
guage of  the  Sire  de  Joinville  has  been  altered.  But  an. 
authentic  MS.  of  the  original  was  found  in  1748,  and  was 
published  without  alteration,  in  1761,  by  M^lot,  keeper  of 
the  royal  library  at  Paris.     This  edition  is  also  in  fblio.^ 

JOLY  (Claude),  a  French  writer,  was  bom  at  Paris  in 
1607,  and  obtained  a  canonry  in  the  cathedral  there  ia 
1631.  Discovering  also  a  capacity  for  state  affairs,  he  was 
appointed  to  attend  a  plenipotentiary  to  Munster;  and^ 
during  the  commotions  at  Paris,  he  took  a  journey  to  Rome. 
In  1671,  he  was  made  precentor  of  his  church,  and  several 
times  official.  He  lived  to  the  great  age  of  ninety-three, 
without  experiencing  the  usual,  infirmities  of  it;  when,  go« 
ing  one  morning  to  matins,  he  fell  into  a  trench,  which  had 
been  dug  for  the  foundation  of  the  high  altar.  vHe  died  of 
this  fall  in  1700,  after  bequeathing  a  very  fine  library  to 
his  church.  He  was  the  aothor  of  many  woiks  in  b(^ 
Latin  and  French,  and  as  well  upon  civil  as  religious  sub'* 
jects.  One  of  them  in  French,  1^52,  in  12 mo,  is  entitled 
^  A  Collection  of  true  and  important  Maxims  for  the  Edu- 
cation of  a  Prince,  against  the  false  and  pernicious  politics 
of  cardinal  Mazarine;*'  which,  being  reprinted  in  1663^ 
with  two  *' Apologetical  Letters,"  was  burnt  in  1665  by 
the  hands  of  the  common  hangman.  The  same  year,  how^ 
ever,  1665,  he  published  a  tract  called  ^'  Codicil  d*Or,  or 
the  Golden  Codicil,"  which  relates  to  the  former ;  being  a 
ftirther  collection  of  maxima  for  the  education  of  a  prince^ 
taken  chiefly  from  Erasmus,  whose  works  be  is  said  to  have 
read  seven  times  over.* 

JOLY  (€uY),  king's  counsellor  at  the  Ch&telet,  and 
syndic  of  the  anmiitants  of  the  H6tel  de  Ville  at  Paris, 
attached  himaelf  to  cardinal  de  Retz,  whom  he  attended  a 
long  time  as  secretary  in  his  troubles  and  adventures,  but 
quitted  his  eminence  when  be  returned  to  Rome.  There 
are  some  ^^  Memoirs"  by  him,  from  1648  to  1665,  designed 

*  Moreri.— Diet.  Hist.  *  Gen.  Diet— Viceron,  vol.  fiC  and  X.— Moreri. 

J  O  L  Y.  €T 

as  an  explanation  and  supplement  to  those  of  cardinal  de 
RetZ|  with  which  they  were  printed  in  2  vols.  12mo»  These 
memoirs  contain  some  very  curious  particulars.  He  als<> 
left  some  tracts,  written  by  order  of  the  court,  in  defence 
of  the  queen's  rights,  against  Peter  Stockmans,  an  emi* 
nent  lawyer ;  particularly  '<  The  Intrigues  of  the  Peace/' 
and  the  **  Negociations*'  made  at  court  by  the  friends  of 
M.  the  prince,  after  his  retreat  to  Guienne,  folio,  with  a 
iequiel  c^  the  same  *^  Intrigues/*  4toJ 

JOMELLI  (NicoLO),  one  of  the  most  intelligent,  learn« 
e4»  d^nd  affecting  dramatic  composers  of  modern  times,  was 
born  at  Avellino,  a  town  about  twenty-five  miles  from  Na« 
plesy  in  which  city  he  had  his  musical  education  under  Leo 
and  Durante.  The  first  opera  to  which  we  find  his  name, 
is  **  Riccimero  R^  de'  Goti,"  composed  for  the  Argentina 
theatre  at  Rome,  1740 :  and  between  that  period  and  1758| 
be  composed  for  that  city  fourteen  operas,  besides  others 
for  Venice  and  different  Italian  theatres. 
.  From  1758  to  about  1768,  he  resided,  in  Germany,  being 
engaged  in  the  service  of  the  duke  of  Wurtemburg,  at 
Stutgardt,  or  rather  at  Ludwigsburg,  his  new  capiial, 
where  Jomelli's  works  were  performed.  Here  he  produced 
a  great  number  of  operas  and  other  compositions,  by  which 
be  acquired  great  rcrputation,  and  totally  changed  the  taste 
of  vocal  music  in  Germany.  On  his  return  to  Italy,  he 
left  all  these  productions  behind  him,  upon*  a  supposition 
that  he  should  again  resume  his  station  at  Ludwigsburg, 
after  visiting  his  native  country.  But  as  he  never  returned 
thither  to  claim  these  compositions,  they  fell  into  the  hands 
of  his  patron,  the  duke  of  Wurtemburg,  who  preserved 
them  as  precious  relics  of  thb  great  master.  Very  few  of  • 
bis  entire  operas  were  ever  performed  in  England.  The 
first  was  ^^  Attilio  Regulo,'*  in.  1753,  and  the  second,  in 
1755,  '^  Andromaca."  The  operas  of  Jomelli  will  be  al^ 
ways  valuable  to  professors  and  curious  collectors,  for  the 
excellence  of  the  composition,  though  it  has  been  thought 
necessary,  in  compliance  with  the  general  rage  for  Aovelty, 
to  lay  them  aside  and  to  have  the  same  dramas  new  set  for 
the  stage,  in  order  to  display  the  talents,  or  hide  the  de« 
facts,  of  new  singers. 

As  Jomelli  was  a  great  .harmonist,  and  naturally  grave 
and.  majestic  in  his  style,  he  seems  to  have  manifested 

1  Moreri.— Diot.  Hist, 


88  J  O  M  E  L  L  I. 

abilities  in  writing  for  the  church  superior  even  to  thosa 
for  the  stage.  Dr.  Burney  speaks  of  three,  the  only  ones 
he  had  seen,  all  written  by  Metastasio,  and  all  admirably 
set  Dr.  Burney  had  also  a  *^  Te  Deum,"  and  a  "  Re- 
<][uiem'*  of  his  composition,  which  show  him  to  have  been 
a  great  master  of  the  church  styje,  ^although  he  appears 
not  to  have  tried  that  species  before  1751,  when  he,  Pe- 
rez, and  Durante  were  employed  to  compose  some  musio 
at  Rome- for  passion  week.  But  though  he  acquired  con- 
siderable fame  on  this  occasion,  yet  he  was  so  far  from 
being  intoxicated  by  it,  that  in  a  visit  to  father  Martini,  at 
Bologna  soon  after,  he  told  this  learned  contrapuntist  that 
he  had  a  scholar  to  introduce  to  him.  Martini  assured  hin^ 
that  he  should  be  glad  to  instruct  any  one  so  well  recom- 
mended ;  and,  a  few  days  after,  Martini  asking  who  and 
where  was  the  disciple  he  .had  talked  of?  Jomelli  answered 
~  that  it  was  himself ;  and  pulling  a  studio  of  paper  out  of 
bis  pocket,  on  which  he  had  been  trying  his  strength  ia 
modulation  and  fugue  upon  eantofermOy  begged  of  him  to 
examine  and  point  out  his  errors. 

From  this  period  he  produced  many  admirable  coqipQ'- 
sitions  for  the  church,  in  which  he  united  elegance  with 
learning,  and  grace  with  bold  design.  Among  other  pro'^ 
ductions  of  this  kind,  the  two  following  merit  commemo« 
ration.  An  "  OfFertorio,"  or  motet,  for  five  voices  with- 
out instruments,  followed  by  an  Alleluja  of  four  parts  ia 
chorus;  and  a  "  Missa  pro  defunctis,"  or  bunal  service, 
which  he  composed  at  Stutgardt  for  the  obsequies  of  a 
lady  of  high  rank  and  favour  at  the  court  of  his  patron,  the 
duke  of  Wurtemburg.  These  compositions,  which  are 
learned  without  pedantry,  and  grave  withoutdulness,  will 
be  lasting  monuments  of  his  abilities  as  a  contrapuntist. 

But  the  most  elaborate  of  all  his  compositions  is  the 
"Miserere,"  or  fifty-first  psalm,  translated  into  Italian 
verse,  by  his  friead  Saverio  Mattei,  which  he  set  for  two 
voices,  accompanied  with  instruments,  in  1773,  the  year 
before  his  decease.  In  this  production,  which  breathes 
^  pious  gravity,  and  eompunction  of  heart  suited  to  the 
contrite  sentiments  of  the  psalmist,  there  is  a  mani- 
fest struggle  at  extraneous  modulation  and  new  effects, 
perhaps  too  much  at  the  expence  of  facility  and  grace. 
There  are,  however,  admirable  strokes  of  pajssion  as  well 
as  science  in  it,  which,  though  above  the  comprehension 

J  O  M  E  L  L  I.  S9 

ttYe  able  to  read  the  score,  or  to  follow  the  performers 
through  the  labyrinths  of  art.  This  admirable  composer 
had,  in  general,  such  a  facility  in  writing,  that  he  seldom 
courted  the  muse  at  an  instrument ;  and  so  tenacious  a 
memory,  that  Sacchini  said  he  frequently  composed  an  air 
on  opening  a  book  of  lyric  poetry,  while,  like  a  peripa- 
tetic, he  has  been  walking  about  a  room,  which  he  re- 
membered a  year  after,  and  then  committed  it  to  paper 
as  fast  as  he  could  write  a  letter. 

As  Raphael  had  three  manners  of  painting,  Jomelli  bad 
three  styles  of  composition.  Before  he  went  to  Germany 
the  easy  and  graceful  flow  of  Vinci  and  Pergolesi  pervaded 
all  his  productions ;  but  when  he  was  in  the  service  of  the 
duke  of  Wurtemburg,  finding  the  Germans  were  fond  of 
learning  and  complication,  he  changed  his  style  in  com^ 
pliance  with  the  taste  and  expectations  of  his  audience  ; 
and  on  his  return  to  Italy  he  tried  to  thin  and  simplify  his 
dramatic  muse,  which,  however,  was  still  so  much  too 
operose  for  Italian  ears,  that  in  1770,  upon  a  Neapolitan 
being>  asked  how  he  liked  Jomelli's  new  opera  of  "  Demo-i' 
foonte,"  he  cried  out  with  vehemence,  *•  e  scelerata,  Sig-* 
nore  !*'  The  health  of  Jomelli  began  to  decline  in  1770,, 
and  in  1771  he  had  a  stroke  of  the  palsy,  which,  however, 
did  not  impair  his  intellects,  as  he  composed  ^^  Achille  in 
Sciro*'  for  the  Roman  theatre,  and  a  cantata  for  the  safe 
delivery  of  the  queeh  of  Naples,  in  1772  ;  and  in  1773  his 
Italian  ^*  Miserere,*'  the  most  elaborate  and  studied  of  all 
bis  works.'    He  died  in  Sept.  1774. 

His  learned  friend,  Signor  Saverio  Mattei,  the  translator 
of  the  Psalms  into  Italian  verse,  from  whose  admirable  ver- 
sion Jomelli  had  taken  the  **  Miserere,'*  or  fifty-first  psalm, 
drew  up  a  very  interesting  account  of  the  works  and  public 
funeral  of  the  great  musician,  and  printed  it  in  his  **  Sag- 
gio  di  Poesia  Latine  et  Italiane,'*  published  at  Naples  im- 
mediately after  his  decease. ' 

JONAS  (An'agrimus),  a  learned  Icelander,  who  ac- 
ouired  a  great  reputation  for  astronomy  and  the  sciences, 
was  coadjutor  to  Gundebrand  of  Thorbac,  bishop  of  Ho- 
lum  in  Iceland,  who  was  also  of  that  nation,  a  man  of  great 
learning  and  probity,  had  been  a  disciple  of  Tycho  Brahe, 
and  iinderstood  astronomy  very  well.  After  his  death,  the 
fee  of  Holum  was  offi^red  by  the  king  of  Denmark  to  An^- 

I  By  Dr.  Buroey,  in  Rees*8  Cyclopaedia^and  History  of  Mu^ic, 

^2  JONES. 

teach  poor  Welsh  men,  women,  and  children  to  read  their 
native  language ;  and  such  was  his  diligence,  and  the 
effect  of  his  superintendence  of  these  schools,  that  he  could 
enumerate  158,000  poor  ignorant  persons  who  had  been 
taught  to  read  ;  and  equal  care  was  taken  to  catechize  and 
instruct  young  people  in  the  principles  of  the  Christian 
religion.  Having  applied  to  the  "  Sopiety  for  promotipg 
Christian  knowledge,*'  of  which  be  was  a  corresponding 
member,  that  body  caused  to  be  printed  two  large  editions 
of  the  Welsh  Bible,  of  15,000  copies  each,  which  were  sold 
cheap  for  the  benefit  of  the  poor  in  Wales.  He  likewise 
wrote  and  published  several  instructive  treatises  in  the 
Welsh  as  well  as  the  English  language ;  and  was  enabled 
by  the  assistance  of  some  charitable  friends  to  print  editions 
of  from  8000  to  12,000  of  these  useful  manuals,  which  were 
distributed  throughout  all  Wales.  His  own  charitable  ex« 
ertions  were  extensive,  and  having  studied  medicine  in  a 
certain  degree,  he  laid  in  a  large  stock  of  drugs,  which  he 
made  up  and  dispensed  to  the  poor  gratis^  taking  that  op- 
portunity also  to  give  them  spiritual  advice.  This  truly 
good  man  died  April  8,  1761,  lamented  as  a  father  to  his 
Sock,  and  a  general  benefactor  to  the  whole  country.  * 

JONES  (Griffith),  who  deserves  a  place  in  the  ca- 
talogue of  English  writers  for  having  first  introduced 
riie  numerous  and  popular  little  books  for  the  amusement 
and  instruction  of  children,  which  have  been  received  with 
universal  approbation,  was  born  in  1721,  and  served  his 
apprenticeship  to  Mr.  Bowyer,  the  learned  printer.  His 
education  was  probably  not  neglected,  or  at  least  it  was  very 
much  improved  by  his  own  efforts.  He  was  many  years 
editor  of  the  London  Chronicle  and  Public  Ledger.  He 
was  also  associated  with  Dr.  Johnson  in  the  "  Literary 
Magazine,"  and  with  Smollett  and  Goldsmith  in  "  The 
British  Magazine,"  and  published  a  great  number  of  trans- 
lations from  the  French,  to  none  of  which,  however,  was 
his  name  prefixed.  One  little  publication,  entitled  ^^  Great 
events  from  little  causes,'*  was  his  composition,  and  met 
with  a  rapid  and  extensive  sale.  In  conjunction  with  Mr. 
John  Newbery,  and  a  brother  of  his  own,  Mr.  Giles  Jones, 
he  wrote  many  of  those  little  books  or  Lilliputian  histories 
which  were  the  delight  of  the  youth  of  many  yet  living. 
Mr.  Jones^  who  was  a  very  amiable  man,  died  Sept.  1 2, 1786^. 

t  Sketch  of  his  Life  and  Character,  1762,  8vo. 

JONES.  93 

Mr.  Giles  Jones,  his  brother  (who  was  more  thaa  five-and«» 
forty  years  secretary  tp  the  York  Buildings  Water  company) 
left  a  son,  Mr.  Stephen  Jones,  who,  among  other  literary 
productions,  was  editor  of  the  last  edition  of  the  "  Biogra- 
phia  Dratnatica,"  which  was  consigned  to  his  care  by  the 
late  Mr.  Isaac  Reed.  ^ 

JONES  (Henry),  a  dramatic  writer,  was  a  native  of 
Drogbeda,  in  Ireland,  and  was  bred  a  bricklayer;  but, 
having  a  natural  inclination  for  the  muses,  pursued  his  de- 
votions to  them  even  during  the  labours  of  his  mere  mecha* 
xiical  avocations,  and  composing  a  line  of  brick  and  a  line 
of  verse  alternately,  bis  walls  and  poems  rose  in  growth 
together,  but  not  with  equal  degrees  of  durability.  His 
turn,  as  is  most  g^oeraily  the  case  with  mean  poets,  or> 
bards  of  humble  origin,  was  panegyric.  This  procured 
bim  some  friends  ;  and,  in  1745,  when  the  earl  of  Chester** 
field  went  over  to  Ireland  as  lordrlieutenant,  Mr.  Jones  was 
recommended  to  the  notice  of  that  nobleman,  who,  de-* 
lighted  with  the  discovery  of  this  mechanic  muse,  not  only 
favoured  him  with  his  own  notice  and  generous  munificence, 
but  also  thought  proper  to  transplant  this  opening  flower 
into  a  warmer  and  more  thriving  climate.  He  brought  hioi 
with  him  to  England,  recommended  him  to  many  of  the 
nobility  there,  and  not  only  procured  him  a  large  subscrip<^ 
tion  for  the  publishing  a  collection  of  his  "  Poems,"  but 
it  is  said,  even  took  on  himself  the  alteration  and  correction 
of  bis  tragedy,  and  also  the  care  of  prevailing  on  the  ma- 
nagers of  Covent-garden  theatre  to  bring  it  on  the  stage. 
This  nobleman  also  recommended  him  in  the  warmest 
manner  to  CoUey  Cibber,  whose  friendly  and  humane  dis- 
position induced  him  to  shew  him  a  thousand  acts  of  friend- 
ship, and  even  made  strong  eflprts  by  his  interest  at  court 
to  have  secured  to  him  the  succession  of  the  laurel  after 
bis  death.  With  these  favourable  prospects  it  might  have 
been  expected  that  Jones  would  have  passed  through  life 
with  so  much  decency  as  to  have  ensured  his  own  hap- 
piness, and  done  credit  to  the  partiality  of  his  friends  ;  but 
this  was  not  the  case.  ^^  His  temper,'*  says  one,  who 
seems  to  have  known  him,  ^^  was,  in  consequence  of  the 
dominion  of  his  passions,  uncertain  and  capricious ;  easily' 
engaged,  and  easily  disgusted  ;  and,  as  cecooomy  was  a 
virtue  )vhigh  could  never  be  taken  into  his  catalogue,  he 

1  Nichols's  Bowyer* 

94f  JONES* 

appeared  to  think  himself  born  rather  to  be  supported  by 
others  than  under  a  duty  to  secure  to  himself  the  profits 
which  his  writings  and  the  munificence  of  his  patrons  from 
time  to  time  afforded.*'  After  experiencing  many  reverses 
of  fortune,  which  an  overbearing  spirit,  and  an  imprudence 
in  regard  to  pecuniary  concerns,  consequently  drew  on 
him,  he  died  in  great  want,  in  April  1770,  in  a  garret 
belonging  to  the  master  of  the  Bedford  coffee-house,  by 
whose  charity  he  had  been  some  time  supported,  leaving 
an  example  to  those  of  superior  capacities  and  attainments^ 
who,  despising  the  common  maxims  of  life,  often  feel  the 
want  of  not  pursuing  them  when  it  is  too  late.  His  princi- 
pal performance,  ^*  The  Earl  of  Essex,"  appeared  in  1753^ 
and  he  also  left  a  tragedy  unfinished,  called  **  The  Cave 
of  Idra,"  which  falling  into  the  hands  of  Dr.  HifFernan,  he 
enlarged  it  to  five  acts,  and  brought  it  out  under  the  title 
of  '^  The  Heroine  of  the  Cave.*'  His  last  publications 
were,  "Merit ;"  «  The  Relief;'*  and  «  Vectis,  or  the  Isle 
of  Wight,"  poems ;  but  his  poetical  worth,  though  noi 
contemptible,  was  far  from  being  of  the  first«rate  kind.  * 

JONES  (Jeremiah),  a  Jeamed  dissenting  divine,  was 
born  in  1693,  and  received  his  academical  learning  under 
his^  uncle,  the  rev.  Samuel  Jones,  first  of  Gloucester,  then 
ef  Tewksbuiy,  the  tutor  of  Chandler,  Butler,  and  Seeker. 
He  was  fellow-student  with  the  latter  in  1711,  and  was 
a  distinguished  scholar,  when  he  entered  upon  acade* 
mical  studies.  It  is  apprehended,  tdat  he  was  a  native  of 
the  North  of  England,  and  that  his  father  was  a  gentleman 
in  alBuent  circumstances.  There  was  with  him,  at  the  above 
seminary,  a  younger  brother,  a  youth  of  quick  parts,  who 
afterwards  settled  as  a  dissenting  minister  at  Manchester^ 
Mr.  Jones,  soon  after  he  had  finished  his  course  of  prepa-^ 
ratory  studies,  became  the  miiiister  of  the  congregation 
of  Protestant  dissenters,  who  assembled  for  worship  in 
Forest  Green,  Avening,  Gloucestershire,  and  resided  at 
Kailsworth,  where  he  also  kept  an  academy.  He  had  the 
character  of  being  an  eminent  linguist.  He  was  popular 
^g  a  preacher ;  for  the  plaee  of  worship  was  considerably 
enlarged  in  his  time.  His  discourses  met  with  the  appro- 
bation of  the  more  judicious,  for  his  salary  amounted  to 
one  hundred  pounds  per  annum,  and  the  whole  subscrip'- 
tion  came  from  persons  of  superior  rank  in  life.    Though 

/  - 

JONES.  95 

a  deep  scholar  and  hard  student,  he  was  not  a  man  of  se- 
vere manners ;  but  of  an  open  and  social  dtspositioni  and 
one  of  a  bowling  party  at  a  place  still  called  tb^  Lodge, 
on  Hampton  common,  at  which  healthy  exercise  he  relaxed 
from  his  studies,  and  by  his  presence  and  influence  pre* 
served  decorum  in  the  company.  His  character  secured 
him  the  marked  respect  of  a  neighbouring  clergyman.  His 
anxiety  to  fulfil  an  engagement,,  which  he  bad  made,  to 
perf6rm  some  ministerial  service  at  a  place  on  the  other 
side  of  the  Severn,  hastened  his  death.  It  escaped  his 
recollection,  till  the  time  drew  near ;  to  prevent  disap- 
pointment, he  made  so  much  speed,  that  his  tender  con- 
stitution was  injured  by  it,  and  a  complaint  contracted, 
from  which  he  never  recovered.  He  died  in  1724^ 
aged  3U 

Mr.  Jones's  first  publication  was  ''  A  Vindication  of  the 
former  part  pf  Saint  Matthew's  Gospel,  from  Mr.  Whis- 
ton's  charge  of  Dislocations,  or  an  attempt  to  prove  that 
our  present  Greek  copies  of  that  Gospel  are  in  the  same 
order  wherein  they  were  originally  written  by  that  Evan- 
gelist ;  in  which  are  contained  many  things  relating  to  the 
harmony  and  history  of  the  Four  Gospels,   1719."     This 
work,  says  Dr.  Harwood,    is  very  valuable;    it   abounds 
with  ingenious  remarks,  and  displays  the  critical  acumen 
of  the  author.     He  prepared  for  the  press  before  his  deatk 
another  excellent  performance,  entitled  ^*  A  New  and  Full 
Method  of  settling  the  Canonical  Authority  of  the  New 
Testament,"  which  was  published  in  1726,  in  two  volumes, 
8vo.     They  were  followed  by  a  third  volume.     In  drawing 
up  these  works,  he  took  care,  it  seems,  to  consult  and  ex- 
amine the  originals,  instead  of  satisfying  himself  with  the 
quotations  of  other  learned  men.     They  remain,  as  moni|-\ 
ments  of  his  learning,  ingenuity,  and  indefatigable  indus- 
try ;  and  would  have  done  credit,  it  has  been  observed,  to 
the  assiduity  and  ability  of  a  literary  man  of  sixty.    Tliey 
were  become  very  scarce,  and  bore  a  high  price,  when, 
with  the  liberality  and  zeal  which  reflects  honour  on  thetD^ 
the  conductors  of  the  Clarendon  press  lately  republtshed 
them  at  Oxford.      Mr.  Jones,  observes  Dr.  Maltby,  has 
brought   together,   with  uncommon  diligence  and  judg* 
m^t,  the  external  evidence  for  the  authenticity  and  ge- 
nuineness of  the  -canonical  books ;  and  he  has,  with  equal 
ability  and  fairness,  stated  his  reasons  fqr  deciding  against 
the  authority  of  the  apocryphal*   In  the  prosecution  of  this 

96  JONES. 

ioipqrtaot  design>  he  has  not  only  quoted,  but  translated^ 
the  greater  part  of  the  contents  of  Fabricius^s  two  first 
TOlumes.  Mr.  Jones  intended  anoth^  and  distinct  volume 
pn  the  apostolical  fathers.  ^  . 

JONES  (Ij^iGo),  a  celebrated  English  architect,  was:born 
about  1572,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  St.  PauPs,  London, 
where  his  father^  Mr.  Ignatius  Jones,  was  a  clothworker. 
At  a  proper  age,  it  is  said,  he  put  his  son  apprentice  to  a 
joiner,  a  business  that  requires  some  skill  in  drawing :  and 
in  that  respect  suited  well  with  our  architect's  inclination, 
which  naturally  led  him  to  the  art  of  designing.  It  is  not 
probable,  however,  that  he  attended  long  to  the  mecha*- 
nical  part  of  his  business ;  for  we  are  told  that  he  dis* 
tinguished  himself  early  by  the  extraordkiary  progress  he 
made  with  his  pencil,  and  was  particularly  noticed  for  his 
«kill  in  -landscape-painting,  of  which  there  is  a  specimen 
at  Cbiswick-house.  These  talents  recommended  him  to  the 
earl  of  Arundel,  or,  as  some  say,  to  William  earl  of  Pem- 
broke. It  is  certain,  however,  that  at  the  expence  of  one 
or  other  of  these  lords  he  travelled  over  Italy,  and  the  po* 
liter  parts  of  Europe  ;  saw  whatever  was  recommended  by 
its  antiquity  or  value ;  and  from  these  plans  formed  his 
own  observations,  which,  upon  his  return .  home,  he  per- 
fected by  study.  He  was  no  sooner  at  Rome,  says  Wal- 
pole,  than  he  found  himself  in  his  sphere,  and  acquired 
so  much  reputation  that  Christian  IV.  king  of  Denmark 
sent  for  him  from  Venice,  which  was  the  chief  place  of  his 
residence,  and  where  he  had  studied  the  works  of  Palladio, 
and  made  him  his  architect,  but  on  what  buildings  he  was 
employed  in  that  countiy  we  are  yet  to  learn.  He  had 
been  some  time  possessed  of  this  honourable  post  when 
that  prince^  whose  sister  Anne  had  married  James  I.  made 
a  visit  to  England  in  1 606  ;  and  our  architect,  being  de« 
sirous  to  return  to  his  native  country,  took  that  opportu*- 
nity  of  coming  home  in  the  train  of  his  J)anish  majesty. 
The  magnificence  of  Jameses  reign,  in  dress,  buildings,  &c. 
furnished  Jones  with  an  opportunity  of  exercising  his  ta* 
lents,  which  ultimately  proved  an  honour  to  his  country* 
Mr.  Seward  says,  we  know  not  upon  what  authority,  that 
the  first  work  he  executed  after  his  return  from  Italy,  was 
the  decoration  of  the  inside  of  the  church  of  St.  Catharine 
Cree,  Leadenhall-street.     We  know,   however,  that  the 

I  GenUMBg^  LXXIII.  p.  501. 

J  O  N  E  &  »7 

queen  appointed  him  her  architect,  plfesently  after  his  ar« 
rival ;  and  he  was  soon  taken,  in  the  same  character,  into 
the  service  of  prince  Henry,  under  whom  he  disctuorged 
his  trust  with  so.  much  fidelity  and  judgment,  that  the  king 
-gave  him  the  reversion  of  the  place  of  surveyor-general  of 
his  majesty's  works. 

Prince  Henry  dying  in  1612,  Mr.  Jones  made  a  second 
visit  to  Italy ;  and  continued  some  years  there,  improving 
himself  farther  in  his  &vourite  art,  till  the  surveyor's  place 
fell  to  him ;  on  bis  entrance  upon  which  he  shewed  an  un* 
common  degree  of  generosity.  The  office  of  his  majesty's 
works  having,  through  extraordinary  occasions,  in  the  time 
of  bis  predecessor,  contVacted  a  great  debt,  the  privy- 
council  sent  for  the  surveyor,  to  give  his  opinion  what 
course  might  be  taken  to  ease  bis  majesty  of  it;  when 
Jones  not  only  voluntarily  offered  to  serve  without  pay 
himself,  in  whatever  kind  due,  until  the  debt  was  fully 
discharged,  but  also  persuaded  his  fellow-officers  to  do  the 
like,  by  which  means  the  whole  arrears  were  soon  cleared. 
It  is  to  the  interval  between  the  first  and  second  of  Jones's 
travels  abroad,  that  Walpole  is  inclined  to  assign  those 
buildings  of  bis  which  are  less  pure,  and  border  too  much 
on  a  bastard  style  of  Gothic,  which  he  reformed  in  his 
grander  designs. 

The  king,  in  his  progress  1620^  calling  at  Wilton,  the 
seat  of  the  earl  of  Pembroke,  among  other  subjects,  fell 
into  a  discourse  about  that  surprising  group  of  stones  called 
StonehengCy  upon  Salisbury  plain,  near  Wilton.  Our  ar-« 
chitect  was  immediately  sent  for  by  lord  Pembroke,  and 
received  bis  majesty's  commands  to  make  observations  and 
deliver  bis  sentiments  on  the  origin  of  Stoiie-henge.  In 
obedience  to  this  command,  he  presently  set  about  the 
work ;  and  having,  with  no  little  pains  and  expence^ 
taken  an  ex&ct  measurement  of  the  whole,  and  diligently 
searched  the  foundation,  in  order  to  find  out  the  originsd 
form  and  aspect,  he  proceeded  to  compare  it  with  other 
antique  buildings  which  he  had  any  where  seen.  After, 
much  reasoning,  and  a  long  series  of  authorities,  his  head 
being  full  of  Rome,  and  Roman  edifices  and  precedents, 
he  concluded,  that  this  aiicient  and  stupendous  pile  must 
have  been  originally  a  Roman  temple,  dedicated  to  Coelus, 
the  senior  of  the  heathen  gods,  and  built  after  the  Tuscaa 
order ;  that  it  was  built  when  the  Romans  flourished  in 
peace  and  prosperity  in  Britain,  and,  probably,  betwixt 

Vol.  XIX.  H 

Sft  J  (>  17  K  SL 

that  ttine  dE  AgipeoWs  goyfetntaeat  and  the  teign  of  Con- 
staAtine  tdM  Giemk.  This  acco^aiik  be  pfesented  t<^  Us  roy^ttl 
maslof  in  the  same  year,  1620,  and  was  imnedialdy  ap-* 
pointed  one  of  the  commissioners  for  r^airiiig  Su  Paul's- 
dathedral  in  Lpndon. 

Upon  the  d^s^th  of  king  James,  he  was  continued  in  hir 
post  bj  Charles  I.  whose  consort  entertained  him  likewise 
in  the  same  station.  He  h^  dm^wn  the  designs  for  the 
palace  of  Whitehall  in  his  former  master's  time ;  and  that 
part  of  it,  the  banqueting-house,  in  a  most  pare  and- 
beautiful  taste,  was  now  carried  into  execution.  It  waa 
first  designed  for  the  reception  of  foreign  ambassadors ; 
and  the  eieling  was  painted,  somts  years  after,  by  Rubens, 
with  the  felicities  of  Jamea's  reign.  In  June  1633  aa 
order  was  issued  out,  requiring  him  to  set  about  the  repa* 
ratioa  of  St  PauVs ;  and  the  work  was  begjun  soon  after 
at  the  east  end,  the  first  stone  being*  laid  by  Laud,  then 
bishop  of  London,  and  the  fourth  by  Jones*  Iiit  this  work, 
Mr.  Walpole  remarks  that  he  made  two  ca{Mtal  fiialts.  He 
first  renewed  the  sides  with  very  bad  Gothic,  and  then 
added  a  Roman  portico,  magnificent  and  beautiful  indeed, 
but  which  bad  no  affinity  with  the  ancient  parts  that  re* 
mained,  and  made  his  own  Gothic  appear  ten  times  heavier. 
He  committed  the  same  error  at  Winchester,  thrusting  a 
scrisen  in  the  Roman  or  Grecian  taste  into-  the  middle  of 
that  cathedral.  Jones,  indeed,  was^  by  no  means  successful 
when  he  attempted  Gothic,  ibe  taste  for  which  had  de- 
clined before  his  time. 

During  this  reigti  he  gave  many  proofs  of  his  genius  and 
fancy  in  the  pompous  machinery  for  masques  and  int^* 
ludes  so  much  in  vogue  then.  Several  of  these  represent* 
ations  are  still  extant  in  the  works  of  Chapman,  Davenant, 
I^aniel,,  and  particularly  Ben  Jonson.  The  subject  was 
chosen  by  the  poet,  and  the  speeches  and  songs  were  also 
of  h]3  composing ;  but  the  invention  of  the  scenes^  orna- 
menta,  and  dresses  of  the  figures,  was  the  contrivance  of 
Jones  ^.  And  in  this  he  acted  in  harmony  with  father  Ben 
for  awhile;  but,  alxHit  1614,  there  happened  a  quarrel 
between  them,   w4iieh  provoked  Jonson    to  ridicule  his 

^  In  Jonson's  "  Magqne  of  QaeeD%**  bell  in  **  Paradise  Lott  ;**  thert  betng 

Hie  first  scene  representing  an  ugly  a  tradition,  that  he  conceived  the  first 

htXi,  which,  filming  beneath,  smoked  idea  of  that  bell  from  some  tbeatricaft' 

unto  tte  top  d  the  roof,  probably  far-  feprewptationi  iwreoted  by  hufp^omuk 
ailibed  Miltoa  witb  the  first  hint  of  bi» 



associate,  ihider  the  character  of  Lantern  Leatberbead,  a 
hdbby-horse  seller,  in  his  comedy  of  **  Bartholomew  Fair.'* 
Nor  did  the  rupture  end  but  with  Jonson's  death ;  a  very 
few  years  before  which,  in  1635,  he  wrote  a  most  virulent 
coarse  satire,  cdled  ''An  Expostulation  with  Inig^  Jones;*' 
and,  afterwards, ''  An  Epigram  to^  a  Friend  ;'*  and  also  a 
third,  inscribed  to  ''  Inigo  Marquis  Would-be."  The 
quarrel  not  improbably  took  its  rise  from  our  architect'i 
riTalsbip  in  the  king^s  favour ;' and  it  is  certain  the  poet 
was  much  censured  at  court  for  this  rough  usage  of  his 
rival :  of  which  b^ing  advised  by  Mr.  Howell,  he  suppressed 
the  whole  satire*. 

In  the  mean  time,  Mr.  Jones  received  such  encourage* 
meat  from  the  court,  that  he  acquired  a  handsome  fortune  f; 
which,  however,  was  much  impaired  by  what  he. suffered 
during  the  rebellion;  for,  as  he  had  a  share  in  his  royal 
master's  prosperity,  so  he  had  a  share  too  in  his  ruin. 
Upon  the  meeting  of  the  long  parliament,  Nov.  1640,  he 
was  called  before  the  house  of  peers,  on  a  complaint  against 
him  from  the  parishioners  of  St.  Gregory's  in  London,  for 
damage  done  to  that  church,  on  repairing  the  cathedral  of 
St  Paul.  The  church  being  old,  and  standing  very  near 
the  cathedral,  was  thought  to  be  a  blemish  to  it,  and 
therefore  was  taken  down,  pursuant  to  his  majesty's  signi-^ 
fication,  and  the  orders  of  the  council  in  1639,  in  the 
execution  of  which,  our  surveyor  no  doubt  was  chiefly 
concerned.  But,  in  answer  to  the  complaint,  he  pleaded 
the  general  issue ;  and,  when  the  repairing  of  the  cathedral 
ceased,  in  1642,  some  part  of  the  materials  remaining 
were,  by  order  of  the  house  of  lord?,  delivered  to  the 
parishionerzd  of  St  Gregory's,  towards  the  rebif ildihg  of 
their  church.  This  prosecution  must  have  put  Mr.  Jones  to  a 
very  large  expence ;  and,  during  the  usurpation  afterwards, 
he  was  constrained  to  pay  545Z  by  way  of  composition  for 

*  It  is  said,  tiie  king  forbad  it  to  be 
printed  at  that  time ;  but  it  is  printed 
since  from  a  MS.  of  the  iate  Vertue,  the 
engraver,  and  is  inserted  among  the 
epigrams  in  the  6th  vol.  of  Jonaon't 
Works,  ediU  1756,  in  7  vols.  8vo. 

f  Uis  fee  as  surveyor^vas  eight  shil- 
lings and  four  pence  per  day,  with  an 
allowance  of  forty-six  pounds  a  year 
for  house-rent,  besides  a  clerk,  and  in- 
cidental expences.  What  greater  re- 
wards he  had  are  not  upon  record.   But 

Philip  earl  of  Pembroke,  who,  if  oiic« 
the  patroD  of  Jones,  afterwards  fell  oat 
with  him,  says,  in-  some  MS  notes  oB 
the  edition  of  Stonehenge,  that  Jones 
^had  16,0001  a  year  for  keeping  th« 
king's  bouses  in  repair.  This  is  pro* 
bably  exaggerated.  Jones  built  thn 
noble  front  of  Wilton-bouse,  and,  as 
Walpole  ooi^ectures,  some  disagrees 
^leiit  took  p]aoe  between  bim  and  Uif 
earl  while  employed  here* 

a  2 



kis  estate,  ad  a  malignant.  After  ttie  death  of  Cbarles  f*> 
he  was  continued  in  his  post  by  Charles  11, ;  but  it  was  only 
an  empty  title  at  that  tinae,  nor  did  Mr.  Jones  live  long: 
enough  to  make  it  any  better.  In  reality,  the  grief,  at  his- 
years,  occasioned,  by  the  fatal  calamity  of  his  former  mu- 
nificent master,  put  a  period  to  his  life  July  21,1 6^2,  and 
he  was  buried  in  the  ehancel  of  St.  Bennei's  church,  near 
St.  Paul's  wharf,  London,  where  there  was  a  monument, 
erected  to  his  memory,  \which  suffered  greatly  by  the- 
dreadful  fire  in  1666. 

In  respect  to  his  character,  we  are  assured,  by  one  who- 
knew  him  well,  that  his  scientific  abilities  surpassed  most 
of  his  age.     He  was  a  perfect  master  of  the  mathematics, 
add  was^  not  unacquainted  with  the  two  learned  languages,. 
Greek  and   Latin,  especially  the  latter ;  neither  was  he 
without  some  turn  for  poetry  *.     A  copy  of  verses  com- 
posed by  him  is  published  in  the  "  Odcombian  Banquet," 
prefixed  to  Tom  Coryate's  "  Crudities,"  in  161 1,  4to.   But 
his  proper  character  was  that  of  an  architect,  and  the  most 
eminent  of  his  time ;  on  which  account  he  is  still  generally 
styled  the  British  Vitruvius ;  the  art  of  designing  being, 
little  known  iii  England  till  Mr.  Jones,  under  the  patronage 
of  Charles  I.  and  the  earl  of  Arundel,  brought  it  into  use. 
This  is  the  character  given  hicn  by  Mr.  Webb,  who  wa& 
bis  heir;  and  who,  being  born  in  London,  and  bred  iu 
Merchant  Taylors' -school,  afterwards  resided  in  Mr.  Jones's, 
faniily, married  his  kinswoman,  was  instructed  by  him  ia 
matlienoatics  and  architecture,  and  designed  by  him  for  hi» 
successor  in  the  ojffice  of  surveyor-general  of  his  majesty's* 
wof  ks,,  bat  was  prevented  by  Sir  John  Denham.   Mr.  Webb 
{Kibli^bed  some  other  pieces  besides  his  '^  Vindication  oi 
Stone- hei3ge  restored  f  ;''  and  dying  at  Butleigh,  his  seat 
in  Somersetshiire,  Oct.  24, 1672,  was  buried  in  that  church.. 

*  Ben  Jonson,  by  way  of  ridicule, 
calls  him,  in  "  Bartbolomew  Fair,"  a 

-'  fInigoJones*s  Discourse  QponStone- 
benge  being  left  imperfect  at  bis  deatb, 
Mr.  Webb,  at  the  desire  of  Dr.  Har- 
vey, Mr.  Seidte,  and  others,  perfected 
and  published  it  at  London  in  1655,  fol. 
trader  the  title  of  **  Stonebenge  re- 
stored ;"  and  prefixed  to  it  a  print  of 
cor  autbor  etched  by  Hollar,  from  a 
painting  of  Yandyck.  Dr.  Stnkeley,  in 
bis  **  Stone-beoge  a  Temple  of  tbe 
Druids/'  gires    seTecal    reasonst  fiMr 

ascribing  tbe  greatest  part  of  this  trea- 
tise to  Webb.  2.  "  The  Vindication  of 
Stcnehenge,  Restored,"  &c.  was  pub- 
lished in  1665,  fol.  and  s(gatn,  together 
witb'^nes's  and  Dr.  Charlton's  upon- 
the  same  subject;  in  1725,  foK  h  is 
remarkabfb-,  that  atinost  all  tbe  difier- 
ent  inhabitants  of  our  island  bflvre  bad* 
their  advocates  in  claiming  the  honour 
of  this  antiquity.  Mr.  Sammes,  in  his 
*'  Britannia,''  will  have  the  structure  10^ 
be  PheeniciaB ;  Jones  and  Webb  be« 
lieved  it  Roraao  ;  .  Aiibrey  fcbtnks  it. 
British  i  Cbarlum  decix£s  it  from  ihc: 

JONES.  101 

Walpole  •emimerates  among  his  works  which  are  still  in 
part  extant,  the  new  quadrangle  of  St.  Jobn^s  college, 
Oxford ;  the  queen^s  chapel  at  St.  James's ;  the  arcade  of 
Covent-garden  and  the  church ;  Gunnersbury,  near  Brent- 
ford ;  Lincoln^s  Inn  Chapel,  and  one  or  two  of  the  houses 
•in  Lincoln's-inn*fields ;  Coleshiil  in  Berkshire,  and  Gobham 
"ball  in  Kent;  the. Grange,  in  Hampshire;  the  queen's 
lioiise  at  Greenwich,  &c.  Several  other  of  his  buildings 
may  be  seen  in  CampbeH's  "  Vitruvius  Britannicus."  The 
principal  of  his  designs  were  published  by  Mr.  Kent  in 
1727,  fol.  as  also  some  of  his  less  designs  in  1744,  fol« 
Others  were  published  by  Mr.  Isaac  Ware.  Our  artist  left 
in  MS.  some  curious  notes  upon  Palladio's  ^'Architecture/* 
now  in  Worcester  college,  Oxford,  some  of  which  are  in- 
serted in  an  edition  of  Palladio,  published  at  London, 
1714,  fo).  by  Mr.  Leoni;  which  notes,  he  says,  raise  the 
value  of  the  edition  above  all  the  preceding  ones.  His 
•original  drawings  for  Whitehall-palace  are  also  in  Wor- 
cester library.* 

JONES  (John),  an  old  medical  writer,  was  either  born 
in  Wales,  or  was  of  Welsh  extraction ;  studied  at  both 
our  universities,  took  a  medical  degree  at  Cambridge,  and 
practised  with  great  reputation  at  Bath,  in  Nottingham- 
shire, and  Derbyshire.  He  mentions  curing  a  person  at 
Louth  in  1562,  and  the  date  of  his  last  publication  i« 

His  principal  pieces  are,  ^' The  Dial  of  Agues,^^  1556; 
^^  The  Benefit  of  the  antient  Bathes  of  Buckstone,**  1572; 
^*  The  Bathes  of  Bath's  ayde,*'  1572  ;  *' k  brief,  excellent, 
and  profitable  Discourse  of  the  natural  beginning  of  all 
growing  and  living  things,  &c."  1574:  perhaps  this  is 
taken  from  *^  Galen's  Four  Books  of  Elements,"  which  be 
translated  and  printed  the  same  year,  or  is  the  same  book 
with  another  title  ;  *^  The  Art  and  Science  of  preserving 
the  Body  and  Soul  in  Health,'*  &c.  1579,  4to.* 

JONES  (John),  a  learned  English  Benedictine,  was 
born  in  London  in  1575,  although  originally  of  a  family 

Danes ;  and  bitbop  Nicolson  is  of  opi-  Essay,  endeavouring  to  prove  that  the 

ttian,  that  the  Saxons  have  as  just  a  Language  ef  China  is  the  primitive  Lan- 
title  to  it  as  any^    At  last.  Dr.  Sluke-  '  guage."    4.  He  also  translated,  from 

ley  begins  the  round  again»  and  main-  the  Italian  into  English,  **  The  History 

^iss  it,'  with  Sammes,  to  be  of  a  Phoe-  of  the  World,"  written  by  George  1>- 

ilMian  original.  But  to  return  to  Webb,  ragnota. 
frho  also  poblisbed^  3.  '*  An  Historical 

1  Biog.  Diet. — ^Walpole*s  Anecdotes. 

*  Aikin's  Biog.  Memoirs  of  Medicipiek-— Ath.-  Ox.  vol.  L 

tea  JONES. 

0f  BreckBOcksbire.  He  was  educated  at  Merchant  Taylors* 
school,  from  whence  he  was  elected  a  scholar  of  St.  John's 
college,  Oxford,  in  1591,  where  he  was  chamber*fellow 
with  Mr.  Laud,  afterwards  archbishop  of  Canterbury. 
Here  he  studied  civil  law,  took  a  bachelor's  degree  in  that 
faculty,  and  was  made  a  fellow  of  the  college.  In  conse- 
quence of  a  course  of  reading  on  the  controversies  of  the 
lime,  he  embraced  the  doctrines  of  popery,  and,  going 
abroad,  became  a  Benedictine  monk  in  Spain,  assuming 
the  name  of  Leander  i,  Sancto  Martino.  He  then  pursued 
bis  studies  at  Compostella,  and  was  created  D.  D.  When 
the  English  religious  of  his  order  had  formed  themselves 
into  a  congregation,  he  was  invited  to  Douay,  and  made 
professor  of  Hebrew  and  divinity  in  St.  Vedast's  college, 
during  which  time  he  was  vefy  instrumental  in  founding  a 
monastery  of  Benedictine  nuns  at  Cambray.  He  was  also 
appointed  their  confessor,  prior  of  the  monastery  of  Douay, 
and  twice  president  of  the  English  congregation.  It  has 
been  said  that  archbishop  Laud  gave  him  an  invitation  to 
England,  for  which  various  reasons  were  assigned,  and, 
among  others,  that  they  might  consult  abou*  the  reunion 
qI  the  churches  of  England  and  Rome ;  but  there  seems 
no  great  foundation  for  this  story.  That  he  did  return  to 
England,  however,  is  certain,  as  he  died  at  London  Dec. 
17,  1636,  and  was  buried  in  the  chapel  at  Sbmerset>hous^. 
He  wrote,  1.  ^'  Sacra  ars  mempriie,  ad  Scripturas  divine 
in  promptu  habendas,  &c.  accommodata,"  Douay,  1623, 
Svo.  2.  <^  Coociliatio  locorum  communium  totius  Scrip- 
turse,**  ibid.  1623.  He  ^Iso  edited  ^*  Biblia  Sacra,  ctim 
glossa  interliiieari,''  6  vols.  fol. ;  ''^  Opera  Blosii ;"  arid 
*'  Arnobius  contra  gentes,"  with  notes,  Douay,  1634;  and 
had  some  hand  in  father  Reyner*s  ^^  Apostohttus  Benedic«> 
tino)*um,*^  1626." 

JONES  (John),  an  English  divine  of  some  note  for 
exciting  a  controversy  respecting  the  Liturgy,  was  born  in 
1700,  and  is  supposed  to  have  been  a  native  of  Carmarthen. 
He  was  admitted  of  Worcester  college,  Oxford,  where  he 
took  the  degree  of  B.  A.  about  1721,  and  quitted  the  unir 
Tersity  in  or  before    1726,    in  which  year  he  received 

Eriest's  orders  at  Buckden,  from  Dr.  Reynolds,  bishop  of 
.incoln.     He  bad  a  curacy  in  that  diocese,  but  in  what 
part  is  not  known.     In  1741  he  was  resident  at  AbbotSr 

'  Ath.  OxoD.  vol.  l.-*-Dodd*8  Cburvlr  History. 

J  O  N  B  S.  103 

ftipton  in  Himttngfdonifaire,  bqcI  toon  after  was  presented 
to  (be  ricarage  of  Alconborjr,  wUoh  be  resigoed  in  1 751 
for  tiie  rectory  of  Boulae-Hurst  in  Bedfordshire.  In  1755 
he  was  vicar  oiF  Hitchii>,  and  in  1759  accepted  the 'Curaig^  ^ 
<tf  Welwyn  from  Dr.  Young,  and  continued  there  until 
1765,  when  that  celebrated  poet  died,  and  Mr.  Jones  wtti 
appointed  o»e  of  his  execotors.  ile^aftervrards  returned 
to  Bookie^Hurst,  and  probably  obtained  no  other  prefeiw 
aaeot  He  was  killed  by  a  faU  from  bis  horse  in  going  to 
Abbots-Ripton,  but  in  what  year  we  have  not  been  able 
4o  discover,  although  such  a  circumstance  muat  hasiw  beM 
Isnown  to  his  friends,  who,  however,  have  neglected  to 
record  it.  After  his  death,  many,  if  not  all  his  manu- 
cripts,  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  Rev.  Thomas  DawSon, 
M.  D.  a  dissenting  minister  of  Hackney,  whence  they 
passed  to  the  dissenters'  library  in  Redoross-^street.  Some 
biogrq[>hioal  notices  which  have  appeared  in  the  Gentle^ 
man's  Magazine  were  extracted  from  them.  Mr.  Nichols 
has  given,  an  extensive  series  of  extracts  from  his  literary 
correspondence  with  Dr.  Birch,  from  which  many  partis 
cnlars  of  hia  talents  and  character  may  be  gleaned.  Hi6 
chief  work  was  entitled  *^  Free  and  Candid  Disquisitions,'^ 
published  in  1749.  These  contained  many  observations 
on  the  defects  and  improprieties  in  the  liturgical  forms  of 
faith  and  worship  of  the  established  church,  and  proposals 
of  .amendments  and  alterations  of  such  passages  as  were 
liable  to  reasonable  objections.  There  was  also  a  compila- 
tion of  authorities  taken  from  the  writings  of  some  emi" 
nent  divines  of  the  church  of  England,*  with  a  view  to  shev^ 
the  necessity,  or  at  least  the  expedience,  of  revising  the 
liturgy,  &c.  Schemes  like  this  have  succeeded  each  othel* 
since  the  time  of  Dr.  Clarke,  but  have  never  been  attended 
with  complete  conviction,  either  of  their  necessity  or  ex-* 
pedience.^  The  author's  name  did  not  appear  to  this  pub* 
lication,  and  Mr.  Blackburne,  whom  he  consulted  previous 
to  publication,  was  dissatisfied  with  hift  timidity.  He 
wrote,  however,  a  pamphlet  in  defence  of  it,  and  other 
pamphlets  sppearpro  and  con  ;  but  the  controversy  was  of 
no  long  duration.  In  1765  be  published  **  Catholic  Faith 
and  Practice,"  and  <<  A  Letter  to  a  Friend  in  the  Coun-^ 
try;"  but  with  the  subjects  of  these  we  are  unac* 

i  Nichob'8 Bowyer.— Gent.  M^g.  LXX^I.  Parti,  p. 510. 

104  JONES. 

JONES  (Thomas)i  an  eminent  and  learned  tutor  of  the 
tiniversity  of  Cambridge»  was  born  at  Beriew  in  Montgo- 
meryshire, June  23,  1756.  His  education,  till  be  entered 
on  bis  twelfth  year,  was  confined  to  the  instruction  of  a 
common  country  school,  first  at  Beriew,  and  afterwards  in 
the  neighbouring  parish  of  Kerry.  During  the  time  that 
be  frequented  the  latter  school,  the  vicar  of  the  parish, 
discovering  in  him  those  talents  which  he  afterwards  so 
eminently  displayed,  advised  his  mother  (for  he  lost  hb 
father  at  an  early  age)  to  send  him  to  the  grammar-school 
at  Shrewsbury,  wfaere  he  continued  nearly  seven  years, 
and  was  inferior  to  none  of  his  schoolfellows,  either  in 
attention  to  study  or  in  regularity  of  conduct.  In  May 
1774,  be^was  admitted  of  8t.  John's  college,  Cambridge, 
and  came  to  reside  there  in  October  following.  From  that 
time  the  excellence  of  his  genius  became  more  particularly 
conspicuous.  He  bad  acquired,  indeed,  at  school,  a  com- 
petent share  of  classical  learning ;  but  his  mind  was  less 
adapted  to  Greek  and  Latin  composition  than  to  tbe  inves- 
tigation  of  philosophical  truths.  At  the  public  examina- 
tions of  St.  John's  college  he  not  only  was  always  in  the 
first  class,  but  wa^  without  comparison  the  best  mathema- 
tician of  bis  yean-  His  first  summer  vacation  was  devoted 
entirely  to  his  favourite  pursuit ;  and  at  that  early  period 
be  became  acquainted  with  mathematical  works,  which  are 
aeldom  attempted  before  the  third  year  of  academical 
study.  He  remained  at  St.  John's  college  till  after  the 
public  examination  in  June  1776,  when,  having  no  prospect 
t)f  obtaining  a  fellowship,  there  being  already  a  fellow  of 
tbe  diocese  of  St.  Asaph  in  that  college,  and  the  statutes 
limiting  tbe  fellowships  to  one  from  each  diocese,  he  re- 
moved to  Trinity  college,  ^  Here  he  took  his  bacbelor-s 
degree  in  1779,  and  his  superiority  was  so  decided,  that 
no  one  ventured  to  contend  with  him.  The  honour  of 
senior  wrangler,  as  it  is  called  in  academical  phrase,  was 
conceded  before  tbe  examination  began,  and  the  second 
/place  bedame  the  highest  object  of  eempetition.  '  If  any 
thing  was  wantine  to  shew  bis  superiority,  it  would  be 
rendered  sufficientTy  conspicuous  by  tbe  circumstance,  that 
be  was  tutor  to  tbe  second  wrangler,  now  the  learned  Dr. 
Herbert  Marsh,  professor  of  divinity  at  Cambridge,  who 
acknowledged  that  for  the  hpnour  which  he  then  obtainedi 
be  was  indebted  to  tbe  instruction  of  his  frieud. 

J  O  N  E  8.  105 

In  the  same  year  in  which  Mr.  Jones  took  his  -bachelor^s 
degree  be  was  appointed  assistant  tutor  at  Trinity  college. 
In  Oct.  1781  he  was  elected  felloMr,  and  in  Oct  1787,  on 
the  resignation  of  Mr.  Cranke*  he  was  appointed  to  tl^ 
•office  of  head  tutor,  which  he  held  to  the  day  of  his  death. 
,  In  1786  and  1787  be  presided  as  moderator  in  the  philoso- 
phical schools,  where  his  acuteness  and  impartiality,  were 
equally  conspicuous.  It  was  about  this  time  that  he  intro- 
duced a  grace,  by  which  fellow<-commoners,  who  used  to 
obtain  the  degree  of  bachelor  of  arts  with  little  or  no  exa- 
mination, were  subjected  to  the  same  academical  exercises 
as  other  under-graduates.  During  many  years  he  con- 
tinued to  take  an  active  part  in  the  senate^house  examina- 
tions; but  for  some  years  before  bis  death  confined  himself 
to  the  duties  of  college-tutor.  These,  indeed,  were  suf- 
ficiently numerous  tq  engage  his  whole  attention ;  and  be 
displayed  in  them  an  ability  which  was  rarely  equalled, 
with  an  integrity  which  never  was  surpassed.  Being  per- 
fect master  of  bis  subjects,  he  always  placed  them  in  the 
clearest  point  of  view ;  and  by  his  manner  pf  treating 
them  he  made  them  interesting  even  to  those  who  had 
otherwise  no  relish  fqr  mathematical  inquiries.  His  lectures 
on  astronomy  attracted  more  than  usual  attention,  since 
that  branch  of  philosophy  afforded  the  most  ample  scope 
for  inc'ulcating  (what,  indeed,  he  never  neglected  in  other 
branches)  his  favourite  doctrine  of  final  causes;  for  ar- 
guing from  the  contrivance  to  the  contriver,  from  the 
.structure  of  the  universe  to  the  being  and  attributes  of 
God.  And  this  doctrine  he  enforced,  not  merely  by  ex- 
plaining the  harmony  which  results  from  the  established' 
laws  of  nature,  but  by  shewing  the  confusion  which  would 
have  arisen  from  the  adoption  of  bther  laws.  His  lectures 
on  the  principles  of  fluxions  were  delivered  with  unusual 
clearness  ;  and  there  was  so  much  originality  in  them,  that 
bis  pupils  often  expressed  a  wish  that  they  might  be  printed. 
.But  such  was  his  modesty,  that  though  frequently  urged,  be 
never  would  consent ;  and  when  he  signed  his  will  a  short 
time  before  his  death,  he  made  the  most  earnest  request 
to  Dr.  Mar^,  that  none  of  his  manuscripts  should  be 
printed.  But  it  is  a  consolation  to  know,  that  his  lectures 
in  philosophy  will  not  be  buried  in  oblivion  :  all  his  writings 
on  those  subjects  were  delivered  to  his  successor  in  the 
tuition,  and,*  though  less  amply  than  by  publication,  will 
coatinue  to  benefit  mankind.    The  only  things  he  ever 


106  J  O  N  £  6. 

fmblislied  were  ^'  A  Sermon  on  Dadlif>g/'  and  ^  An  Ad<- 
dfess  to  tbe  Volunteers  of  Montgomeryshire.^  The  former 
was  published  as  a  warning  to  the  young  men  of  the  uni- 
irersity,  soon  after  a  fatal  duel  had  taken  place  there.  The 
latter,  which  he  wrote  with  great  animation  (for  he  was  a 
zealous  advocate  of  the  volunteer  system)  was  calculated  to 
rouse  tbe  volunteers  to  a  vigorous  defence  of  their  country; 

As  tbe  admissions  under  him  as*  tutor  were  numerous 
lieyond  example,  the  labour  and  anxiety  attendant  on  tbe 
discbarge  of  his  duties  gradually  impaired  a  constitution 
which  was  naturally  feeble.  During  many  years  he  suf- 
fered from  an  infirmity  of  tbe  breast,  and  wb'en  he  seemed 
to  have  recovered  from  this  complaint,  was  attacked  by 
another  of  more  dangerous  tendency,  an  internal  nlcei'^ 
which  after  some  rariations  iu  the  symptoms,  and  some  ap« 
pearance  of  relief,  proved  fatal  on  July  18,  1807,.  Being^ 
•t  that  time  in  London  for  advice,  he  was,  at  bis  own  de« 
aire,  interred  in  the  burial-ground  of  Dulwich-college. 

His  academical  character  has  been  already  described. 
As  a  companion  be  was  highly  convivial ;  he  possessed  % 
Tein  of  humour  peculiar  to  himself;  and  no  one  told  It 
story  with  more  effect.  His  manners  were  mild  and  on* 
assuming,  and  his  gentleness  was  equalled  only  by  his 
firmness.  As  a  friend  be  had  no  other  limit  to  his  kindneffs 
than  bis  ability  to  serve.  Indeed  his  whole  life  was  a  life 
of  benevolence,  and  he  wasted  his  strength  in  exerting 
himself  for  others.  The  benefits  he  conferred  were  fre- 
quently ^  great,  and  the  persons  who  subsisted  by  his 
bounty  were  so  numerous,  that  he  was  often  distressed  in 
the  midst  of  affluence.  And  though  he  was  head  tutor  of 
Trinity-college  almost  twenty  years,  with  more  pupils  than 
any  of  his  predecessors,  he  never  acquired  a  sufficient 
capital  to  enable  him  to  retire  from  office,  and  still  con« 
tinue  his  accustomed  benevolence. 

In  theology  and  politics  Mr.  Jones  appears  to  have  held 
some  sentiments,  to  which  his  biographer  adverts  with  so 
much  delicacy  and  caution,  that  we  cannot  guess  at  them  ; 
when  he  adds,  however,  that  ^^  his  sentiments  on  various 
speculative  points  underwent  a  material  alteration,^'  we 
may  infer  that  such  an  alteration  was  for  the  better.  **  Of 
bis  practical  theology,'*  says  Dr.  Marsh,  **  #bich  remained 
always  the  same,  the  best  description  which  can  be  given 
is  the  description  of  his  latter  end.  He  waited  the  ap- 
proach of  death  with  a  dignified  firmness^  a  placid  resigna^ 

JONES.  iOf 


(ioo,  and  an  unaflSeeted  piety,  which  are  rarely  equalled. 
Even  after  his  eyes  were  grown  din  and  hb  speech  began 
to  faalter,  be  uttered  with  great  fervency  what  be  bad  fre- 
quently repeated  during  ^e  course  of  his  illness,  that, 
prayer  in  the  '  Visitation  of  the  Sick/  ^  Sanctify,  we  be- 
aeech  thee,  this  thy  fatherly  correction,  that  the  sense  cf 
sny  weakness  may  add  strength  to  my  faith  and  seriousness 
to  my  rq»eotance.^  On  these  last  words  be  dwelt  with  pe- 
culiar emphasis.  About  the  same  time  he  said  to  his  surw 
rounding  friends,  as  distinctly  as  the  weakness  of  his  voice 
would  permit,  *  I  am  conscious,  no  doubt,  of  many  fail- 
ings; but  I  believe  I  have  employed  the  abilities  with 
which  God  has  blessed  me  to  the  advantage  of  my  fellow- 
creatures.  I  resign  myself,  then,  with  confidence  into  the 
bands  of  aoiy  Maker.'  He  shortly  after  expired,  without  k 
groan  or  struggle.*' V 

JONES  (William),  an  eminent  mathematician,  was  born 
in  1680,  in  the  island  of  Anglesey,  North  Wales.  His 
parents  were  yeomen,  or  little  farmers,  in  that  island,  and 
gave  to  their  son  the  best  education  which  their  circum- 
stances would  allow ;  but  he  owed  his  future  fame  and  for- 
tune to  the  diligent  cultivation  of  the  intellectual  powers 
by  which  he  was  eminently  distinguished.  Addicted  from 
early  life  to  the  study  of  mathematics,  be  commenced  his 
career  of  advan<iement  in  the  humble  office  of  a  teacher  of 
these  sciences  on  board  a  man  of  war.  In  this  situation  he 
attracted  the  notice,  and  obtained  the  friendship  of  lord 
Ansoh.  He  appeared  as  an  author  in  his.  22d  year ;  when 
his  treatise  on  the  art  of  navigation  was  much  approved. 
We  may  judge  of  his  predominant  taste  for  literature  and 
science  by  a  trivial  circumstance  which  occurred  at  the 
capture  of  Vigo,  in  1702.  Having  joined  his  comrades  in 
pillaging  the  town,  he  Selected  a  bookseller's  shop,  in  hope 
of  obtaining  some  valuable  plunder ;  but,  disappointed  in 
his  expectations,  he  took  up  a  pair  of  scissars,  which  Was 
his  only  booty-,  and  which  he  afterwards  exhibited  to  his 
friends  as  a  trophy  of  bis  military  success.  On  his  return 
to  England,  he  established  himself  as  a  teacher  of  mathe« 
matics  in  London ;  and  here,  in  1706,  he  published  his 
'<  Synopsis  Palmariorum  Matheseos ;  or,  a  new  Introdttc«> 
don  to  the  Mathematics,"  a  work  which  has  ever  since 
Wfen  held  in  the  highest  estimation  as  a  compendious  but 

>  McBMirt  by  Dr«  Manh  m  the  AUi«De«ai>  ? <4*  IIL 


.  ieomprehensive  sumniaiy  of  mathematical  science.  Mr. 
Jones  was  no  less  esteemed  and  respected  on  account  of 
his  private  character  and  pleasing  manners,  than  for  his 
natural  talents  and  scientific  attainments ;  so  that  he  reck* 
oned  among  his  friends  the  most  eminent  persons  of  the 
period  in  which  he  lived.  Lord  Hardwicke  selected  him 
as  a  companion  on  the  circuit,  when  he  was  chief  justice; 
and  when  he  afterwards  held  the  great  seal,  conferred  upon 
him  the  office  of  ^retary  for  the  peace,  as  a  testimony  of 
his  friendship  and  regard.  He  was  also  in  habits  of  inti- 
mate acquaintance  with  lord  Parker,  president  of  the  royal 
society,  sir  Isaac  Newton,  Halley,  Mead,  and  Samuel  John- 
son. So  highly  was  his  merit  appreciated  by  sir  Isaac 
Newton,  that  he  prepared,  with  his  permission,  and  very 
much  to  his  satisfaction,  a  very  elegant  edition  of  small 
tracts  in  the  higher  mathematics.  Upon  the  retirement  of 
lord  Macclesfield  to  Sherborne  castle,  Mr.  Jones  resided 
in  his  family,  and  instructed  his  lordship  in  the  sciences. 
Whilst  he  occupied  this  situation  he  had  the  misfortune,  by 
the  failure  of  a  banker,  to  lolie  the  greatest  part  of  that 
property  which  he  had  -accumulated  by  the  most  laudable 
industry  and  economy ;  but  the  loss  was  in  a  great  measure 
repaired  to  him  by  the  kind  attentidn  of  his  lordship,  who 
procured  for  him  a  sinecure  place  of  considerable  emolu- 
ment. He  was  afterwards  offered,  by  the  same  nobleman,  a 
more  lucrative  situation ;  which,  however,  he  declined,  that 
be  might  be  more  at  leisure  to  devote  himself  to  his  favourite 
scientific  pursuits.  In  this  retreat  he  formed  an  acquaint* 
ance  with  miss  Mary  Nix,  the  daughter  of  a  cabinet-maker, 
who  had  become  eminent  in  his  profession,  and  whose  ta- 
lents and  manners  had  recommended  him  to  an  intimacy 
with^lord  Macclesfield.  This  acquaintance  terminated  in 
marriage ;  and  the  connection  proved  a  source  of  personal 
satisfaction  to  Mr.  Jones  himself,  and  of  permanent  honour 
to  his  name  and  family. «  By  this  lady  Mr.  Jones  had  three 
children  *,  two-sons  and  a  daughter.  One  son  died  in  in- 
fancy ;  the  other  will  be  the  subject  of  the  next  article ; 
and  the  daughter,  who  was  married  to  Mr.  Rainsford,  an 
opulent  merchant  retired  from  business,  perished  misera- 
bly, in  1802,  in  consequence  of  her  clothes  accidentally 
taking  fire  The  death  of  Mr.  Jones  was  occasioned  by  a 
polypus  in  the  heart,  which,  notwithstanding  the  medical 
attention  and  iissistance  of  Dr.  Mead,  proved  incurable. 
He  died  in  July  1749. 

JONES.  '109 

.  Mr.  Jones^^s  papers  in  the  Philosophical  Transactions  ftre: 
*^A  compendious  disposition  of  Equations  for  exhibiting 
the  relations  of  Goniometrical  Lines,"  vol.  XLIV.  "A 
Tract  on  Logarithms,"  vol.  LXL  •*  Account  of  the  per- 
son killed  by  lightning  in  Tottenham-court-chapel,  and  its 
effects  on  the  building,"  vol.  LXII.  "  Properties  of  the 
Conic  Sections^  deduced  by  a  compendious  method,**  voL 
LXIIL  In  all  these  works  of  Mr.  Jones,  a  remarkable 
neatness,  brevity,  and  accuracy,  everywhere  prevails.  He 
seemed  to  delight  in  a  very  short  and  comprehensive  mode 
of  expression  and  arrangement ;  insomuch  that  sometimes 
what  he  has  contrived  to  express  in  two  or  three  page^, 
would  occupy  a  little  volume  in  the  ordinary  style  of  writ- 
ing.    Mr.  Jones,  it  is  said,  possessed  the  best  mathematical 

•  library  in  England ;  which  by  will  he  left  to  lord  Maccles- 
field. He  had  collected  also  a  great  quantity  of  manu- 
script papers  and  letters  of  former  mathematicians^  which 
have  often  proved  useful  to  writers  of  their  lives,  &c.  After 
his  death,  these  were  dispersed,  and  fell  into  different  per^ 
sons  bands ;  many  of  them,  as  well  as  of  Mr.  Joneses  own 
papers,  were  possessed  by  the  late  Mr.  John  Robertson, 
librarian  and  clerk  to  the  royal  society ;  at  whose  death 
Dr.  Hutton  purchased  a  considerable  qviantity  of  them. 
From  such  collections  as  these  it  was  that  Mr.  Jones  was 
enabled  to  give  that  first  and  elegant  edition,  1711,  in  4to, 
of  several  of  Newton's  papers,  that  might  otherwise  have 
been  lost,  entitled  ^^  Analysis  per  quantitatum  Series,  Flnx- 
iones,  ac  Differ^tias  :  cum  Enumeratione  Linearum  Ter- 
tii  Ordinis." 

We  learn  from  the  ^*  Anecdotes  of  Bowyer,"  that  the 
plan  of  another  work  was  formed  by  this  eminent  mathe- 
matician, intended  to  be  of  the  same  nature  with  the  '^  Syn- 
opsis," but  far  more  copious  and  diffusive,  and  to  serve 
as  a  general  introduction  to  the  sciences,  or,  which  is  the 
same  thing,  to  the  mathematical  and  philosophical  works 
of  Newton.  A  work  of^his  kind  had  long  been  a  deside- 
ratum in  literature,  and  it  required  a  geometrician  of  the 
first  class  to  sustain  the  weight  of  so  important  an  under-> 
taking;  for  which,  as  M.  d'Alembert  justly  observes,  "the 

.  combined  force  of  the  greatest  mathematicians  would  not 
have  been  more  than  sufficient."  The  ingenious  author 
was  conscious  how  arduous  a  task  he  had  begun ;  but  his 
very  numerous  acquaintance,  and  particularly  his  friei^d 
the  earl  of  Macclesfield,  never  ceased  importuning  and 

na  JONES. 

urging  him  to  persist^  till  be  hid  finished  the  whole  wOtfc, 
the  result  of  all  his  knowledge  and  experience  through  » 
life  of  near  70  years^  and  a  standing  monnmenti  as  he  had 
reason  to  hope,  of  his  talents  and  industry.  He  had 
si:arcely  .sent  the  first  sheet  to  the  press,  when  a  fatal  ill* 
i>ess  obliged  him  to  discontinue  the  impression ;  and  a  few 
days  before  his  death,  he  intrusted  the  MS.  fairly  tran- 
scribed by  an  amanuensis,  to  the  care  of  lord  Maccles" 
field,  who  promised  to  publish  it,  as  well  for  the  honour 
of  the  author  as  for  the  benefit  of  his  family,  to  whom  the 
property  of  the  book  belonged.  The  earl  survived  his 
friend  many  years :  but  the  ^^  Introduction  to  the  Mathe* 
tics*'  was  forgotten  or  neglected ;  and,'  after  his  death,  the 
IMS.  was  not  to  be  found :  whether  it  was  accidentally  de-^^ 
stroyed,  which  ia  hardly  credible,  or  whether,  as  hath  beet^ 
suggested,  it  had  been  lent  to  some  geometrician,  unworthy 
to  bear  ^be  natoe  either  of  a  philosopher  or  a  man,  who  haa 
since  concealed  it,  or  possibly  burned  the  original  for  fear 
of  detection.  Lord  Teignmouth,  however,  informs  us,  in 
bis  life  of  Mr.  Joues's  illustrious  Son,  that  there  is  no  evi-* 
dence  in  his  memoranda  to  coniGrin  or  disprove  this  account.  * 
JON£S  (Sir  William),  one  of  the  most  accomplished 
scholars  in  Europe,  the  son  of  the  preceding,  was  born 
Sept.  28,  1746.  As  bis  father  died  when  he  had  scarcely 
reached  his  third  year^  the  care  of  his  education  devolved 
on  his  mother,  whose  talents  and  virtues  eminently  quali- 
fied  her  for  the  task.  Her  husband,  with  affectioimte  pre- 
cision, characterized  her  as  one  who  **  was  virtuous  with- 
out blemish,  generous  without  extravagance,  frugal  but 
not  niggard,  cheerful  but  not  giddy,  close  but  not  sullen, 
ingenious  but  not  conceited,  of  spirit  but  not  passionate^ 
of  tier  company  cautious,  in  her  friendship  trusty,  to  her 
parents  dutiful,  and  to  her  husband  ever  faithful,  loving^ 
and  obedient."  She  must  have  been  yet  a  more  extraor* 
dinary  woman  than  all  this  imports ;  for  we  are  told  that 
under  her  husband's  tuition  she  became  A  considerable  pro« 
ficient  in  Algebra,  and  with  a  view  to  act  as  preceptor  to 
her  sister^s  son,  who  was  destined  for  the  sea,  she  ntade 
herself  perfect  in  trigonometry,  and  the  theory  of  naviga^ 
tion,  sciences  of  which  it  is  probable  she  knew  nothing 
before  marriage,  and  which  she  now  pursued  amidst  the 
anxious,  and,  usually,  monopolis^iiig  cares  of  a  family. 

1  Lord  Teignmouth'0  Life  of  sir  William  Jooes.^HuUoa's  Dictionary.— » 
Kioiiois*t  Bowjer. 

J  O  N  £  a  111 

In  educaidng  bet  aoA,  she  appears  to  have  preferred  a 

thod  ak  once  affectiooate  and  judicioua.     Discovering  in 

* '  :i  a  natural  ciirioaity  and  thirst  for  knowledge,  beyond 

\at  children  generally  display,  she  made  the  gratification 

^  these  passions  to  depend  on  his  own  industry,  and  con- 

'  ^ntly  poinied  to  a  book  as  the  soorce  of  information.     So 

iccessful  was  this  method,  that  in  his  £oarth  year  be  wai 

ble  distinctly  and  rapidly  to  read  any  English  book,  while 

lis  memory  was  agreeably  exereised  in  getting  by  beift 

uch  popular  pieces  of  poetry  as  were  likely  to  engage  tbn 

ancy  of  a  child.     His  taste  for  reading  gradually  became 

X  habit ;  and  having  in  his  fifth  year,  while  looking  over  a 

Bible,  fallen  upon  the  sublime  description  of  the  Angel 

in  the  tenth  chapter  of  the  Apocalypse,  the  impression 

which  his  imagination  received  from  it  was  qever  effaced^ 

In  his  sixth  year  an  attempt  was  made  to  teach  him 
Latin,  but  the  accpiisition  of  a  new  language  had  as  yet  no 
charms^  At  Michaelmas  1753,  when  he  had  completed 
his  seventh  year,  he  was  placed  at  Harrow-school,  vnder 
the  tuition  of  Dr.  Tfaackery.  Here  dnring  the  first  two^ 
years  he  applied  with  diligence  to  his  prescribed  tasks,  but 
without  indicating  that  superiority  of  talents  which  in 
eminent  characters  biographers  are  desirous  to  trace  to  riie 
earliest  years.  It  was  enough,  however,  that  he  learned 
what  was  taught,  and  it  was  fortunate  that  bis  mind  was 
gradually  informed,  without  being  perplexed.  During  die 
vacations  his  mother-  resumed  her  **  delightful  task,''  and 
initiated  him  in  th^  art  of  drawing,  in  which  she  excelled* 
Her  private  instructions  became  more  necessary  and  indeed 
indispensible,  when  in  his  ninth  year  bis-  thigh*boiie  was 
accidentally  fractured.  During  his  confinement,  which  lasted 
twelve  months,  his  mother  diverted  his  taste  for  reading  to 
the  best  English  poets,  whom  he  already  endeavoured  to 
imitate ;  but  whether  any  of  these  very  early  e£ki^t»  are  in 
eodstence  his  biographer  has  not  informed  usi 

On  hia  return  to  school,  he  was  placed  in  the  ^me  elasa 
which  he  should  have  attained  if  the  progress  of  his  studies 
had  not  been  interrupted.  Whether  this-  was  from  fnvour 
or  caprice  in  the  master,  it  might  have  been  attended  with 
fatal  conisequences  to  young  Jones,  had  his  temper  been 
of  that  iiiascible  and  wayw»'d  kind  which  sometimes  ae« 
companies  genius.  He  found  himself  in  a  situati 
which  he  was  necessarily  a  year  behind  his  scho^l^f 
and  yet  his  master  affected  to  presume  on  his  eqr 

112  JONES* 

ficiency,  and  goaded  bim  by  punishment  and  degradatuMi 
to  perform  tasks  for  which  he  had  received  uo  preparatory 
instructions.  In  a  few  months,  however,  he  applied  him- 
self so  closely  during  his  leisure  hours  to  recover  what  he 
bad  lost,  that  he  soon  reached  the  head  of  his  class,  and 
uniformly  gained  every  prize  offered  for  the  best  exercise. 
In  bis  twelfth  year  he  moved  into  the  upper  school,  when 
be  entered  upon  the  study  of  the  Greek,  and,  as  was  hia 
practice  when  in  the  lower,  exercised  himself  in  various' 
translations  and  compositions  which,  not  being  required  by 
his  instructors,  elevated  him  in  the  eyes  of  his  school-fel- 
lows, while  his  kindness  prevented  the  usual  effects  of 
jealousy.  They  felt  nothing  unpleasant  in  the  superiority 
of  a  school-fellow  whose  talents  were  employed  in  their 
service,  either  to  promote  their  learning  or  their  amuse- 
ments. On  one  occasion  when  they  proposed  to  act  the 
play  of  the  ^^  Tempest,''  but  had  no  copy  at  hand,  Jie 
wrote  it  for  them  so  correctly  from  memory,  that  they  acted 
it  with  as  much  reputation  as  they  probably  could  have 
derived  from  the  best  edition.  His  own  part  was  Prospero. 
On  another  occasion,  he  composed  a  dramatic  piece  on 
the  story  of  Meleager,  which  was  acted  by  his  school-fel- 
lows, as  a  tragedy.  Such  efforts  of  memory  and  invention 
at  so  early  an  age  are  truly  wonderful.  His  tragedy,  in- 
deed, will  not  bear  criticism  ;  but  the  lines  which  his  bio- 
grapher has  given  as  a  specimen,  will  not  suffer  much  by 
a  comparison  with  the  general  strain  of  verses  in  the  infant 
aera  of  English  tragedy. 

His  predilection  for  whatever  concerned  poetry,  appear- 
ed in  the  pains,  he  now  took  to  study  the  varieties  of  the 
Roman  metre.  His  proficiency  was  indeed  so  superior  to 
that  of  most  of  his  associates  in  every  pursuit,  that  they 
were  glad  to  oonsult  him  as  a  preceptor,  and  to  borrow 
from  him,  as  a  friend,  those  helps  which  they  were  other- 
wise unable  ta  procure. — During  the  holidays  he  learned 
French  and  arithmetic,  and  as  he  was  admitted  to  the  com- 
pany of  the  ingenious  philosopher  Mr.  Baker,  and  his 
learned  friends,  his  mother  recommended  to  him  the 
^^  Spectacle  de  la  Nature,"  as  a  book  that  might  enable 
bim  to  understand  their  conversation.  He  obeyed  her  in- 
junction, as  he  uniformly  did  upon  every  occasion,  and  was 
probably  not  uninterested  in  many  parts  of  that  ouce  in- 
structive work;  but  he  had  not, yet  begun  to  make  excur- 
sions into  the  field  of  natural  history,  and  be  acknowledged 

JONES.  113 

th^i  h^  was  more  entertained  with  the  Arabian  Tales  and 

Although  he  did  not  yet  cease  to  be  the  boy^  he  fre- 
quently gave  indications  of  the  man,  and  perhaps  in  nothing 
more  than  the  useful  turn  of  his  amusements,  which  ge- 
nerally had  some  reference  to  his  studies,  and  proved  that 
Jearning  was  uppermost  in  his  mind.  Of  this  disposition, 
the  following  anecdote,  related  by  lord  Teignmouth,  is 
pleasingly  characteristic. — **  He  invented  a  political  play, 
in  which  Dr.  William  Bennet,  bishop  of  Cloyne,  and  the 
celebrated  Dr.  Parr,  were  his  principal  associates.  They 
divided  the  fields  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Harrow,  accord* 
ing  to  a  map  of  Greece,  into  states  and  kingdoms ;  each 
fixed  upon  one  as  his  dominions,  and  assumed  an  ancient 
name.  Some  of  their  schoolfellows  consented  to  be  styled 
barbarians,  who  were  to  invade  their  territories,  and  attack 
their  hillocks,  which  were  denominated  fortresses.  The 
chiefs  vigorously  defended  their  respective  domains  against 
the  incursions  of  the  enemy ;  and  in  these  imitative  wars, 
the  young  statesmen  held  councils,  made  vehement  ha- 
rangues, aiid  composed  memorials ;  all  doubtless  very 
boyish,  but  calculated  to  fill  their  minds  with  ideas  of  le- 
gislation and  civil  government.  In  these  unusual  amuse- 
ments, Jones  was  ever  the  leader;  and  he  might  justly 
have  appropriated  to  himself  the  words  of  Catullus  : 

*  £go  gymnasii  flos>  ego  decus  olei\*' 

Dr.  Bennet  informs  us  that  ^<  great  abilities,  great  par- ' 
ticularity  of  thinking,  fondness  for  writing  verses  and  plays 
of  various  kinds,  and  a  degree  of  integrity  and  manly  cou- 
rage, distinguished  bi6i  even  at  this  period.*'  And  Dr. 
Thackeray,  the  master  of  the  school,  however  niggardly 
in  general  of  bis  praises  before  the  objects  of  bis  esteem, 
confessed  in  private  that  ^^  he  was  a  boy  of  so  active  a 
mind,  that  if  he  were  left  naked  and  friendless  on  Salis- 
bury Plain,  be  would  nevertheless  find  the  road  to  fame 
and  riches.'*  When  Dr.  Sumner  succeeded. Dr.  Thackeray 
in  176),  be  more  publicly  distinguished  Mr.  Jones,  as  one 
whose  proficiency  was  marked  by  uncommon  diligence  and 
success.  To  a  critical  knowledge  of  Greek  and  Latin,  be 
began  now  to  add  some  acquaintance  with  the  Hebrew,  and 
even  learned  the  Arabic  characters,  while  during  the  va- 
cations, he  improved  his  former  knowledge  of  the  French 
and  Italian  languages.     His  ardent  thirst  for  knowledge. 

Vol.  XIX.  I 

11*  JONES. 

however,  at  this  time^  induced  him  to  study  with  so  littlf 
intermission  from  sleep  or  exercise,  that  hei  was  beginning 
to  contract  a  weakness  of  sight.  On  this  occasion,  his 
friends  interposed  their  advice,  and  for  some  time  he  con^ 
sented  to  relax  from  fatigues  so  unsuitable  to  his  teif der 
age^.  It  is  probable,  however,  that  he  bad  already  gqne 
too  far,  for  weakness  of  sight  was  one  of  the  first  com- 
plaints which  impeded  his  studies  when  in  India. 

A  letter  to  hi$  sister,  written  at  the  age  of  fourteen, 
which  his  biographer  has  inserted  at  this  period  of  his  his-' 
tory,  contains  refleptions  on  the  folly  of  sorrowing  for  th^ 
death  of  friends,  which  perhaps  might  be  placed  in  a  mor^ 
just  light,  but  from  one  of  his  age,  certainly  indicate  very 
extraordinary  powers  of  thinking;  and  the  transition  fro^i 
these  to  the  common  trifles  of  correspondence,  shews  an 
inclination  to  play  the  youthful  philosopher,  which  gives 
considerable  interest  to  this  singular  epistle.  The  reflec- 
tions, it  is  true,  are  trite,  but  they  could  not  have  beeif 
trite  to  one  just  entering  upon  life,  nor  could  so  lively  a 
youth  have  long  revolved  the  uncertainties  of  fame  and 

When  he  had  attained  the  age  of  seventeen,  his  friendsj 
determined  to  remove  him  to  one  of  the  universities,  but. 
bis  mother  had  been  advised  to  place  him  in  the  office  of 
some  special  pleader.  He  had,  in  the  course  of  his  desul- 
tory reading,  perused  a  few  law  books,  and  frequently 
amused  his  mother's  visitors  by  discussing  topics  of  legal 
subtlety.  But  the  law  had  not  taken  a  complete  hold  on 
his  inclination  at  this  time,  and  his  preceptpr  Dr.  Sumnei*. 
easily  prevailed  in  recommending  an  academical  course.' 
He  was,  accordingly,  in  the  sprifig  of  1764,  entered  of 
University  college,  Oxford,  in  which  city  his  mother  now 
took  up  her  residence.  This  latter  circumstance  was  pe- 
culiarly grateful  to  Mr.  Jones,  who  was  as  much  distin- 
guished above  the  niass  of  mankind  for  filial  affection,  as 
for  his  literary  accomplishments. 

The  passion  be  had  imbibed  for  general  learning,  and 
the  desultory  manner  in  which  his  unremitting  application 
left  him  at  liberty  to  indulge  it,  were  at  first  in  danger  of 
being  interrupted  by  the  necessity  of  attending  to  a  routine 
of  instructions  from  which  he  imagined  he  could  derive 
ver^  little  advantage.  But  in  time  he  became  accustomed' 
to  the  mode  of  study  then  prevalent,  and  withput  neglect- 
ing any  thing  which  it  was  necessary  to  know,  .piursued  at 

JONES.  115, 

his  leisure  hours  that  course  o(  classical  and  polite  litera-^ 
tare  which  had  already  proved  that  he  was  not  to  be  sa- 
tiated by  the  common  allowances  of  education.  Oriental 
literature  presented  itself  to  his  mind  with  unusual  charms, 
as  if  the  plan  of  his  future  life,  and  the  avenues  to  his 
future  fame,  had  been  regularly  laid  down  before  him ; 
and  he  had  not  applied  himself  long  to  the  Arabic  and 
Persic,  before  be  conceived  that  greater  advantages  were 
to  be  reaped  from  those  languages,  than  from  the  mora 
popular  treasures  of  Greece  and  Rome.  Such  was  at  the 
same  time  his  enthusiasm  in  this  undertaking,  that  having 
accidentally  discovered  one  Mirza,  a  native  of  Aleppo,  in 
London,  he  prevailed  on  him  to  accompany  him  to  Ox- 
ford, not  without  hopes  that  he  might  induce  some  of  his 
companions  to  avail  themselves  of  this  Syrian's  labours,  an4 
assist  him  in  defraying  the  expence  of  his  maintenance ; 
but  in  this  he  was  disappointed,  and- for  some  months  the 
whole  of  the  burthen  fell  upon  himself. 

During  his  residence  at  Oxford,  his  time  was  regularly 
divided  into  portions,  each  of  which  was  filled  up  with  the 
study  of  the  ancients  or  moderns,  and  t|;)ere  have  been  fevv 
examples  of  such  extensjve  accumulation  of  knowledge  by 
one  so  young  ;  yet,  amidst  this  severe  course  of  application, 
he  regularly  apportioned  some  time  for  the  practice  of 
those  manly  exercises  which  promote  health.  As  all  this 
necessarily  became  expensive,  be  anxiously  wished  for  a 
fellowship,  that  he  might  be  enabled  to  relieve  his  mother 
from  a  burthen  which  she  could  ill  support.  He  had  ob« 
tained  a  scholarship  a  few  months  after  his  matriculation,, 
but  a  fellowship  appeared  more  remote,  and  he  was  begin- 
ning to  despair  of  achieving  this  object,  when  he.  received 
jin  offer  to  be  private  tutor  to  lord  Althorpe,  now  earl 
Spencer.  He  had  been  recommended  to  the  Spencer  fa- 
mily by  Dr.  Shipley,  who  had  seen  and  approved  some  of 
his  performances  at  Harrow,  and  particularly  a  Greek  ora- 
tion in  prai'se  of  Lyon,  who  founded  the  school  at  th$kt  place 
in  the  reign  of  Elizabeth. 

This  proposal  was  cheerfully  accepted  by  Mr.  Jones,, 
.  and,  in  the  summer  of  1765,  he  went  for  the  first  time  to 
Wimbledon  Park,  to  take  upon  him  the  education  of  his 
pupil,  who  was  just  seven  years  old,  and  with  whose  man-* 
nerd  he  ,was  delighted.  It  would  be  needless  to  point  out 
the  advantages  of  such  a  situation  ^s  this  to  a  young  man 
of  Jones's  accomplishments  and  expectations.  It  presented 

I  2 

116  JONES. 

every  thing  he  could  wish,  liberal  patronage  to  promote 
his  views,  elegant  society  to  form  his  manners,  and  oppor- 
tunities for  study,  which  were  inferior  only  to  what  he 
enjoyed  at  Oxford.  In  the  course  of  the  following  summer, 
he  obtained  a  fellowship,  which,  although  not  exceeding 
one  hundred  pounds,  appeared  to  him  a  sufficient  provi- 
sion, and  a  solid  independency.  His  time  was  now  divided 
between  Oxford,  London,  Wimbledon,  and  Althorpe ;  and 
in  1767,  he  visited  the  Continent  with  the  Spencer  family, 
and  during  this  trip,  which  was  but  short,  acquired  some 
knowledge  of  the  German  language.  Before?  setting  out, 
and  in  the  twenty-first  year  of  his  age,  he  began  his  Com- 
mentaries on  Asiatic  Poetry,  in  imitation  of  Dr.  Lowth's 
Prelections  at  Oxford  on  the  sacred  poetry  of  the  Hebrews; 
and  soon  after  his  return,  in  the  winter  of  1767,  he  nearly 
completed  his  Commentaries,  transcribed  an  Asiatic  ma- 
nuscript on  Egypt  and  the  Nile,  and  copied  the  keys  of 
the  Chinese  language,  which  he  wished  to  add  to  his  other 

Into  these  pursuits  Mr.  Jones  appears  to  have  been  in- 
sensibly l#d,  without  the  hopes  of  higher  gratification  than 
the  pleasure  they  afforded ;  but  a  circumstance  now  oc- 
curred which  may  be  coniSidered  afe  the  first  step  of  his  pro- 
gress to  what  finally  constituted  his  fame  as  a  scholar  an4 
public  character.  The  circumstance  is  thus  related  by 
lord  Teignmouth,  nearly  in  Mr.  Jones's  words  : 

**  The  king  of  Denmark,  then  upon  a  visit  to  this  coun- 
try (1768),  had  brought  with  him  an  eastern  manuscript, 
containing  the  life  of  Nadir  Shah,  which  he  was  desirous 
of  having  translated  in  Englancil.  The  secretary  of  state^ 
with  whom  the  Danish  minister  had  conversed  upon  the 
subject,  sent  the  volume  to  Mr.  Jones,  requesting  him  to 
give  a  literal  translation  of  it  in  the  French  language  :  but 
he  wholly  declined  the  task,  alleging  for  his  excuse>  the 
dryness  of  the  subject,  the  difficulty  of  the  style,  and 
chieily  his  want  both  Of  leisure  and  ability,  to  enter  upon 
an  undertaking  so  fruitless  and  laborious.  He  mentioned; 
however,  a  gentleman,  with  whom  he  was  not  then  ac- 
quainted, but  who  had  distinguished  himself  by  the  trans- 
lation of  a  Persian  history,  and  some  popular  tales  from 
the  Persic,  as  capable  of  gratifying  the  wishes  of  bis  Da- 
nish Majesty.  Major  Dow,  the  writer  alluded  to,  excused 
himself  on  account  of  his  numerous  engagements;  and  the. 
application  to  Mr.  JouSts  was  renewed.    It  was  hinted,  that 



his  <;omp1iance  would  be  of  no  small  advantage  to  him,  at 
his  entrance  into  life ;  that  it  would  procure  him  some  mark 
of  distinction,  which  would  be  pleasing  to  him;  and  above 
all,  that  it  would  be  a  reflection  upon  this  country,  if  the 
king  should  be  obliged  to  carry  the  manuscript  to  France. 
Incited  by  these  motives,  and  principally  the  last,  unwill* 
ing  to  be  thought  churlish  or  morose,  and  eager  for  repu- 
tation, he  undertook  the  work,  and  sent  the  specimen  of 
it  to  his  Danish  majesty,  who  returned  his  approbation  of 
the  style  and  method,  but  desired  that  the  whole  transla- 
tion might  be  perfectly  literal,  and  the  oriental  images  ac^ 
curately  preserved.  The  task  would  have  been  far  easier 
to  him,  if  he  had  been  directed  to  finish  it  in  Latin  ;  for 
the  acquisition  of  a  French  style  was  infinitely  more  tedious, 
and  it  was  necessary  to  have  every  chapter  corrected  by  a 
native  of  France,  before  it  could  be  offered  to  the  discern- 
ing eye  of  the  public,  since  in  every  language  there  are 
certain  peculiarities  of  idiom,  and  nice  shades  of  meaning, 
which  a  foreigner  can  never  attain  to  perfection.  The 
work,  however  arduous  and  unpleasant,  was  completed  in 
a  year,  not  without  repeated  hints  from  the  secretary's 
office,  that  it  was  expected  with  great  impatience  by  the 
court  of  Denmark.  The  translation  was  not,  however, 
published  until  1770,  Forty  copies  upon  large  paper  were 
sent  to  Copenhagen ;  one  of  them,  bound  with  uncommon 
elegance,  for  the  king  himself :  and  the  others  as  presents 
to  his  courtiers." 

What  reward  he  received  for  this  undertaking  is  but  ob- 
scurely related.  His  Danish  majesty,  we  are  told,  sent 
him  a  diploma,  constituting  him  a  member  of  the  royal 
society  of  Copenhagen,  and  recommended  him  in  the 
strongest  terms,  to  the  favour  and  benevolence  of  his  own 
sovereign.  Jn  all  this  there  seems  but  an  inadequate  re- 
compense for  a  work  which  at  that  time  perhaps  no  person 
could  have  executed  but  himself^. 

*  Mr.  Jonesi  in  a  letter  to  one  of  hii 
correspoodenu,  says,  **  When  he  (the 
king  of  Denmark)  was  considering  what 
recompense  he  shouM  bestow  upon  me, 
a  noble  friend  of  mine  informed  his 
majesty,  that  I  neither  wished  for,  nor 
valued  money,  but  wati  anxious  only 
for  some  honorary  mark  of  his  appro- 
bation." Whether  Mr.  Jones  had  in- 
structed his  noble  friend  to  use  this 
language,  does  not  appear,  but  it  is 
certain  that  he  felt  a  degree  of  disap- 

pointment. In  1773»  when  he  pub* 
lished  an  abridged  Life  of  J^adir  Shah, 
m  bis  preface  he  takes  an  opportunity 
to  lament  that  the  profession  of  litera- 
ture leadi>  to  no  benefit  or  true  glory 
whatsoever  ;  and  adds,  "  Unless  a  man 
can  asKert  his  own  independence  in  ac- 
tive life,  it  will  avail  him  liule,  to  be 
favoured  by  the  learned,  ctieemed  by 
the  eminent,  or  recommended  even  io 

118  JONES. 

His  noble  pupil  being  removed  to  Harrow,  Mr.  Jones 
had  an  oppottunity  of  renewing  his  intimacy  with  Dr. 
Sumner/  who  had  always  estimated  his  talents  and  learning 
at  their  full  value.  While  here,  he  transcribed  a  Persian 
grammar,  which  he  had  three  years  before  composed  fol: 
the  use  of  a  schoolfellow  destined  for  India,  and  also  be- 
gan a  Dictionary  of  the  Persian  language,  in  which  the 
principal  words  were  illustrated  from  the  most  celebrated 
authprs  of  the  East ;  but  he  appears  to  have  been  aware  of 
the  expeuce  attending  this  work,  and  was  unwilling  to  con« 
tinue  it,  unless  the  East  India  company  would  purchase  it. 
Jn  1770  he  issued  proposals  for  a  new  edition  of  Meninski's 
Dictionary,  which  was  to  have  been  published  in  1773,  but 
the  scheme  was  dropt  for  want  of  encouragement. 

Amidst  these  occupations,  so  far  beyond  the  common 
reach  of  literary  industry,  he  became  a  serious  inquirer 
into  the  evidences  of  Christianity,  about  which  he  appears 
at  this  time  to  have  entertained  some  doubts.  In  this,  as 
in  all  his  studies,  ^is  application  was  intense,  and  his  in- 
quiries conducted  upon  the  fairest  and  most  liberal  prin*. 
ciples.  The  result  was  a  firm  belief  in  the  authenticity 
and  inspiration  of  the  Holy  Scriptures,  and  a  life  dignified 
by  purity  of  conduct,  and  the  exercise  of  every  Gbristiafi 

In  1770,  he  passed  the  winter  on  the  Continent  with  the 
Spencer  family,  during  which,  he  informs  one  of  his  cor-, 
respondents,  his  occupations  were  *^  music,  with  all  its 
sweetness  and  feeling ;  difficult  and  abstruse  problems  in 
mathematics ;  and  the  beautiful  and  sublime  in  poetry  and 
painting."  He  wrote  also  in  English  a  tract  on  "  Educa-^ 
tion  in  the  analytic  manner  -y^  a  tragedy  founded  on  the 
stoiy  of  Mustapha,  who  was  put  to  death  by  his  father  So- 
liman ;  and  made  various  translations  from  the  oriental 
poets.  He  appears  on  this  tour  to  have  been  less  intent  on 
those  objects  of  curiosity  which  usually  interest  traveUers, 
than  on  adding  to  his  knowledge  of  languages,  and  habi-  ' 
tuating  himself  to  composition  in  all  its  modes,  from  the 
gay  and  familiar  letter  of  friendship,  to  the  serious  and 
philosophical  disquisition.  Of  the  "  Tract  on  Education,'* 
just  mentioned,  a  fragment  only  remains,'  which  his  bio- 
grapher has  published.  It  appears  to  include  the  plan 
which  he  pursued  in  his  own  case.  The  tragedy  has  been 
totally  lost,  except  part  of  a  preface  in  which  he  professes 
to  have  taken  Shakspeare  for  his  model,  not  by  adopting 

JONES.  lid 

his  sentiments^  or  borrowing  bis  expressions,  but  by  aim- 
ing at  his  manner,  and  by  striving  to  write  as  he  supposes 
he  would  hav'e  written  himself,  if  he  had  lived  in  the  eigh- 
teenth century.  The  loss  of  such  a  curiosity  cannot  be 
too  much  regretted,  unless  our  regret  should  be  lessened 
by  reflecting  on  the  hazard  of  any  attempt  to  bring  Shak- 
^eare  on  the  modern  stage.  It  is  surely  not  less  difficult 
than  that  of  Mason,  who  unsuccessfully  strove  to  write  as 
the  Greek  tragedians  '<  would  have  written,  had  they  lived 
in  the  eighteenth  century.*' 

On  his  return  from  this  tour,  he  appears  to  have  con- 
templated his  situation  as  not  altogether  corresponding  with 
the  feelings  of  an  independent  mind,  and  with  the  views 
he  entertained  of  aioiing  at  the  dignity  and  usefulness  of  a 
public  character.   The  advice  given  by  some  of  his  friends, 
when  he  left  Harrow  school,  probably  now  recurred  to  his 
memory,   and  was  strengthened  by  additional  and  more 
urgent  motives,  for  hie  finally  deterntined  on  the  law  a^  a 
profession ;  and,  having  resigned  his  charge  in  lord  Spen- 
cer^s  fistmily,  was  admitted  into  the  Temple  on  the  19lh  of 
September,   1770,  in  the  twenty -fourth  year  of  his  age. 
Those  who  consider  the  study  of  the  law  as  incompatible 
with  a  mind  devoted  to  the  acquisition  of  polite  literature, 
and  with  a  taste  delighting  in  frequent  excursions  to  the 
regions  of  fancy,  will  be  ready  to  conclude  that  Mr.  Jones 
would  soon  discover  an  invincible  repugnance  to  his  new 
pursuit.     But  the  reverse  was  in  a  great  measure  the  fact 
I|e  found  nothing  in  the  study  of  the  law  so  dry  or  labo-  , 
rious  as  not  to  be  overcome  by  the  same  industry  which 
had  enabled  him  to  overcome,  almost  in  childhood,  the 
difficulties  which  frequently  deter  men  of  mature  years ; 
and  he  was  stimulated  by  what  appears  to  have  predomi- 
nated throiigh  life,  an  honest  ambition  to  rise  to  eminence 
in  a  profession   which,    although  sometimes  successfully 
followed  by  men  of  dull  capacity,  does  not  exclude  the 
most  brilliant  acquirements.     Still,  however,  while  labour- 
ing to  qualify  himself  for  the  bar,  he  regarded  his  pro- 
gress in  literature  as  too  important  or  too  delightful  to  b6  , 
altogether  interrupted ;  and  from  the  correspondence  pub- 
lished by  lord  Teignmouth,  it  appears  that  he  snatched 
many  an  hour  from  his  legal  inquiries,  to  meditate  plans 
connected  with  his  oriental  studies.     What  he  executed, 
indeed,,  did  not  always  correspond  with  what  he  projected, 
but  we  &ad  that  within  the  first  two  years  of  iiis  residence 

r*  f 

120  J  O  N  E  & 

io  the  Temple,  be  sketched  the  plan  of  an  epic  poeaiy^.aiid 
of  a  Turkish  history,  and  published  a  French  letter  to  An- 
quetil  du  Perron,  who,  in  his  Travels  in  India,  bad  treated 
the  university  of  Oxford,  and  some  of  its  learned  members 
and  friends  of  Mr.  Jones,  with  disrespect  In  this  letter  he 
corrected  the  petulance  of  the  French  writer  with  more 
asperity  than  perhaps  his  maturer  judgment  would  have: 
approved,  but  yet  without  injustice,  for  Perron  stood  con- 
victed not  only  of  loose  invective,  but  of  absolute  false- 
hood.—Besides  these  Mr.  Jones  published,  in  1772,  a 
small  volume  of  poems,  consisting  chiefly  of  translations 
from  the  Asiatic  languages,  with  two  elegant  prose  disser- 
tations on  Eastern  poetry,  and  on  the  arts  commonly  called 
imitative.  Most  of  these  poems  had  been  written  long 
before  this  period,  but  were  kept  back  until  they  had  re- 
ceived all  the  improvements  of  frequent  revisal,  and  the 
criticisms  of  his  friends. 

From  his  first  entrance  intg  the  university,  until  Mi- 
chaelmas 1768,  when  he  took  his  bachelor^s  degree,  he 
had  kept  terms  regularly,  but  from  this  period  to  1773,^ 
only  occasionally.     During  tbe  Encaenia,  in  Easter-term 
1773,  he  took  his  master^ s  degree,  and  composed  an  ora- 
tion which  he  intended  to  have  spoken  in  the  theatre ;  but 
which  was  not  published  till  about  ten  years  after*     In  the  > 
beginning  of  1774,  he  published  his  ^^  Commentaries  on. 
Asiatic  poetry,*'  which  have  been  already  noticed  as  bav-  . 
ing  been  begun  in  1766,  and  finished  in  1769,  when  he 
was  only  in  his  twenty-third  year.    The  same  motives  which 
induced  him  to  keep  back  his  poems,  prevailed  in  the  . 
present  instance  ;  a  diffidence  in  his  own  abilities,  and  a 
wish  to  profit  by  more  mature  examinatiqu,  as  well  as  by 
the  opinions  of  his  friends.     By  the  preface  to  this  work, 
it  would  appear  that  be  was  not  perfectly  satisfied  with  the 
profession  in  which  he  had  engaged^  and  that  had  circum- 
stances permitted,  he  would  have  been  better  pleased  to 
have  devoted  his  days  to  an  uninterrupted  course  of  study. 
But  such  was  his  fate,  that  he  must  now  renounce  polite 
literature;  and  having  been  admitted  to  tbe  bar  in  1774,  , 
b/adheredto  this  determination*  inflexibly  for  some  years*, 
(itfiring  which  his  books  and  manuscripts,  except  such  as; 
related  to  law  and  oratory,  remained  locked  up  at  Oxford, 

*  About  Uiis  time  he    issued  pro-     either  for  want  of  time  or  encottragor 
posals  for  publishing  his  fether's  ma-     ment,  he  proceeded  no  farther, 
th^ip^tical  works,  in  which,  hoireyer. 

JONES.  121 

He  seems  to  have  been  seriously  convinced  that  the  new 
science  he  was  about  to  enter  upon  was  too  extensive  to 
admit  of  union  with  other  studies ;  and  he  accordingly  pur- 
sued it  with  his  usual  avidity,  endeavouring  to  embrace  the 
whole  of  jurisprudence  iji  its  fullest  extent,  and  to  make 
himself  not  only  the  technical  but  the  philosophical  lawyer. 
For  some  time  be  had  but  little  practice,  but  it  gradually 
came  in,  and  with  it  a  very  considerable  share  of  reputa* 
tion.     Towards  the  end  of  the  year  1776,  he  was  appointed 
a  commissioner  of  bankrupts,  a  favour  which  he  seems  in- 
clined to  estimate  beyond  the  value  usually  put  upon  it  by 
professional  men.     Notwithstanding  his  determination  to 
suspend  the  study  of  ancient  literature,  there  was  a  grati- 
fication in  it  which  be  found  it  impossible  to  resign,  while 
bis  practice  continued  so  scanty  as  to  afford  him  any  dis- 
posable time.     In  the  year  last  mentioned,  we  find  him. 
reading  the  Grecian  orators  again  and  again,  and  trans- 
lating the  most  useful  orations  of  Isa&us.     Some  part  of  his. 
time,  likewise,  he  devoted  to  philosophical  experiments 
and  discoveries,  attended  the  meetings  of  the  royal  so- 
ciety, of  which  he  had  been  elected  a  fellow  in  1772,  and 
kept  up  an  extensive  epistolary  intercourse  with  many  of 
the  literati  of  Europe.     In  these  letters,  subjects  of  law 
seldom  occur,  unless  as  an  apology  for  bis  barrenness  on 
topics  more  congenial.     From  the  commencement  of  the 
unhappy  contest  between  Great  Britain  and  America,  he 
was  decidedly  against  the  measures  adopted  by  the  mother 

In  I77S,  he  published  his  translation  of  the /^  Orations 
of  Isseus,^'  in  causes  concerning  the  succession  to  property 
at  Athens;  with  a  prefatory  discourse,  notes  historical  and. 
critical,  and  a  commentary.  This 'work  he  dedicated  to 
earl  Bathurst,  who  among  all  his  illustrious  friends,  was  as  t 
yet  his  only  benefactor,  by  conferring  on  him  the  place  of 
commissioner  of  bankrupts.  The  elegant  style,  profound 
research,  and  acute  criticism,  displayed  in  this  translation^ 
attracted  the  applause  of  every  judge  of  classical  learning. 
His  next  publication  was  a  Latin  ode  to  liberty,  under  the 
title  of  '*  JtUti  Melesigoni  ad  Libertatem^^'*  a  name  formed 
by  the  transposition  of  the  letters  of  ^*  Gtilielmus  Jonesim.^^ 
lu  this  ode,  the  author  of  which  was  soon^ known,  he  made 
a  nior^  ample  acknowledgment  of  his  political  principles ; 
and  this,  it  is  feared,  had  an  unfavourable  influence  on  the 
hppes  which  he  was^ encouraged  to  entertain  of  promotion 

11J3  JONES. 

by  the  then  administration.  In  1780^  there  was  a  vacant 
seat  on  the  bench  of  Fort  William  in  Bengal,  to  which  the 
kindness  of  lord  North  ied  him  to  aspire ;  but,  for  some 
time,  be  had  very  little  prospect  of  success.  While  this 
matter  was  in  suspense,  on  the  resignation  of  sir  Roger 
N«wdigate,  he  was  advised  to  come  forward  as  a  candidate 
fdr  the  representation  of  the  university  of  Oxford  in  par- 
liament; but,  finding  that  there  was  no  chance  of  success, 
he  declined  the  contest  before  the  day  of  election.  His 
principles  on  the  great  question  of  the  American  war  were 
s0  avowedly  hostile,  not  only  to  the  measures  pursued  by 
administration,  but  to  the  sentiments  entertained  by  the 
majority  of  the  members  of  the  university,  that,  although 
he  might  be  disappointed,  he  could  not  be  surprised  at  bis 
failure,  and  accordingly  appears  to  have  resigned  himself 
to  his  former  pursuits  with  tranquil  satisfaction. 

During  this  year  (1780),  he  published  "An  Inquiry  into 
the  legal  mode  of  suppressing  Riots,  with  a  constitutional 
plan  of  Future  Defence,"  ^  pamphlet  suggested  by  the 
dreadful  riots  in  London,  of  which  he  had  been  a  witness. 
His  object  is  to  prove  that  the  common  and  statute  laws  of 
the  realm  then  in  force,  give  the  civil  state  in  every  county 
a  power,  which,  if  it  were  perfectly  understood  and  conti- 
nually prepared,  would  effectually  quell  any  riot  or  insur- 
rection, without  assistance  from  the  military,    and  even 
without  the  modern  l^iot-Act.     In  a  speech  which  he  in- 
ti^nded  to  have  delivered  at  a  meeting  of  the  freeholders  of 
Middlesex  in  September  following,  he  more  explicitly  de- 
clared his  sentiments  on  public  affairs,  and  in  language 
rather  stronger  than  usual  with  him,  although  suited  to 
the  state  oiF  popular  opinion  in  that  county. 
'  During  a  short  visit  to  Paris,  be  appears  to  have  formed 
the  design  of  writing  a  history  of  the  war.     On  his  return, 
however,  he  recurred  to  his  more  favourite  studies,  and 
bis  biographer  has  printed  a  curious  ri)emorandum,  dated 
1780,  in  which  Mr.  Jones  resolves  to  learn  no  more  rudi- 
ments of  any  lind,  but  to  .perfect  himself  in  the  languages 
he  had  already  acquired,  viz.  Greek,  Latin,  Italian,  French, 
Spanish,  Portuguese,  Hebrew,  Arabic,  Pei"siah,  Turkish, 
Gerkhan,  and  English,  as  the  means  of  acquiring  a  more 
accurate  knowledge  of  history,  arts,  and  sciences.     With 
such  wonderful  acquisitions,  he  was  now  only  in  his  thirty- 
third  year ! 

In  the  winter  of  1780-1,  be  found  leisure  to  complete 

JONES.  12S 

bis  trahilation  of  ^*  Seven  ancient  Poems**  of  the  bigbest 
reputation  in  Arabia,  which,  however,  were  not  published 
till  1783 :  and  he  celebrated,  about  the  same  time,  the 
nuptials  of  lord  Althorpe  with  Miss  Bingham,  in  an  elegant 
ode,  entitled  '^  The  Muse  recalled."  In  his  professional 
line  he  published  an  ^*  Essay  on  the  Law  of  Bailments,**  a 
aubject  handled  under  the  distinct  heads  of  analysis,  his* 
tory,  and  synthesis ;  in  which  mode  he  proposed  at  some 
future  period  to  discuss  every  branch  of  English  law,  civil 
and  criminal,  private  and  public.  His  object  in  all  his 
legal  discussions  was  to  advance  law  to  the  honours  of  a 
science.  It  may  be  doubted  which  at  this  time  predomi^ 
nated  inhis^mihd,  his  professional  plans,  or  his  more  £a» 
vourite  study  of  the  eastern  poets.  He  now,  however,  un<*- 
dertook  a  work  in  which  he  might  gratify  both  duty  and 
inclination,  by  translating  an  Arabian  poem  on  the  Ma<* 
hommedan  law  of  succession  to  the  property  of  intestates. 
The  poem  had  indeed  but  few  charms  to  reward  hts  labour 
by  delighting  bis  fancy,  but  in  the  prospect  of  obtaining  a 
judge's  seat  in  India,  he  foresaw  advantages  from  every 
opportunity  of  displaying  his  knowledge  of  the  Mahom* 
medan  laws. 

In  1782  he  took  a  very  active  part  among  the  societies 
formed  to  procure  a  more  equal  representation  in  the  com<^ 
mons  house  of  parliament.  The  speech  which  he  delivered 
at  the  London  tavern  on  this  subject  was  long  admired  for 
its  elegance,  perspicuity,  and  independent  spirit.  He  was 
also  elected  a  member  of  the  society  for  constitutional  in* 
formation,  and  bestowed  considerable  attention  to  the  ob- 
jects it  professed.  The  ^'  Dialogue  between  a  farmer  and 
a  country  gentleman  on  the  Principles  of  Government,'* 
which  he  wrote  some  time  before,  was  circulated  by  this 
society  with  much  industry.  When  the  dean  of  St.  Asaph 
(afterwards  his  brother<-in*law)  was  indicted  for  publishing 
an  edition  of  it  in  Wales,  Mr.  Jones  sent  a  lietter  to  lord 
ICenyon,  then  chief  justice  of  Chester,  avowing  himself  to 
be  the  author,  and  maintaining  that  every  position  in  it 
was  strictly  conformable  to  the  laws  and  constitution  of 

On  the  succession  of  the  Shelburne  administration,  whose 
views  of  political  affaii's  were  in  some  respects  more' don- 
sonant  to  Mr.  Jones's  principles  than  those  of  their  pre- 
decessors, by  the  particular  interest  of  lord  Ashburtbn,  he 
achieved  the  object  to  which  for  some  time  past  he  had 

124  JONES. 

anxiously  bspired.  In  March  1783  he  was  appointed  a 
judge  of  the  supreme  court  of  judicature  at  Fort  William, 
on  which  occasion  the  honour  of  Icnighthood  was  conferred 
on  him.  In  April  following  he  ms^rried  a  young  lady  to 
whom  he  had  been  long  attached,  -  Anna  Maria  Shipley, 
eldest  daughter  of  the  bishop  of  St  Asaph.  He  had  now 
secured,  as  his  friend  lord  Ashburton  congratulated  him, 
^^  two  of  the  .first  objects  of  human  pursuit,  those  of  am- 
bition and  love.'' 

•  His  stay  in  England  after  these  events  was  very  short,  as 
he  embarked  for  India  in  the  month  of  April.  During  the 
voyage  his  mind  was  sensibly  impressed  with  the  import- 
ance of  the  public  station  he  was  now  about  to  fill,  and 
began  to  anticipate  the  objects  of  inquiry  which  would  en- 
gage his  attention,  and  the  improvements  he  might  intro- 
duce in  India  from  the  experience  of  a  life,  much  of  which 
had  passed  in  acquiring  a  knowledge  of  its  learning  and 
laws.  Among  other  designs,  very  honourable  to  the  extent 
of  his  benevolent  intentions,  which  he  formed  at  his  outset, 
we  find  the  publication  of  the  gospel  of  St.  Luke  in  the 
Arabic,  the  Psalms  in  Persian  verse,  and  various  law  tracts 
in  Persian  and  Arabic.  He  intended  also  to  compose  ele- 
ments of  the  laws  of  England,  a  history  of  the  American 
war,  already  poticed,  and  miscellaneous  poems,  speeches 
and  letters,  on  subjects  of  taste,  oratory,  or  general  polity. 
But  the  pressure  of  his  official  duties  during  the  short  re- 
mainder of  his  life,  prevented  his  completing  most  of  those 
designs.     .  . 

He  arrived  at  Calcutta  in  September,  and  was  eagerly 
welcomed  by  all  who  were  interested  in  the  acquisition  of 
a  magistrate  of  probity  and  independence,  of  a  scholar  who 
was  confessedly  at  the  head  of  oriental  literature,  and  one 
in  the  prime  and  vigour  of  life,  who  bade  fair  to  be  long 
the  ornament  of  the  British  dominions  in  India.  His  own 
satisfaction  was  not  less  lively  and  complete.  He  had  left 
behind  him  the  inconstancy  and  the  turbulence  of  party, 
and  felt  no  longer  the  anxieties  of  dependence  and  delay. 
New  scenes  were  inviting  his  enthusiastic  research,  scenes 
which  he  had  delighted  to  contemplate  at  a  distance,  and 
which  promised  to  enlarge  his  knowledge  as  a  scholar,  and 
his  usefulness  as  a  public  character.  He  was  now  brought 
into  those  regions,  whose  origin,  manners,  language,  and 
religion,  had  been  the  subject  of  his  profound  inquiries. ; 
and  while  his  curiosity  was  heightened,  he  drew  nearer  ta 
the  means  of  gratification. 

JONES.  121 

He  had  not  been  long  in  his  new  situation  before  he 
began,  with  his  usual  judgment,  to  divide  his  time  into 
such  regular  portions^  that  no  objects  connected  with  duty 
or  science  should  interfere.  One  of  his  first  endeavours 
was  to  institute  a  society  in  Calcutta,  the  members  of 
which  might  assist  him  in  those  scientific  pursuits  which  he 
foresaw  would  be  too  numerous  and  extended  for  bis  indi- 
vidual labour ;  and  be  had  do  sooner  suggested  the  scheme 
than  it  was  adopted  with  avidity.  The  new  association  assem- 
bled for  the  first  time  in  January  1784.  The  government 
of  Bengal  readily  granted  its  patronage,  and  Mr.Hastings^then 
governor  general,  who  had  ever  been  a  zealous  encourager 
of  Persian  and  Sanscrit  literature,  was  ofiered  the  honorary 
title  of  president ;  but,  as  his  numerous  engagements  pre-> 
vented  his  acquiescence,  sir  William  Jones  was  immediate* 
ly  and  \inanimously  placed  in  the  chair.  The  importance  of 
this  society  has  been  long  acknowledged,  and  their  ^^  Trans- 
actions'' are  a  suificient  testimony  of  their  learning,  acute- 
ness,  and  perseverance,  qualities  the  more  remarkable  that 
they  have  been  found  in  men  most  of  whom  embarked  for 
India  with  views  of  a  very  different  kind,^  and  which  might 
have  occupied  their  whole  attention  without  their  incurring 
the  imputation  of  neglect  or  remissness. — ^To  detail* the 
whole  of  sir  William  Jones's  proceedings  and  labours,  as 
president  of  this  society,  would  be  to  abridge  their  Trans- 
actions, of  which  he  lived  to  see  three  volumes  published ; 
but  the  following  passage  from  lord  Teignmouth's  narrative 
appears  necessary  to  complete  this  sketch  of  bis  life. 

Soon  after  his  arrival  ^'  he  determined  to  commence  the 
study  of  the  Sanscrit.  His  reflection  had  before  suggested 
that  a  knowledge  of  this  ancient  tongue  would  be  of  the 
greatest  utility,  in  enabling  him  to  discharge  with  confi- 
cjence  and  satisfaction  «to  himself,  the  duties  of  a  judge; 
and  he  soon  discovered,  what  subsequent  experience  fully 
confirmed,  that  no  reliance  could  be  placed  on  the  opinions 
or  interpretations  of  the  professors  of  the  Hindoo  law,  un- 
less be  were  qualified  to  examine  their  authorities  arid 
Zuotatioiis,  and  detect  their  errors  and  misrepresentations, 
^n  the  other  bandy  he  knew  that.  alL  attempts  to  explore 
the.  religion  or  literature  of  India  through  any  other  me- 
dii|m  than  a  knowledge  of  the  Sanscrit,  must  be  imperfect 
and  unsatisfactory;  it  was  evident  that  the  most  erroneous 
and  discords^nt  opinions  on  these  subjects  had  been  circu-: 
late4  by  th^  ignorance  of  those  who  had  collected  their 

126  JONES. 

ioformatidn  fi^oni  oral  Goniifaunicatioiis  only,  arid  that  the 
pietures  exhibited  ia  Earope,.  of  the  religion  and  Uteratuve 
of  Indi%  could  only  be  compared  to  the  maps  constfuct^d 
by  the  natives,  in  which  every  position  is  distorted,  attd 
all  proportion  violated.  As  a  lawyer,  he  knew  the  vattie 
and  importance  of  original  documents  and  records,  and-  2ih 
a  scbolal:  and  man  of  science,  he  disdained  the  ided  of 
aoKisiog  the  learned  world  with  secondary  informaitioni  on 
subjects  wbich  bad  greatly  interested  their  curiosity,  wkeil 
be  bad  tbe  me^ns  of  access  to  the  original  scnirtes^.*  He 
was  also  aware,  that  much  was  expected  by  the  literati  of 
£urope,  from  bis  sitperior  abilities  and  learning,  and  ht 
felt  the  strongest  inclination  to  gratify  their  expectations 
in  the  fullest  possible  extent,"  ' 

The  plan  to  be  promoted  by  his  knowledge  of  the^  Sans- 
crit was  at  this  time  very  distant  as  to  probability  of  ete^ 
cution)  but  he  bad  carefully  weighed  it  in  his  mind,  and 
was.  gradually  preparing  the  way  for  its  aecomplisbtnent; 
It  was,  indeed,  worthy  of  his  great  and  liberal  mind,  16 
provide  for  the  due  administration  of  justice  among  tb^ 
Iixdians,  by  compiling  a  digest  of  Hindu  and  Mahomiriedkn 
laws,  similar  to  that  which  Justinian  gave  t6  his  Gredc  and 
Roman  subjects.  When  he  had  made  such  progr6s|^  in  thd 
language  as  might  enable  him  to  take  a  principal  pa^t  iti 
this  important  design,  he  imparted  his  views  to  lord  Corh<t 
wallis,  then  (1788)  governor  general,  in  a- long  letter,  which 
will  ever  remain  a  monument  of  his  esctensive  understknd-* 
ing,  benevolence,  and  public  spirit.  That  his  plati  met  with 
ac<:eptance  from  lord  Comwallis  will  not  appedr  ^irprizing 
to  those  who  knew  that  excellent  nobleman,  Who,  white' 
contemplating  the  honour  which  such  an  undertaking  would 
confer  on  his  own  administration,  conceived  the  highest 
hopes  from  sir  William  Jones's  offer  to  co-operate,  or 
rather  to  superintend  the  execution  of  it.  ^'  At  the  period^'* 
says  his  biographer,  "  when  this  work  was  undertaken  by 
sir  William  Jones,  he  had  not  resided  in*  India  more  thair 
four  years  and  a  half;  during  which  time  he  had  n6t  only 
acquired  a  thorough  knowledge  of  the  Sanscrit  language, 
but  bad  extended  his  reading  in  it  so  far  as  to  be  qualified 
to  form  a  judgment  upon  the  merit  attd^  authority  of  the 
authofs  to  be  used  in  the  compilation  of  bis  work  ;  and  al- 
though his  labour  was  only  applied  to  the  dispositibn  of 
materials' alresydy  formed,  he  was  enabled  by  his  previous 
studies  to  give  them  an  arrangemeht  superior  to  any  exist-- 

JONES.  127 

iogy  and  which  the  learoed  ^  natives  themselves  approved 
and  adoxired.  In  the  dispensations  of  Providencei  it  may 
be  remarked,  as  an  occurrence  of  no  ordinary  naturet  that 
the  professors  of  thje  Braminical  faith  should,  sq  far  re« 
noHnce  their  reserve  and  distrust  as  to  submit  to  the  direc-* 
tion  of  a.  native  of  Europe,  for  compiling  a  digest  of  theiv 
•wn  laws." 

In  1789  the  first  volume  of  the  "  Asiatic  Researches'^ 
was  published,  and  the  same  year  sif  William  Jones  finisjied 
his  translation  of  '^  Sacontala*  or  the  Fatal  Ring/'  an  an* 
cient  Indian  drama,  and  one  of  the  greatest  curiositiies  that 
the  literature  of  Asia  had  yet  brought  to.  light.  In  1794  he 
publisl^ed^  as  an  institute,  prefatory  to  his  larger  work,  a 
translatiQ|[i  of  the  ordinances  of  Menu,  who  is  es^eiemed  by 
the  Hindus  the  first  of  created  beings,  and  npt  only  the 
oldest)  but  the  holiest  of  legislators.  The  judgment  and 
candour  of  the  translator,  however,  led  him  to  appreciate 
this  work  no  higher  than  it  deserved,  as  not  being  calcu- 
lated Cor  general  reading,  but  exhibiting  the  manners  of  a. 
remarkable  people  in  a  remote  age,  as  including  a  system^ 
of  despotism  and  priest<;raft^  limited  by  law,  yet  artfully 
conspiring  to  give  mutual  support,  and  as  filled  with  con* 
ceits  in  metaphysics  and  natural  philosophy,  which  might, 
be  liable  to  misconstruction*,  Amidst  these  .employments, 
be  still  carried  on  bis  exteiisive  correspondenca  with  his 
learned  friends  in  Europe,  unfolding  with  candour  his  va-^ 
ripus  pursuits  and  sentiments,  and  expressing  such.anxiety 
about  every  branch  of  science  as  proved  that  even  what  he 
called  relaxation,  wa$  but  the  diversion  of.  h|s  researches 
from  one  channel  into  anothen  In  addition  to  the  various 
studies  already  noticed,  botany  appears  to  have  occupied 
a  considerable  share  of  his  attention ;  and  in  this,  as  in 
every  new, acquisition,  he  disdained  (o  stop  at  a  moderate 
progress,  or  be  content  with  a  superficial  knowledge. 

The  indisposition  of  lady  Jones  in  1793,  rendered  it 
absolutely  necessary  that  she  should  return  to.  England,  and. 
her  affectionate  husband  proposed  to  follow  her  in  1795, 
but  still  wished  to  complete  a  system  of  Indian  laws  be«, 
fore  be  left  the  situation  in  which  he  coi)ld  promote  thit^ 
great  work  with  most  advantage.  But  he  had  not  pro-, 
ceeded  long  in  this  undertaking  before  symptoms  appeaVed 
of  that  disorder  which  deprived  the  >world  of  one  of.  ilstr 
brightest  ornainents.  The  following  account  of  his  dis^otv 
lution  is  given  in  the  words  of  his  bibgrapher^ 

12S  JONES- 

**Onthe  evening  of  the  twentieth  af  April,  of  nearly 
about  that  date,  after  prolonging  his  walk  to  a  late  hour, 
during  which  he  had  imprudently  remained  in  conversa- 
tion, in  an  unwholesome  situation,  he  called  upon  the  writef 
of  these  sheets,  and  complained  of  aguish  symptoms,  men- 
tioning his  intention  to  take  some  medicine,  and  repeating 
jocularly  an  old  proverb,  *  that  ^  an  ague  in  the  spring  is 
medicine  for  a  king.^  He  had  no  suspicion  at  the  time 
of  the  real  nature  of  his  indisposition,  which  proved,'  in 
fact,  to  be  a  complaint  common  in  Bengal,  an  inflammation, 
in  the  liver.  The  disorder  was,  however,  spon  discovered 
by  the  penetration  of  the  physician,  who,  after  two  or  three" 
days,  was  called  in  to  his  assistance ;  but  it  had  then^ 
advanced  too  far  to  yield  to  the  efficacy  of  the  medicines 
usually  prescribed,  and  they  were  administered  in  vain» 
The  progress  of  the  complaint  was  uncommonly  rapid,  and 
terminated  fatally  on  the  twenty-seventh  of  April  1794.: 
On  the  nctorning  of  that  day  his  attendants,  alarmed  at.  the 
evident  symptoms  of  approaching  dissolution,  came  pre-^ . 
cipitately  to  call  the  friend  who  has  now  the  melancholy 
task  of  recording  the  mournful  event.  Ngt  a  moment  was 
lost  in  repairing  to  his  house.  He  was  lying  on  his  bed  in 
a  posture  of  meditation ;  and  the  only  symptom  of  remain^r 
ing  life  was  a  small  degree  of  motion  in  the  heart,  which 
after  a  few  seconds  ceased,  and  he  expired  without  a  pang 
or  groan.  His  bodily  suffering,  front  the  complacency  of 
his  features  and  the  ease  of  bis  attitude,  could  not  have 
been  severe ;  and  his  mind  must  have  derived  consolation 
from  those  sources  where  he  had  been  ^n  the  habit  of  seek- 
ii)g  it,  and  where  alone,  in  our  last  moments,  it  can  ever 
)be  found." 

Thus  ended  the  life  of  a  man  who  was  the  brightest  ex- 
ample of  rational  ambition,  and  of  extensive  learning,  vir- 
tue, and  excellence,  that  modern  times  have  produced  ;  a 
man  whp  must  ever  be  the  subject  of  admiration,  although 
it  can  happen   to   the  lot  of  few  to  equal,  and,  perhaps, 
of  none  to  excel  him.     When  we  compare  the  shortness^  . 
^f  his  life  with  the  extent  of  his  labours,  the  mind  is  over- 
powered ;   yet  his  example,  however  disgraceful  to  the  . 
indolent,  and  even  apparently  discouraging  to  the  hunible 
scholar,  will  noC  be  without  the  most  salptary  effects,  if  it  ^ 
be  allowed  to  prove  that  no  difficulties  in  science  are  in-r  - 
aufmoun table  by  regular  industry,  that  the  human  faculties  .. 
can  be  exalted  by  e^rcbe  beyond  the  common  degrees   , 

J  O  N  E  a  1S9 

vith  vrfuch  we  are  apt  to  be  satisfied,  and  that  the  finest 
taste  is  not  incompatible  with  the  profoundest  studies,  tt 
was  the  peculiar  felicity  of  this  extraordinary  man,  that 
Ae  whole  plan  of  his  life  appears  to  have  been  the  best 
that  could  have  been  contrived  to  forward  bis  views  and  to 
accomplish  his  cbaracten  In  tracing  its  progress  we  see 
very  little  that  could  have  been  more  happily  arranged  : 
few  adverse  occurrences,  and  scarcely  an  object  of  serious 
Kegret,  especially  when  we  consider  how  gently  his  ambi- 
tion was  chastened,  and  his  integrity  purified,  by  the  few 
delays  which  at  one  time  seemed  to  cloud  his  prospects* 
In  1799  his  Works  were  published  in  six  volumes  quarto^ 
and  have  been  since  reprinted  in  thirteen  volumes  octavo^ 
with  the  addition  of  his  life  by  lord  Teignmouth,  whicK 
first  appeared  in  1804.  Among  the  public  .tributes  to  his 
memory  are,  a  monument  by  Flaxman  in  University  college, 
at  the  expence  of  lady  Jones ;  a  monument  in  St.  Paul's, 
and  a  statue  at  Bengal,  both  voted  by  the  hon.  East  India 
company.  A  society  of  gentlemen  at  Bengal  who  were 
educated  at  Oxford,  subscribed  a  sum  for  a  private  disser- 
tation on  his  character  and  merits,  which  was  adjudged  to 
Mr.  Henry  Pbilpots,  M.  A.^of  Magdalen  college.  Among, 
the  many  poetical  tributes  paid  to  his  memory,  that  by  the 
rev.  Mr.  Maurice,  of  the  British  Museum,  seems  entitled 
to  the  preference,  from  his  accurate  knowledge  of  sir  Wil- 
liam Jones's  character  and  studies. 

•  '^  A  mere  catalogue  of  the  writings  of  sir  William  Jones,*' 
says  his  biogragher,  *^'  would  shew  the  extent  and  variety 
of  his  erudition  ;  a  perusal  of  them  will  prove  that,  it  was 
no  less  deep  than  miscellaneous.  Whatever  topic  he  dis- 
cusses, his  ideas  flow  with  ease  and  perspicuity,  his  style 
is  always  clear  and  polished ;  animated  and  forcible,  when 
his  subject  requires  it.  His  philological,  botanical,  philo- 
sophical, and  chronological  disquisitions,  bis  historical  re- 
searches, and  even  his  Persian  grammar,  whilst  they  fix 
the  curiosity  and  attention  of  the  reader,  by  the  novelty^ 
depth,  or  importance  o^f  the  knowledge  displayed  in. them, 
always  delight  by  elegance .  of  diction.  His  compositions^ 
areoiever  dry,  tedious,  nor  disgusting ;  and  literature  and 
science  come  from  his  hands,  adorned  with  all  their  grace 
and  beaaty.  No  writer,  perhaps,  ever  displayed  so  much 
learning,,  with  so  little  affectation  of  it"  With  regard  t9 
hi3  law  publications,  it  is  said  that  his  ^^  Essay  on^BaiU 
ments"  was  sanctioned  by  the  approbation  of  lord  Mans « 
Vol.  XIX.  .      K 

i^  J'O  NEf'S.'- 

r  '  '  r  .  • 

field  ;  and  all  His  \Vrirings  in  thi^  d^krtii^eht  shdiv  that  hi: 
bad  thoroughly  studifed  the  prihcipfles  of  taw  as  a  science- 
As  to  his  opinion  of  the  British  cbnstitutioti,  it  jlpf)e2Lrt 
from  repeated  declarations  that  occur  jn  his  letters^'  ^ittd 
particularly  in  his  lOth  discourse,  delivered  to  the  Asiatic 
society  in  1793,  that  be  considered  it  as  the  nfoblest  atid 
most  perfect  that  ever  was  forrtied.  With  regard  to'his 
political  principles,  he  was  an  enlrghtened  aftd  tfecidfed 
friend  to  civil  and  religions  liberty.  Like  m-any,  ethfers  of 
the  same  principles,  he  entertained  a  favoliraWe  opiniort  bf 
the  French  revolution  at  its  coniiiienc^Vifent,  ^fitrid*  wisheiA 
96ccess  to  the  exertions  of  that  nation  for  the  establishment 
of  a  free  constitution;  but  subsequent  events  must  havi^ 
^iven  him  new  views,  not  so  much  of  the  principles^  orf 
which  the  revolution  was  founded,  as  of  the  measures  which: 
have  be  3n  adopted  by  some  of  its  zealous  partizans.  To 
liberty,  indexed,  his  attachment  was  enthusiastic,  and  he 
never  speaks  of  tyranny  or  oppression  but  in  the  lan- 
guage of  detestation.  He  dreaded,  and  Wished  to  restrtiin; 
every  encroachment  dn  liberty;  and  though  he  nevef 
Unlisted  under  the  banners  of  any  party,  he  always  con- 
curred in  judgment  and  exertion  with  those  who  wished  to 
render  pureatid  permanent  the  constitution  of  his  country. 

As  a  judge  in  India,  his  conduct  was  strictly  conformable 
to  the  professions  which  be  itiade  in  his  first  chstrge  to  the 
grand  jury  at  Calcutta.  On  the  bench  he  was' laborious, 
patieti't,  and  discriminating  ;  his  charges  to  the  grand  jiiry, 
which  do  not  exceed  six,  exhibit  a  veneration  for  the  fcrwi 
of  hi?  country  ;  a  just  and  spirited  encomium  on  the  tribal 
by  jury,  as  the  greatest  and  most  invaluable  right  derived 
from  them  to  the  subject;  a  detestation  of  crimes,  coin- 
bined  with  mercy  to  thfe  offender;  occasional  elucitJa- 
tions  of  the  law ;  and  the  strongest  feelings  of  huniaLnity 
and  benevolence.  His  knowledge  of  the  Sanscrit  tiud  Ara- 
bic eminently  qualified  him  for  the  administration  of  justice 
in  the  supreme  court,  by  enabling  him  to  detect  misrepre- 
sentatioiis  of  the  Hindu  or  Mohammedan  laws,  and  to-cor- 
rect impositions  in  thte  form  of  feidministering  oaths'W  the 
followers  of  Brihma  and  Mohammed.  The  inflexIbFe  inte- 
grity with  which  he  discharged  the  solemn  duty  of  tBis 
station  will  long  bie  remembered  in  Calcutta,  both  by 
Europeans  and  natives.  ^ 

*It  ml^ht  naturally  be  inquired  by  what  arts  or  method 
he  was  enabled  to  attain  lihat  extraoi'dinary  degree  of  knovr^ 

JONES.  in 

ledge  fof  which  be  was  distinguished.  «  His  •  faculties  wece 
naturally  vigorous  and  strengthened  by  exercise ;  fai^  me* 
•Qipry,  ^^  we  have  before  observed,  was,  from  early  life, 
singularly  retentive  ;  his  ejaculation  was  ardent  and  un- 
.]^^T|c}4^;  and  hjs  .perseyerancQ  invincible.  In  India  his 
stud^  begs^n  v(rit||i  j^b^t^davvn  i.  ^d,  with  the  interraissioa 
of  ,pr<^essional  dutiies,.  \yere  cpntinA^iejd  throughout  ihe  day. 
j^^noth^  circumstance,  ^hi(;h  h^s  bfjei)  exemplified  |n  soma 
.other  instances  that  might  he  meptioni^d^  and  whicji:  gava 
hiia  peculiar  advantage  in  the^  exercise  of  his  talents,  w4s 
'Vthei  regular  allotment  of  his,  time  to  particular  occupa- 
tions^ iGinifi  ,a  scrupulous  adherence  to  the  distribution  which 
Jie.h'wJ'fi^ds"  so? that  "  all  hi^  studies  were  pursued  with- 
out interruption  or  cpufusion.".  With  sir^WilliamfJones  it 
was  a  favourite  opinion,  ^'  that  all  men  are  born  with  an 
equal  capacity  for  infiprovement.y  ... 

It  is  needless  to  add  any  thing  in  commeodation  of  hia 
.private  ap4  social  virtues. ,  The  independence  of  his  intei- 
grity^  bis  probity  and  humanity,  and  also  his  universal 
.philanthropy  and  beiievolence,  are  acknowledged  by  all 
who /knew.  bipp.  In  every  domestic  relatiouy  ^asasgp,  a 
;braiihei:^  .and  ^hi|isbaiid,  he  was  attentive  to  every  dici;ate 
joflpve^  find  ^oeV^ry  obligation  of  duty.  In  his  intercour^^ 
WiUh  ,tbeludiap,  natives, he.  was  condescending  aod  conci'* 
liatory ;;  lib^re^Uy  rewarding  those  who  assisted  him,  and 
treating. his  dependents  as  friends!  His  biographer  r^^ 
icords  the  following  anecdote  of  a  circumstance  that  oor 
curred  after  his  demise :  "  The  pundits  who  were  in  the 
habit  of.attendiug  bioi,  when  I  saw  them  at  a  public  durbar 
a  few  d^y^  after  that  melancholy  event,  could  neither  r^r 
strain  their  tears  for  his  loss,  nor  find  terms  to  expre9s 
their  admiration  at  the  wopd^i'ful  progress  which  be  hsi4 
made  in  fhe  sciences  which  they  professed."  Uppn  4he 
whole^  we  may  join  with  Dr.  Parr,  who  knew  bis  taleotg 
aad  character,  in  appljring  to  sir  William  Jones  his  ,own 
i«ords,  "  It  is  happy  for  us  that  this  man  was  horw,"» 

H^vipg  attained,  by  the  assid uous  exertion  of  his  abiliiies^ 
im4;ip  a  cour^  pf  .useful  service  to  bis  <?o,ijutry  and  naan- 
kind,  a  high  degree  of  reputation,  a^d  by  eco»oiuy.tfaAt 
did^ro^ch  .ppon  his  beneficence,.. a  liberal  compe- 
tence, he  was  prepared,  one  would  have  thought,  at  the 
age  of  forty-^seven  years,  to  enjoy  dignity  with  indepen- 
deute»  49 is  plans,  and  the  objects  of  his  pursiUt,  in  the 
prospect  of  future  life,  were  various  and  extensive  ^  and  he 

K   2  • 

132  JONES. 

would  naturally  indulge  many  pleasing  ideas  in  the  vi€?wr  of 
returning,  at  a  fixed  period,  to  his  native  country,  and  ip 
'  beloved  friends,  •  wh^o  would  anxiously  wish  for  his^  arrival* 
Few  persons  seemed  to  be  more  capable  of  improving  and 
enjoying  prolonged  life  than  sir  William  Jones ;  and  few 
persons  seemed  to  be  better  prepared  for  a  more  exalted 
state  of  progressive  improvement^  and  of  permanent  feli- 
city; than  that  to  which  the  most  distinguished  and  pros- 
perous can  attain  within  the  regions  of  mortality.— Since 
his  death  lady  Jones  has  presented  to  the  royal  society  a 
collection  of  MSS.  Sanscrit  and  Arabic,  which  he  reckoned^ 
inestimable,  and  also  another  large  collection  of  Eastern' 
MSS.  of  which  a  catalogue,  compiled  by  Mr.  Wilkins,  is 
inserted  in^the  l3th  volume  of  sir  William  Jones's  Works, 
8vo  edition.  * 

JONES  (William),  a  late  venerable  and  pious  divine  of 
the  church  of  England,  was  born  at  Lowick  iti  Northum- 
berland, July  30,  1726.  His  father  was  Morgan  J'dhes,  a 
Welsh  gentleman,  a  descendant  of  Colonel  Jone«  (but  of 
very  different  principles)  who  married  a  sister  of  Oliver  Crom- 
well. His  mother  was  Sarah,  the  daughter  of  the  Rev.  Mr. 
Lettin,  of  Lowick.  He  was  remarkable  from  his  childhood 
for  unwearied  industry  and  ingenium  versatile.  As  soon  as 
he  was  of  the  proper  age,  he  was  admitted,  on  the  nomi- 
nation  of  the  duke  of  Dorset,  a  scholar  at  the  Charter- 
house, where  he  made  a  rapid  progress  in  Greek  and  Latin, 
and  laid  the  foundation  of  that  knowledge  which  has  since 
p;tven  him  a  distinguished  name  in  the  Christian  world'. 
His  turn  for  philosophical  studies  soon  began  to  shew  itself;, 
for  meeting,  when  at  the  Charter- house,  with  Zachary 
Williadfis,  author  of  a  magnetical  theory,  which  is  now  lost^ 
he  copied  some  of  his  tablea  and  calculations,  was  shewn 
the  internal  construction  of  his  instriiment  for  finding  the 
Variation  of  the  compass  in  all  parts  of  the  world ;  and  saw 
all  the  diagrams  by  which  his  whole  theory  was  demon- 
strated and  explained..  At  this  school,  too,  be  commenced 
an  acquaintance  with  the  late  earl  of  Liverpool,  which  was 
farther  cultivated  at  the  university,  where  they  were  of  the 
same  college,  and  continued  to  the  last,  notwithstanding 
the  great  difference  in  their  future  destination,  to  entertain 
a  respect  for  each  other. 

I  Life  by  lord  Tefsnmouth.--<*J^BSOii  fttt^  Cbalmer^V  PoeU,  ,Ai^JO.r:»ReM^ 

Cyelepsedia.— Nichols's  Bowyer.  ,  .    .  , 

J  O  N  E  Si  133 

When  aboat  eighteen  years  of  age,  be  left  the  school, 
and  went  to  University-college,  Oxford,  on  a'  Charter- 
house exhibition.  Among  the  several  companions  of  hi» 
studies  whom  he  loved  and  respected,  there  was  no  one 
>  dearer  to  him  than  Mr.  George  Home,  afterwards  bishop 
of  Norwich.  Between  them  *'  there  was  a  sacred  friend- 
ship ;  a  friendship  made  up  of  religious  principles,  which 
increased  daily,  by  a  sinulitude  of  inclinations,  to  the  same 
recreations  and  studies.'*  Having  taken  the  degree  of  B.A. 
in  1749,  he  was  ordained  a  deacon  by  Dr.  Thomas,  bishop 
of  Peterborough;  and  in  1751  was  ordained  a  priest  by 
another  Dr.  Thomas,  bishop  of  Lincoln,  at  Bugden.  On 
leaving  the  university,  his  first  situation  was  that  of  curate 
of  Finedon  in  Northamptonshire.  There  he  wrote  ^^  A  full 
Answer  to  bishop  Clayton^s  Essay  on  Spirit,''  published  in 
1753.  In  this  tract,  many  curious  and  interacting  ques- 
tions are  discussed^  and  several  articles  in  the  religion  and 
learning  of  heathen  antiquity  explained,  particularly  the 
Hermetic,  Pythagorean,  and  Platonic  Trinities.  In  1754 
be  married  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  the  Rev.  Brook  Bridges, 
and  went  to  reside  at  Wadenhoe  in  Northamptonshire,  as 
curate  to  his  brother-in-law,  the  Rev.  Brook  Bridges,  a 
gentleman  of  sound  learning,  singular  piety,  and  amiable 
manners.  . 

While  rejsiding  here  he  drew  up  "The  Catholic  Doc- 
trine of  the  Trii^ty,"  which  he  had  been  revolving  in  bis 
mind  for  some.years.  When  this  valuable  work  came  to  a 
third  edition  in  1767,  he  added  to  it  "  A  Letter  to  the 
common  people,  in  answer  to  some  popular  arguments 
agfunstthe  Trinity,"  which  the  Society  for  promoting 
Christian  knowledge  have  since  printed  separately,  and 
admitted  into  their  list  of  books.  Here  likewise  he  en- 
gaged in  a  favourite  work,  for  whiih  he  was  eminently 
qualified,  as  the  event  proved,  and  for  which  some  of  his 
firiends  subscribed  aniong  them  300/.  for  three  years,  to 
enable  him  to  supply  himself  with  an  apparatus  sufficient 
^or  the  purpose  of  making  the  experiments  necessary  to  his 
coiuposing  a  treatise  on  philosophy.  Accordingly,  in  1762, 
lie  published  ^^  An  Essay  on  the  first  principles  of  Natural 
Philosophy,"  4to,  the  design  of  which  was  to  demonstrate 
the  use  of  natural  means,  or  second  causes,  in  the  economy 
of  the  material  world,  from  reason,  experiments,  and  the 
^^tipiony.  of  antiquity  ;  and  in  1781  he  published  a  larger 
work  in  4to,  ander  the  title  of  ^^  Physiological  Disqmsl* 

ja4  ro^ES\ 

iiotis,  or  l5id€<^rses  Oft  theTNatoral  'Phil5«ophy  of  the 
Eleraenti.'*  As  «it  w«i$  ever  bis  «twdfy  to  make  philosophy 
the  handmaid  of  reli^on^  he  tias  xw-  thi&  work  embraced 
every  opportunity  of  employing  naiuttil  knowledgfe  in  tfeig 
illustration  of  divine  truth  and  the  advancement  of  virfue. 
When  the  first  volume  was  publi^ed^thd  late  earl  of  Bute, 
the  patron  of  learning  and  learned  men;  was  so  satisBed 
with  it,  that  he  desired  the  author  not  t.o  be  intimidated 
through  fear  of  expence  from  pursuing  his  philosophical 
studies,  and  likewise  commissioned  him  to  direbc  Mr. 
Adams,  the  mathematical  instrument  maker,  to  supply  him 
with  such  instruments  as  he  might  want  for  makitig  e3epe«* 
riments,  and  put  them  to  his  account.  His  lordship  also 
bandsoniely  offered  him  the  use  of  any  books  he  might 
have  occasion  for. 

Mr.  Jones*s  work  on  the  Trinity  having  procured  him 
much  reputation,  archbishop  Seeker  presented  hini,  first  tor 
the  vicarage  of  Bethersden  in  Kent  in  1764,  and  soon 
after  to  the  more  valuable  rectory  of  Pluckley  in  the  sathe 
coqnty,  as  some  reward  for  his  Able  defence  of  that  im- 
portant doctrine.  The  income  he  derived  from  his  vicarage- 
not  being  equal  to  what  he  expected,  it  was  thought  ex-» 
^pedient  by  his  friends,  that  he  should  eke  out  his  slender 
pittance  by  taking  a  few  pupils ;  and  having  undertaken 
the  tuition  of  two  young  gentlemen,  he  continued  the 
practice  for  many  years  after  he  removed  to  Pluckley.  In 
1766  he  preached  the  '•Visitation  Sermon"  before  arch*- 
bishop  Seeker  at  Ashford,  greatly  to  the  satisfaction  of  hh 
grace  and  the  whole  audience.  Owing  to  some  delicacy; 
it  was  not  printed  at  the  tinie,  though  much  wished ;  btit 
in  1769  the  substance  of  it  was  published  in  the  form  of  a 
*^  Letter  to  a  young  gentleman  at  Oxford  intended  for  holy 
orders,  containing  some  seasonable  cautions  against  errora 
in  doctrine."  On  the  publication  of  "  The  ConfessionaV* 
the  archbishop  considered  Mr.  Jones  as  a  proper  person  to; 
write  an  answer  to  it ;  and  accordingly  he  drew  up  some 
remarks,  but  had  then  neither  health  nor  leisure  to  fit  tfaent 
for  the  press.  But  a  new  edition  being  called  for  of  the 
^*  Answer  to  an  Essay  on  Spirit,'*  Mr.  Jones  thought  it 
advisable  to  add,  by  way  of  sequel,  the  remarks  he  bad 
originally  drawn  up  on  the  principles  and  spirit  of  the 
^' Confessional^i^'  which  were  published  in  1770.  • 

It  is  mentioned  in  bishop  Porteus's  Life  of  archbishfopr 
Seeker,  that  all  the  tracts^  written  by  Dr.  Sharp*  in  th^ 

J  .0  N  C  S.  '13^ 

4IatQhinsoniaB  coa^roversy,  were  gubmkted  to  his  gmctfs 
iospeclion  previous  to  theJar  poUfteatJon,  who  corrected 
«Dd  impfoved  tbem  tbrougbout  ^  bom  whence  we  are  to 
.C9»<:lude  he  approved,  tbeoi.  But  whatever  his  prf^judice8 
were  originally  agaiast  what  is  called  Hutcbinsonianism^ 
and  they  w<»re  supposed  at  one  time  to  be  pretty  strong, 
ihay  must  have  been  greatly  done  away  before  he  became 
the  patron  of  Mr.  Jones.  When  the  *f  Essay  on  the  first 
principled  of  Natural  Philosophy^'  was  publiahed,  his  grace 
observed  to  a  gentleman  who  saw  it  lying  on  his  table, 
"  this  work  of  Mr.  Jx)iies's  is  not  to  be  treated  with  neglect; 
it  is  sensibly  and  candidly  rwiitten,  and  if  it  is  not  an- 
tawered,  we  little  folks  shall  conclude  it  is,  because  it  can- 
.not  ho  answered  :''  and  lie  told  Mr.  Jones  himself  hy  way 
.of  c<^n6iQkuon  (knowing  probably  how  difficult  it  was  to 
^et  rid  of  old  prejudices)  that  be  must  be  contested  to  be 
accounted,  fear  a  time,  an  heretic  in  philosophy.  In  1773 
Mr.  Jones  collected  together  into  a  volume,  Plsqnisitions 
j^n  some  select  subjects  of  Scripture,  which  had  been  before 
printed  in  separate  tracts;  and,  in  1776,  in  the  character 
of  a  "  Presbyter  of  the  church  of  England,'*  be  published, 
in  a  Letter  to  a  friend  at  Oxford,  ^^  Reflections  on  the 
growth  of  Heathenism  among  modern  Christians.'* 

When  he  was  itiduced  to  remove  from  Pluckley,  and 
accept  the  perpetual  curacy  of  Nayland  in  Suffolk,  he 
went  thither  to  reside  with  bis  family*  Soon  after,  he 
effected  an^exchange  of  Pluckiey  for  Paston  in  Nortbamp* 
ipiisbire,  which  he  visited  aanqadly,  but  he  determined  to 
settle  at  Nayland  for  the  remainder  of  his  days,  nor  was  he 
.(as  his  biographer  notices  with  some  regret  for  neglected 
fii^rit)  ever  tempted  to  quit  tbat  post  by  any  offer  of  bigbei* 
preferment.  '  The  ^^  Physiological  Disquisitions*'  hefor^ 
idlwied  to,  havii^g  rec^ved  tlieir  last  revise,  vvere  published 
in  1771,  and  the  impression  \i'as  soou  sold  off.  A  notion, 
says  hifl  biographer,  as  entertained  by  some  persons,  that 
Ahe  elementary  philosophy  .naturally  leads  to  Atheism,  and 
sir  Isaac  Newton  himself  is  charged  with  giving  counte* 
nance  to  materialism  by  hissBther;  but  nothing  can  be 
farther  ftx^m  the  truth.  '^  It  is,'*  adds  Mr.  Stevens,  *^  the 
aim  and  study  of  the  elementary,  called  the  Hutcbin* 
jsonian,  philosophy,  not  to  confound  God  and  nature,  but 
to  distinguish  between  the  Crefitor  and  the  creature; 
not  with  the  heathens  to  set  up  the  heavens  for  God> 
hut  to.  believe   and  confess,   with  all  trup  worshippers, 


^  tlmt  it  is  Jehovah  who  made  the  heavens."-    And  -t9 

inamtaiD  that  the  operations  iik  nature  are  carried  on  bf 

the  agency  of  the  elements,  which,  experiment  demoiVi' 

strates,  is  no  more  excluding  God  from  being  the  Creator 

.  of  the  world,  than  to  maintain  that  motion  once  given  to  a 

.  watch  will  continue  without  the  immediate  applicatitm  of 

'  the  artist's  hand  every  moment  to  it,  is  asserting  that  the 

.  watch  made  itself.*    Let  any  one  read  the  Pbysiologioal 

1  Disquisitions,  and  he  will  soon  be  convinced  that  North  and 

South  are  not  more  opposite  than  Hutchinsonianism  and 

.  materialism. 

The  figurative  language  of  the  Holy  Scripture  having 

been  always  his  favourite  study,  after  revolving  the  subject 

in  his  mind  for  many  years,  Mr.  Jones  drew  up  a  course  of 

riectures,    which  were  delivered  in  the  parish  church  of 

'Nayland,   in  Suffolk,    in  the  year   1786.      Music  was  a 

:favourite  relaxation  with   him,    and  he  understood  both 

theory  and  practice.     His  treatise  on  the  ^^  Art  of  Music*' 

is  reckoned  to  display  a  profound  knowledge  of  the  sub» 

ject,  and  his  compositions  (a  morning  and  evening  cathe- 

,dral  service,  ten  church  pieces  for  the  organ,  with  four 

•anthems  in  score  for  the  use  of  the  church  of  Nayiand)  are 

greatly  admired,  as  of  the  old  school,  in  the  true  classical 

stiie.     By  the  advice  of  his  learned  and  judicious  friend, 

'bishop  Home,  then  become  his  diocesan,  to  whose  opinion 

•he  always  pdid  the  greatest  deference,  he  put  forth,  in 

>1790,'  two  volumes   of  '^Sermons"  on   moral  and   relU 

•gious  subjects,  in  which  were  included  some  capital  dis« 

coilrses  on  Natural  History,  delivered  on  Mr.  Fairchild's 

foundation  (the  Royal  Society  appointing  the  preacher)  at 

-the  church  of  St.  Leonard,  Shoreditcb,  several  successive 

years,  6h  Tuesday  in  Whitsun  week.    At  the  prsaohing  <>f 

these  sermonsj  the  audience  was  not  large,  but  it  increased 

'  annually,  as  the  fiiroe  of  the  preacher  was  noised  abroad, 

whose  manner-was  no  less  animated  and  engaging,  than  the 

subject  Was  profound  and  important,  and  at  the  last  sermon 

the  church  was  full. 

When  deinocratical  principles  were  spreading  with  much 
rapidity  in  1792,  Mr.  Jbnes  wrote  the  letter  of  **Tbd- 
mas  Bull  to  his  brother  John,*^  which  was  disseminated 
throughout  the  kingdom,  was  admirably  calculated  to 
bpen  the.  eyes  of  the  populace,  and  produced  a  consider- 
able effect. 
:  In  1792  he  published  a  valuable  collection  of  dtsftefta*; 

JONES.  iVt 

•4ions,  extract9|  &c.  in  defence  of  the  church  of  England, 

iinder  the  title  of  '*  The  Scholar  armed  against  the  Errors 

^f  the  Time/'  2  toU.  8vo  ;  and  on  the  death  of  bishop 

.Home  in  1792,  Mr.  Jones,  out  ^of  affectionate  regard  to 

the  memory  of  the  venerable  prelate,  his  dear  friend  anid 

patron,  undertook  the  task  of  recording  his  life,  which  was 

published  in  T795,  and  the  second  edition  in  1799,  with  a 

new  preface,  containing  a  concise  but  luminous  exposition 

-  of  the  leading  opiniona  entertained  by  Mr.  Hutchinson  on 

icertain  interesting  points  on  theology  and  philosophy. 

In  the  autumn  of  1798  he  was  presented  by  the  arcb* 
-Uahop'of  Canterbury  to  the  sinecure  rectory  of  Holling- 
bourn  in  Kent,  benevolently  intended  as  a  convenient 
addition  to  his  income,  after  the  discontinuance  of  pupils; 
but  iu  the  following  year  he  lost  his  wife,  which  was  soon 
•followed  by  another  affliction,  probably  occasioned  by  the 
^hock  her  death  gave  him,  a  paralytic  attack  which  deprived 
'  him  of  the  use  of  one  side.  In  this  infirm  state  of  body, 
.  but  with  full  exeicise  of  his  faculties,  he  lived  several 
months.  At  length,  he  suddenly  quitted  his  study,  and 
retired  to  his  chamber,  from  whence  he  came  out  no  more, 
4ireaking  off  in  the  middle  of  a. letter  to  a  friend,  which, 
after  abrupt  transition  from  the  original  subject,  he  left 
^unfinished,  with  these  remarkable  words,  the  last  of  which 
are  written  particularly  strong  and  steady.  **  I  begin  to 
fed  as  well  as  understand,  that  there  was  no  possible  way 
.  of  taking  my  poor  broken  heart  from  the  iatal  subject  of 
.  the  grief  that  was  daily  preying  upon  it  to  its  destruction, 
-but  that  which  Provid<ence  bath  been  pleased  to  take,  of 
turning  my  thoughts  from  my  mind,  to  most  alarming 
'•y«q>toms  of  approaching  death.'*  Like  many  other  good 
and  pious  men  before  him,  he  had  long  very  much  dreaded 
:  the  pains  of  death ;  but,  to  his  own  great  comfort,  this 
<lread  be  completely  overcame.  The  sacrament  had  been 
frequently  administered  to  him  during  his  confinement; 
and  be  received  it,  for  the  last  lime,  about  a  week  prior  to 
his  death.  A  little  while  previous  to  his  dissolution,  as 
his  curate  was  standing  by  his  bed-side,  he  requested  him 
to  read  the  7 1st  psalm,  which  was  no  sooner  done  than  be 
took  him  by  the  hand,  and  said  with  great  mildness  and 
composure,  *^  If  this  be  dying,  Mr.  Sims,  I  had  no  idea 
what  dying  was  before ;"  and  then  added,  in  a  somewhat 
stronger  tone  of  voice,  **  tbank  God,  thank  God,  that  it  is  no 
lvo.r$e«*'  .  He  continued  sensible  after  this  just  long  enough 

^IftS  JONES. 

tot&ke/eave  of  ,bi&  children  (a  son  and  daughter) ,  vv^, 
being  both  settled  at  no  great  distance,  bad  been  veiy 
ini^ch  with.faitn,  and  bad  done  every  thing  in  their  pQwer 
to  alleviate  his, sorrows;  and,  on  the  morning  of  Feb.  €, 
ISOOy  he  expired  without  a  groan  or  a  sigh, 

jBesid^  the  work^  already  mentioned,  Mr.  Jones  was  the 
authgr  of  A  Preservative  against  the  publications  of  mo* 
dern  Socinians*  A  Letter  to  a  CTentleman  at  Oxford, 
Against  Errors  in  Doctrine.  The  Grand  Analogy  ;  or,  the 
Testimony  of  Nature  and  Heathen  Antiquity  to  the  Truth 
of  a  Trinity  in  Unity.  A  Detection  of  the  Principljes  and 
Spirit  of  a  book  entitled  The  Confessional.  On  tlie  Mo^ 
fiaic  Distinction  of  Animals  into  clean  and  unclean.  The 
Sacrifice  of  Isaac  reconciled  with  the  Divine  Laws ;  and 
the  meaning  is  shewn,  so  far  as  it  is  opened  in  the  Scrip- 
ture. An  Enquiry  into  the  Circumstances  and  Moral  In- 
tention of  the  Temptation  of  Jesus  Christ.  A  Survey  of 
Life  and  D«ath ;  with  $om,e  Observations  on  the  Interme- 
diate State.  Considerations  on  the  Life,  Death,  and  Bu^ 
rial  of  the  Patriarchs.  On  the  metaphori<?al  Applicatioo 
of  Sleep,  as  aq  Image  of  Death  in  the  Scripture^.  An 
Essay  on  Con fi relation.  Lectures  on  the  figurative  Lan- 
guage of  the  Scripture;s  ;  with  a  supplemental  Lecture  oa 
^e  Use  and  Intention  of  some  remarkable  Passages  of  the 
Scriptures^  not  coipimonly  understood.  Sermods,  in  two 
volumes,  Syo  ;  besides  several  single  Sermons  preached  on 
various  ocoasionfi.  The  Book  of  Nature,  or  the  Sense  of 
Things ;  in  two  Parts.  Letters  from  a  Tutor  to  his  Pupils. 
The  Churchman!s  Catechism.  The  Constitution  of  the 
Church  of  Christ  demonstrated.  Six  Letters  on  Electricity. 
A  Treatise  on  the  Art  of  Music,  with  Plates  of  Examples^ 
A  Morning  and  Evening  Service.  Observations  in  a  Jour^ 
ney  to  Paris^  by  way  of  Flanders,  in  the  year  1776.  Con*- 
^ideratipns  on  the  Religious  Worship  of  the  H-eath^tis,  30 
bearing  uoaQswerable  Testimony  to  th^  Principles  oi 
Christianity.  A  Letter  to  the  Church  of  England,  by  aa 
old  Friend  and  S^ervant  of  the  Church.  A  Letter  to  three 
fonrv^ted  Jews,'  lately  baptized  and  confirmed  in  tho 
Church  of  England.  A  Letter  to  the  Honourable  L.  K. 
on.  the  Use  of  the  Hebrew  Language.  Short  whole* 
length  of  Dr.  Priestley.  Collection  of  smaller  Pieces  5 
;unong  which  are  the  Learning  of  the  Beasts,  and  Two 
Letters  to  a  Predestinarian,  printed  in  the  Anti-Jacobki 
Review  and  Ma)gaztne  for  January  and  February,  ISOO, 


Acii  &c.  &c.  All  them  bare  been  reprinted  in  an  e^itibti 
of  tus  Works,  1801,  in  12  vols.  8vo,  and' afford  prooft  of 
talenjts,  zeal,  piety,  and  learning,  which  are  highly  credi* 
table  to  him.  Mr.  Jones  of  strong  attachments^ 
and  of  strong  aversions.  In  the  pprsuit  of  ivfaat  he  cdn« 
sideted  to  be  truth,  he  knew  no  middle  paths,  and  would 
listen  to  no  coinproniises.  Such  ard^eot  zeal  frequently 
brought  on  him  the  charge  of  bi^try,  which  perhaps  he 
was  the  better  enabled  to  bear,  as  he  had  to  contend  with 
men  whose  bigotry,  in  their  own  way,  cannot  easily  be 
exceeded.  It  must  be  confessed  at  the  same  time  that  bis 
judgment  was  by  no  means  equal  to  his  ardour  in  promul- 
gating or  vindicating  his  opinions  ;  and  that  all  the  useful 
purposes  of  his  writings  might  have  been  promoted  with 
more  moderation  in  bis  style  and  sentiments.  With  this 
.  exception,  however,  which  is  greatly  overbalanced  by  the 
general  excelleticje  of  bis  character  as  a  man  and  an  author, 
be  deserves  to  be  ranked  among  the  most  able  defenders 
of  the  dootrines  and  discipline  of  the  church'of  England.^ 

JONSIUS,  or  JONSENIUS  (John),  a  learned  philo- 
logical writer,  was  born  Oct.  20,  1624,  at  FlensbUrg  in  the 
diicby  of  Sleswick.  He  was  first  educated  at  the  school 
of  Flensburg,  and  that  of  Kiel,  and  v^ry  early  discovered 
such  a  talent  for  music,  that  when  he  went  to  Hamburgh^ 
and  afterwards  to  Cffempen,  be  was  enabled  to  support 
himself  by  bis  mtnieal  skill.  In  the  autumn  of  1645,  be 
went  to  Rostock,^  where  be  studied  the  languages  and  phi- 
losophy, and  probably  theology,  ^s  he  became  a  preacher 
in  1647.  In  the  same  year  he  was  admitted  doctor  in  phi- 
losophy. Leaving  Rostock  in  1649,  he  returned  to  Flens- 
burg to  be  co-rector  of  the  schools,  an  office  which  he 
filled  with  great  credit  for  a  year,  and  had  for  one  of  his 
scbolars  the  celebrated  Marquard  Gudius.  The  smallness 
of  his  salanf  obliging  him  to  give  up  his  situation,  he  went 
m  1650  to  Konigsberg,  where  he  taught  philosophy,  and 
iti  1652  aiecepted  the  place  of  rector  of  the  schools  at 
Flensburg.  In  1656  he  was  pi^esented  to  the  rectorate  of 
the  school  belonging  to  the  cathedral ;  but  partly  owitig  td 
the  bad  air  of  the  pfeace,  and  partly  to  some  discourage-r 
ments  and  domestic^  troubles,  l>e  determined  to  leave  ht^ 
native  country  for  Leipsic ;  and  whVIe  there,  the  senate  of 
Francfort  offered  him  the  place  of  sub^rector,  which  he 

I  Jiife  by  Wip.  Stevens,  esq,  first  printed  in  the  Anti-Jacobin  Review. 

140  J  O  N  S  I  U  S. 

accepted^  but  did  not  enjoy  long,  as  he  died  of  a  violent 
bsoiorrhage  in  April  1659.  He  was  the  author  of  varioua 
philological  dissertations,  which  indicated  great  learning 
and  critical  acumen;  but  his  principal  work  is  bis'^De 
Scriptoribu^.  histcms  philosophies,  Ubri  IV.''  Fraucfort^ 
1,659,  4 to.  This  soon  became  very  scarce,  which  deter- 
mined Dornius  to  publish  a  new  edition  in  17 16,  continned 
to  that  timp,  with  learped.  notes.  Both  editions  are  highly 
praised,  as.y^uable  works,  by  Grievius,  Baillet,  atid  Brueken 
Jonsius  had  announced  other  useful  treatises,  the  comple-* 
tion  of  which  was  his  untimely  death.^ 

JONSON  (Bekjamin),  or  JOHNSON,  for  so  he,  as 
well  as  some  of  his  friends,  wrote  his  name,  was  born  m 
Hartshprn-liane  near  Charing^cross,  Westminster,  June  11, 
1574,  about. a  month  after  the  death  of  his  father:  Dr« 
^athurst,  whose  life  was  written  by  Mr.  Warton,  informed 
iiubrey  that  Jonson  was  born  in  Warwickshire,  but  aU 
pther  accounts  fix  his  birth  in  Westminster.  Fuller  says, 
that  *^  with  all  his  industry  he  could  not  fiiui  him  in  bi» 
cradle,  but  that  he  could  fetch  him  from  his  long  coats : 
when  a  little  child,  he  lived  in .  Hactshor^ie^lane  near 
Charing^cross."  Mr.  Malone  examined  the  register,  of 
St.  Margaret^s  Westminster,  and  St.  Martinis  in  the  Fields, 
hut  without  being  able  to  discover  the  time  of  his  baptism. 
His  family  was. originally  of  Anntodale  in  Scotland,  whence 
his  grandfather  removed  to  Carlisle  in  the  time  of  Henry 
Vni.  under  whom  he  held  some  office*  But  his  son  being 
deprived  both  of  his  estate  and  liberty  in  the  reigu  of 
queen  .Mary,  went  afterward^  in  holy  orders,,  and,  leaving 
Carlisle,  settled  in  Westminster. 

Our  poet  was  first  sent  to  a  private  school  in  the  church 
of  St.  Martinis  in  the  Fields,  and  was  afterwards  removed 
to  Westminster-school.     Here  he  had  for  his  preceptor  the 
illustrious  Camden,  for  whom  he  ever  preserved  the  highest 
respect,  and,  besides  dedicating  one- of  his. best  plays  to. 
him,  commemorates  him  in  one  of  his  epigrams,  as^  the 
person  to  whom  he  owed  pdl  he  knew.     He  Was  mfdung 
very  extraordinary  progress  at  this  school,  when  his  mother^ 
who,  sfoon  after  her  husband's  death,  had  married  a.  brick* . 
laiyer,  took  him  home  to. learn  his  step-father*s  business.- 
How  long  he  continued  in  this,  degrading  occupation  risc^ 
uncertain  :  ;Eu;cording  to  Fuller  he  soon  left  it,  and  went  to., 

*  Chaufepte.— -Saxii  OoomMticon. 

i  O  N  S  O  N;  141 

Cambridge,   btrt  necessity  obliged  him  to  retuhi  tp  his 
Aitlier,  wboy  among  other  works,  employed  him  on  the  nevr 
bmiding  at  Lincoln Vinn,  and  here  he  was  to  be  seen  witb 
a  trowel  in  one  hand  and  a  book  in  the  other.    This,  Mr. 
Malone  thinks,  most  hare  been  either  in  1588  or  1593, 
in  each  of  which  years,  Dugdale  informs  us,  tome  new 
buildings  were  erected  by  the  society.     Wood  varies  the 
story,  by  stating  that  he  was  taken  from  the  trowel  to  attemi 
Sir  Waiter  Raleigfa^s  son  abroad,  and  afterwards  went  to 
Cambridge;  but  young  Raleigh  was  not  bom  till  1534^ 
nor  ever  went  abVoad,  except  with  his  father  in  1617  to 
Guiana,  where  he  lost^iis  life.     So  many  of  Jonson's  con- 
temporaries, however,  have  mentioned  his  connection  with 
the  Raleigh  family,  that  it  is  probable  he  was  in  some 
shape  befriended  by  them,  although  not  while  he  worked 
at  his  father^s  business,  for  from  that  be  ran  away,  enlisted 
as  a  common  soldier,  and  served  in  the  English  army  thetk 
engaged  agai  nst  the  Spaniards  in  the  Netherlands.  **  Here,** 
says  the  author  of  his  life  in  the  Biographia  Britannicap 
'*  he  acquired  a  degree  of  military  glory  which  rarely  falls 
to  the  lot  of  a  common  man  in  that  profession.     In  an 
encountar  with  a  single  man  of  the  enemy,  he  slevf  his. 
opponent,  and  stripping  him,*  carried  off  the  spoils  in  the 
vi^v  of  both  armies.'*    As  our  author*s  fsme  does  not  rest 
on  his  military  ex jploits,  it  can  be 'no  detraction  to  hint, 
that  one  man  killing  and  stripping  another  is  a  degree  of 
military  prowess  of  no  very  extraordinary  kind.     His  bio« 
grapber,  however,  -  is  unwilling  to  quit  the  subject  until  he 
has  informed  us,  that  **  the  glory  of  this  action  receives  a 
particular  heightening  from  the  reflection,  that  he  thereby 
stands  singularly  distinguished  abov^  the  rest  of  his  bre* 
tbren  of  the  poetical  race,  very  few  of  whom  have  ever 
acquired  any  reputation  in  arms.*'  , 

On  his  return  he  is  said  to  have  resumed  hb  studies^ 
^6d  to  have  gone  to  St.  Joha*s  college,  Cambridge.  This 
fact  rests  chiefly  upon  a  tradition  in  that  college,  sup* 
ported  by  the  gift  of  several  books  now  in  the  library  with 
his  hame  in  them.  As  to  the  question  why  bis  name  does 
not  appear  in  any  of  the  lists,  it  is  answered  that  he  was 
only  a  sizar,  who  made  a  short  stay,  and  his  name  could 
not  appear* among  the  admissions,  where'  no  notice  was 
u«diMy  taken  of  any  young  men  that  had  not  scholarships ; 
and  «s  to  matriculation,  there  was  at  that  time  no  register* 
If  be  w«nt  to  St.  John's,  it  seems  probable  enough  that 

14&  J  O  N  S  O  N. 

^|e  #hortn^s»  of  his  stay  was  occasioned,  by  his  necessities; 
and  tbi»  wouldi  be  the  ease  whether  be  weat  to  Canirbiidge 
jrn:  15^^^  as'  Mr-  Malone  conjectureis^  or  after  his  return 
ffsolai,  tb^' army^.M perhaps  in  1594.  .  In  either  case. be  was 
ppor^  and^^Foqeim^d  no  encoul-agement  ifropa  bi3  family  fa 
bi^redaaaticui.  His  persevering  love  of  .literatune,  bow*- 
«Ter^*  j^md$t).so  many  difficulties^  ougbi  ito  be.  mentioned 
i;Q  bis  boC^ourv  *  »  .:  . 

Pi  Haying  Iftuledin  these  more  creditable,  attempts  to  gain 
p.  subsiitenoe^  ke  began  his  theati'ioal  career^  at  first  among 
^e:strolUngcompames>  and  wa»  afterwards  admitted  into 
2U[i.ob^cure^;tbeatre.  called  the  Gre^TCurtaliH.,  in  the  neigb- 
]>ourbood  of  Sboreditohy  from  which  ;the  present  Curtain- 
road  seems  to  derive  its  name.     He  had  not  been  there 
long,  before  be  attempted  to  write  for  the  stage,  bi^  was 
not  tt  .first  very  successful  either  as  an  author  or  actor. 
Meres  leniametates  him  among  the  writers  of  tragedy;  but  no 
tragedyof  bis  writing  exists,  prior  to  1598,  when  bis  co-* 
medy  of  '^<£very  Man  in  bis  Humour^^  procured  him  a  name* 
DeKter^  in  bis  **  Satyromastix,''  censures  hb  acting  as  awk- 
ward^ and  mean,  and  bis  lemper^as  rough  and  untractabie.' 
.    Dufieg  his  early  engagements  on  the  stage,  he  bad  the 
imsfi^tune  to  kill  one  of  the  players  in  a  duel,  for  which 
fae/was  thrown  inito  prison,  ^^  brought  near  the  gallows,^* 
but  afterwards  pardoned.     While  iu  confinement,  a  poi3ish 
priest  prevailed  on  him  to  embraoe.  the  Roman  catbolic 
faith,  in  which  be  continued  about  twelve  years.     As  soon 
as  be  was  released,  which  appears  to. have  been  about 
1595,  he  married,  to  use  "hisown  expression,  ^<  a  wife 
who  was  a  shrew,  yet  honest  to  him,"  and  endeavoured  '^ 
provide  for  his  family  by  bis  pen.     Having  produced  a 
play  which  was  acoidetitally  seen  by  Shakspeare,  he  re*- 
solved  to  bring  it  on  the  stage,  of  which  he  was  a  manager, 
and  acted  a  part  in  it  btmself.     What  play  tbis  was,  we 
ave  not  told,  but  its  success  encounaged  him  'to  produce 
his  excellent  comedy  of  ^^  £veiy  Man  in  his  Bmnonr,^ 
which  was  performed  on  the  same  stage  in  16&8.     Oidys, 
in  his  manuscript  notes  on  Langbaine,  says  tliat- Jonson 
was  bimself  the  master  of  a  play-house  in  Barbican,  wbtch 
was  at  a  distant  period  converted  into  a  dissenting  meeting- 
house.     He  adds  that  Ben  li^ed  .in  Bartholomew-dose,  in 
the  bouse  which  was  inhabited,  in  Oldys's  itinie^  by  MP, 
James,  a  letter-founder.     Mentioii  is  made  in  his. writings^ 
of  bis  theatre,  of  the  Sun  and  Moon  tatern^  in  Aldersgate- 

J  O  N  S  O  N.  Uft 



Street,  and  of  the  MernoAid.  >  But  tbewAtit  of  ^tes  ren- 
ders much  of  ihid  information  tiselestf.' 
'■  Ii%  the  following  year  he  produced  the  c<!»uii«erti«tt  of  Ms 
former  comedy;  entitled  "  Erery  Man  (mt  of  his  Hmnour,'* 
and  continued  to  furnish  a-  new  play  eveiy  year*  until  he 
was  called  to  assist  in  the  maiaks  amd  *  Entertainments  m^^h 
in  honour  of  the  acoession  of  king  JAraes  to'(9ie  throng  -of 
England,  and  afterwards  ob  occasions  idf  particular  festivity 
at  the  courts  of  James  and  Cbai^leii  I.  But  from  "these 
barbarous  productions,  be  occasibnally  retired  to  the  cul- 
tivation of  his  comio  genius,  and  ^n  one  occasion  gave  an 
extraordinary  proof  of  natural  and  prompt  exceUence  in 
his  ^'  Volpone,"  which  was  finished  within  the  space  of 
five  weeks.  ■  . 

His  next  production  in()icated  somewhat  of  thait  rough 
and  independent  spirit  which  neither  the  smiles  nor  terrors 
of  a  court  could  repress.     It  was,  indeed,  a  foolish  ebnl* 
lition  for  a  man  in  his  circumstances  to  ridicule  the  Scotch 
nation  in  the  court  of  a  Scotch  king,  yet  this  he  attempted 
in  a  comedy  entitled  "  Eastward-Hoe,"  which  he  wrote  in 
conjunction  with  Chapman  and  Marston,  although,  as  Mr. 
Warton  has  remarl^ed,  he  was  in  general  **  too  proud  to 
assist  or  be  assisted.'*     The  affront,  however,  was  too  gross 
to  be  overlooked,  and  the  three  authors  were  sent  to  pri- 
son,   and  not  released  without  mu^  interest.     Ganideil 
and  Selden  are  supposed  to  have  supplicated  the  throne 
in  favour  of  Jonson  on  this  occasion.     At  an  entertainment 
which  he  gave  to  these  and  other  friends  on  his  release, 
.  his  mother,  ^  more  like  an  antique  Roman  than  a  Briton, 
drank  to  him,  and  showed  him  a  paper  of  poison,  which 
she  intended  to  have  given  him  in  bis  Uquor,  after  having 
taken  a  portion  of  it  herself,  if  sentence  upon  him  (of  pil- 
lory, &c.)  had  been  carried  into  exiecutton.''     The  history 
of  the  times  shews  the  probable  inducement  Jonson  had  to 
ridicule  the  Scotch.     The  court  was  fi^lled  with  them,  and 
it  became  the  humour  of  the  English  to  be  jealous  of  their 
encroachments.     Jonson,  however,  having  obtained  a  par- 
don, endeavoured  to  conciliate  his  offended  sovereign  by 
taxing  bis  genius  to  prodtice  a  double  portion  of  that  adu* 
lation  in  which  James  delighted. 

His  connexion  with  Shakspeare,  noticed  above,  hdk 
kitely  become  the  subject  of  a  controversy.  Pope,  in  the 
preface  to  his  edition  of  Shakspeare,  says,  "  I  cannot  help 
thinking  that  these  two  poets  were  good  friends,  and  lived 

144  J  O  N  S  O  N. 

im  amicable  tennBy  and  in  offices  of  society  with  eacb 
other.  It  is  an  acknowledged  fact  that  Ben  Jonson  was 
introduced  upon  the  stage,  and  his  first  works  encouraged 
hy  Shakspeare.  And  after  his  death,  that  author  writes 
f  To  the  Memory  of  his  beloved  Mr.  William  Shakspeare,' 
which  shows  as  if  the  friendship  had  continued  through 
life/*  Mr.  Malone,  the  accuracy  of  whose  researches  are 
entitled  to  the  biff  best  respect,  ha?  produced  many  proofs 
of  their  mutual  dislike,  amounting,  as  he  thinks -on  the 
.part  of  Jonaon,  to  malignity.  Mr.  Steevens  and  Mr.  George 
.Chalmers  are  inclined  likewise  to  blame  Jonson ;  but  Dr. 
Farmer  considered  the  reports  of  Jonson's  pride  and  ma- 
lignity as  absolutely  groundless.  Mr.  O.  Gilchrist,  in  a 
pamphlet  lately  published,  has  vindicated  Jonson  with 
much  acuteness,  although  without  whblly  effacing  the  im- 
pression which  Mr.  Malone's  proofs  and  extracts  are  cal- 
culated to  make.  That  Jonson  was  at  times  the  antagonist 
of  Shakspeare,  and  that  they  engaged  in  what  Fuller  calls 
J**  Wit-combats,"  may  be  allowed,  for  such  occurrences 
are  not  uncommon  among  contemporary  poets ;  but  it  is 
inconsistent  with  all  we  know  of  human  passions  and  tem- 
pers that  a  man  capable  of  writing,  the  high  encomiastic 
lines  alluded  to  by  Pope,  could  have  at  any  time  harboured 
vialignityin  bis  heart  against  Shakspeare.  Malignity  rarely 
dies  with  its  object,  and  more  rarely  turns  to  esteem  and 

Jonson's  next  play,  "  Epicsene,  or  the  Silent  Woman," 
did  not  appear  until  1609,  and  amply  atoned  for  bis 
seeming  neglect  of  the  dramatic  muse.  It  is  perhaps  tfaQ 
first  regular  comedy  in  the  language,  and  did  not  losi^ 
much  of  this  superiority  by  the  appearance  of  his  **  Al- 
chemist," in  1610.  His  tragedy,  however,  of  <^  Cata- 
line,"  in  1611,  as  well  as  his  '^  Seganus,"  of  both  which 
he  entertained  a  high  opinion,  serve  only  to  confirm  th^ 
maxim  that  few  authors  know  where  their  excellence  lies^ 
The  *^  Cataline,"  says  Dr.  Hurd,  is  a  specimen  of  all  the 
errors  of  tragedy. 

In  1613  be  went  to  Paris,  where  he  was  admitted  to  an' 
interview  with  cardinal  Perron,  and  with  his  usual  frank-! 
ness  told  the  cardinal  that  his  translation  of  Virgil  wa$ 
^^  nought."  About  this  time  he  commenced  a  quarrel  with 
Xnigo  Jones,  and  made  him  the  subject  of  his  ridicule  in  a 
comedy  called  '<  Bartholomew- Fair,"  acted  in  1614..  Jones 
was  architect  or  machinist  to  the  masques  and  entertain* 

J  O  N  S  O  N.  145 

inents  for  which  Johson  furnished  the  poetry^  but  the  par<* 
ticular  cause  of  their  quarrel  does  not  appear.  '^  Who- 
ever," says  lord  Orford,  **  was  the  aggressor,  the  turbu- 
lent temper  of  Jonson  took  care  to  be  most  in  the  wrong. 
Nothing  exceeds  the  grossness  of  the  language  that  he 
.poured  out,  except  the  badness  of  the  verses  that  were  the 
vehicle.  There  he  fully  exerted  all  that  brutal  abuse 
which  his  contemj^oraries  were  willing  to  think  wit,  be- 
cause they  were  afraid  of  it ;  and  Which  only  serves  to 
show  the  arrogance  of  the  man  who  presumed  to  satirize 
Jones  and  rival  Shakspeafe.  With  the  latter,  indeed,  be 
had  not  the  smallest  pretensions  to  be  compareid,  except 
in  having  sometimes  written  absolute  nonsense.  Jonson 
translated  the  ancients,  Shakspeare  transfused  their  very 
soul  into  his  writings."  If  Jonson  was  the  rivsLl  of  Shak«» 
speare,  he  deserves  all  this ;  but  with  no  other  claims  thaifi 
bis  ^*  Cataline,'*  and  ^^  Sejanus,"  how  could  he  for  a  mo- 
nent  fancy  himself  the  rival  of  Shakspeare  ? 

•*  BartbcJomew  Fair"  was  succeeded  by  the  "  Dfevil's  art 
Ass,"  in  1616,  and  by  ati  edition  of  his  Works  in  folio,  iH 
which  his  '^  Epigrams"  were  first  printed,  although  they 
appear  to  have  been  written  at  i^arious  times,  and  some  long 
before  this  period.  He  was  now  in  the  2enith  of  his  fame 
^d  prosperity.  Among  other  marks  of  respect,  be  was 
l^resented  with  the  honorary  degree  of  M.  A.  by  the  uni«* 
versity  of  Oxford.  He  had  been  invited  to  this  place  by 
Dr.  Corbet,  senior  student,  and  afterwards  dean  of  Christ** 
church  and  bishop  of  Norwich.  •  According  to  the  account 
he-  gave  of  himself  to  Druramond^  he  was  M.  A.  of  both 

Wood  informs  us  that  he  succeeded  Daniel  as  poet-lau- 
reat,  in  Oct.  1619,  as  Daniel  did  Spenser.  Mr.  Malone, 
however,  has  very  clearly  proved  that  neither  Spenser  nor 
Daniel  enjoyed  ihe  office  now  known  by  that  name.  King 
James,  by  letters  patent  dated  February  3,1615-16,  granted 
Jonson  an  annuity  or  yearly  pension  of  one  hundred  marks^ 
during  his  life,  ^^  hi  consideration  of  the  good  and  accept- 
able service  heretofore  done,  and  hereafter  to  be  done,  by 
the  said  B.J."  On  the2Sd  of  April,  1630,  king  Charieii 
by  letters  patent,  reciting  the  former  grant,  and  that  it 
Had  been  surrendered,  was  pleased  ^^  in  consideration  (says 
the  patent)  of  the  good  and  acceptable  service  done  unto 
us  and  our  father  by  the  said  B.  J.  and  especially  to  en« 
courage  him  to  proceed  in  those  services  of  his  wit  and 

VouXIX.  L 

146  J  O  N  S  O  N. 

pen,  which  we  have  enjoined  unto  him,  and  which  we  es* 
pect  from  him,*'  to  augment  his  annuity  of  one  hundred 
marks  to  one  hundred  pounds  per  annum  during  his  life^ 
payable  from  Christmas  1629.  Charles  at  the  same  time 
granted  him  a  tierce  of  Canary  Spanish  wine  yearly  during 
bis  life,  out  of  his  majesty's  cellars  at  Whitehall ;  of  which 
there  is  no  mention  in  the  former  grant  Soon  after  this 
pension  was  settled  on  him,  he  went  to  Scotland  to  visit 
his  intimate  friend  and  correspondent,  Drummond  of  Haw^ 
thomden,  to  whom  he  imparted  many  particulars  of  his 
life  and  his  opinions  on  the  poets  of  his  age.  After  his 
return  from  this  visit,  which  appears  to  have  afforded  him 
much  pleasure,  he  wrote  a  poem  on  the  subject;  but  this^ 
with  several  more  of  his  productions,  Was  destroyed  by  aa 
accidental  fire,  and  he  commemorated  his  loss  in  a  poem 
entitled  "  An  Execration  upon  Vulcan." 

Although  it  is  not  our  purpose  to  notice  all  his  dramatic 
pieces,  it  is  necessary  to  mention,  that  in  1629  be  pro- 
duced a  comedy  called  the  '^  New  Inn,  or  the  light  teatt,'* 
which  was  so  roughly  handled  by  the  audience,  that  he  wasr 
provoked  to  write  an  ^^  Ode  to  Himself,'',  in  which  he 
threatened  to  abandon  the  stage.  Threats  of  this  kind  are 
generally  impotent,  and  Jonsoa  gained  nothing  but  the 
character  of  a  man  who  was  so  far  spoiled  by  public  favour 
a^  to  overrate  his  talents.  Feltham  and  Suckling  reflected 
on  him  with  some  asperity  on  this  occasion,  while  Randolph 
endeavoured  to  reconcile  him  to  his  profession*  His  tern* 
per,  usually  rough,  might  perhaps  at  this  time  have  been 
exasperated  by  disease,  for  we  find  that  his  health  was  de-« 
clining  from  1625  to  1629  *,  when  his  play  was  condemned^' 
He  was  also  suffering  about  this  time  the  usual  vexations 
which  attend  a  want  of  ceconomy ;  in  one  case  of  pecuniary 
eP)barrassment,  king  Ciiarles  relieved  him  by  tbehaad^ 
some  present  of  an  hundred  pounds.  This  contradicts  a 
^tory  related  by  Cibber  and  Smollett,  that  when  ihe  king 
beard  of  his  illness,  he  sent  him  ten  pounds,  and  that  Jon- 
jBon  said  to  the  messenger,  '^  His  Majesty  has  sentmetei^ 
pounds,  because  I  am  old  and  poor,  atid  live  in  an  alley; 
gb  and  tell  him  that  his  sohl  lives  in  an  alley."    Jonson^s^ 

'^  The  fire  above-mentioned  Oldys  was  assisted  by  Sir  George  Carew,  Sir 

jj^es  \n  this  year,  and  says,  that  it  de-  Robert  Cotton,  and  the  celebrated  Set'* 

jitroyed  a  History  of  Henry  V^  of  which,  den.     Oldys^s  MS  No(et  U  JLan^Mne 

Jonson  bad  gone  through  eight  of  hia.  ia  Brit*  Mus. 
liitie  yearsi'and  in  which  it  is  saidh^ 

J  O  N  S  O  N, 


t^unt  manners  and  ready  wit  make  the  reply  sufficiently 
Credible,  bad  the  former  part  of  the  story  been  true,  but 
the  lines  of  gratitude  which  he  addressed  to  his  majesty 
are  a  satisfactory  refutation.  Jonson,  however,  continued 
tb  be  thoughtlessly  lavish  and  poor,  although  in  addition 
to  the  royal  bounty  he  is  said  to  have  enjoyed  a  pensioa 
from  the  city,  and  received  occasional  assistance  from  his 
friends.  The  pension  from  the  city  appears  to  have  been 
withdrawn  in  1631,  if  it  be  to  it  he  alludes  in  the  post«- 
script  of  a  letter  in  the  British  Museum,  dated  that  year, 
**  Yesterday  the  barbarous  court  of  aldermen  have  with- 
drawn their  chandler-Iy  pension  for  veijuice  and  mustard 
33/.  es.  Sd:'  *  Sutton,  the  founder  of  the  Charter-house, 
is  said  to  have  been  one  of  his  benefactors,  which  renders 
it  improbable  that  Jonson  could  have  intended  to  ridicule 

*  Tbif  letter,  which  is  addressed  to 
the  £ari  of  Newcastle,  shows  so  much 
of  his  temper  and  spirit  at  this  time, 
that  a  longer  extract  may  be  excused. 

'*  1  myself  being  no  aubttance,  am 
faioe  to  trouble  you  with  shaddowes,  or 
what  is  less,  an  apologue,  or  fable,  iu  a 
dream.  I  being  stricken  with  the  palsy 
in  i62S,  had,  by  Sir  Thomas  Badger, 
some  few  months  synce,  a  fbxe  sent 
mee,  for  a  present,  which  creature,  by 
likndllag,  I  endeayoured  to  make  tame, 
as  well  for  the  abating  of  my  disease  as 
the  delight  I  took  iu  speculation  of  his 
naHire.  It  happened  this  present  year 
1631,  an(l  this  verie  weeke  being  the 
weeke  usheriug  Christmas,  and  this 
Tuesday  morning  in  a  drearae  (and 
morning  dreames  are  truest),  to  have 
one  of  my  servants  come  to  my  bed- 
aide,  and  tell  mee,  Master,  master,  the 
fo»  speaks  1  Whereat  mee  thought  I 
started  and  trembled,  went  down  into 
the  yard  to  witnes^the  wonder.  There 
Irfbund  my  Rcynanjl  in  hit  tenement, 
the  tnbb  I  had  hired  for  him,  cynically 
expressing  his  own  lott,  to  be  condemn'd 
to  the  house  of  a  poet,  where  nothing 
was  to  be  seen  but  the  bare  waifs,  and 
not  any  thing  heard  bat  the  noise  of  a 
ajtwe  dividing  biUates  all  the  weeke 
,|dng,  more  Id  keepe  the  family  in  exer- 
cise, than  to  comfort  any  person  lh«re 
with  fire,  save  llie ' paralytic  master;, 
and  went  on  in  this  way,  at  the  Fox 
teaased  thia  batlev  fabler  of  the  two.  I, 
his  master,  began  to  give  him  good 
words,  and  stroake  him  s  butRtynard^ 
%ivkiH(g,;iald  mc«  tkii  wonid  net  dot. 

I  must  give  him  meate.  I,  angry,  calPd 
him  stinking  vermtne.  Hee  reply'd» 
looke  into  your  cellar,  which  is  your 
larder  too,  youle  find  a  worse  vermin 
there.  When  presently,  calling  for  a 
light,  mee  thought  I  went  down,  and 
found  all  the  floor  turu'd  up,  as  if  a 
colony, of  moles  had  been  there,  or  an 
army  of  salt«petre  vermin.  Where- 
upon I  sent  presently  into  Tuttle-street 
for  the  king's  most  excellent  mole- 
catcher,  to  release  mee,  and  hunt 
them :  but  hee,  when  he  came  and 
viewd  the  place,  and  had  well  marked 
the  earth  turned  up,  took  a  bandfoll, 
smelt  to  it,  and  said,  Master,  it  is  not 
in  my  power  to  destroy  this  vertpin  ; 
the  K.  or  some  good  man  of  a  noble 
natnre  most  heipe  yon  i  this  kind  of 
mole  is  callM  a  wabc^  which  will  de« 
stroy  you  and  your  fami^,  if  you  pre* 
vent  not  the  worsting  of  it  in  tyme. 
And,  therefore,  God  keepe  you,  and 
send  you  health. 

"  The  interpretation  botii  of 
ble  and  dream  is,  that  I,  waking,  dot 
find  want  the  worst  and  most  working 
▼ermin  in  a  house  ^  and  tbertfom,  mtf 
noble  lord,  and  next  the  ]ting  my  be^ 
patron,  I  am  necessitated  to  tell  it  yon. 
I  ^o  not  to  impudent  to  borrow  any 
tnm  of  your  Iprdship,.  for  I  havn  no  ft* 
xulty  to  pay;  but  my  needt  are  ine^, 
mid  so  nrghig»  as  I  do  beg  what  your 
bounty  can  give  met,  in  the  name  of 
good  lettertf  and  the  bond  of  an  ever- 
gratefbil  and  acknowltdgiog  Nrvant  |n 
your  hononr.*' 

L  % 

I4d  J  O  N  S  O  N. 

so  excellent  a  character  on  the  stage :  yet,  according  td 
Mr.  Oldys,  *^  Volpone**  was  intended  for  him*  But  aU 
though  it  is  supposed  that  Jonson  sometimes  laid  the  rich 
under  contributions  by  the  dread  of  his  satire,  it  is  not 
very  likely  that  he  would  attack  such  a  man  as  Sutton. 

The  "  Tale  of  a  Tub,"  and  the  "  Magnetic  I^ady,"  we.y^ 
his  last  dramatic  pieces,  and  bear  very  few  marks  of  his 
original  powers.  He  penned  another  masque  in  1634, 
and  we  have  a  "  New  Year's  Ode"  dated  in  1635,  but  the 
remainder  of  his  life  appears  to  have  been  wasted  in  sick- 
ness  of  the  paralytic  kind,  which  at  length  carried  him  off, 
Aug.  16,  1637,  in  the  sixty-third  year,  of  his  age.  Three 
days  afterwards  he  was  interred  in  Westminster-abbey,  at 
the  north-west  end  near  the  belfrey,  with  a  common  paver 
ment  stone  laid  over  his  grave,  with  a  short  and  irreverend 
inscription  of  "  O  rare  Ben  Jonson,"  cut  at  the  expence 
of  sir  John  Young  of  Great  Miltoti  in  Oxfordshire.  '  Hii 
death  was  lamented  as  a  public  loss  to  the  poetical  world. 
About  six  months  after  this  event,  his  contemporaries 
joined  in  a  collection  of  elegies  and  encomiastic  poems, 
which  was  published  under  the  title  of  ^^  Jonsonius  Virbius ; 
or  the  Memory  of  Ben  Jonson  revived  by  the  friends  of  the 
Muses.**  Dr.  Duppa,  bishop  of  Chichester,  was  the  edi- 
tor of  this  volume,  which  contained  verses  by  lords  Falk- 
land and  Buckhurst,  sir  John  Beaumont,  sir  Francis  Wort^ 
ley,  sir  Thomas  Hawkins,  Messrs.  Henry  King,  Henry 
Coventry,  Thomas  May,  Dudley  Diggs,  George  Fortescue, 
William  Habington,  Edmund  Waller,  J.  Vernon,  J.  CI, 
(probably  Cleveland)  Jasper  Mayne,  Will.  Cartwright, 
John  Rutter,  Owen  Feltham,  George  Donne,  Shakerfey 
Marmion,  John  Ford,  R.  Brideoak,  Rich.  West,  R.  Meade^ 
H.  Ramsay,  T.  Terrent,  Rob.  Wasing,  Will:  Bew,  and 
Sam.  Evans.  A  subscription  also  was  entered  huo  for  a 
Dionumbnt  in  the  Abbey,  but  prevented  by  the  rebellion. 
, The  second  earl  of  Oxford  contributed  the  hurt  in  bas- 
relieyo  which  is  now  in  Poet's-corner.  Jonson  had  several 
children,  but  survived  them  all.  One  of  them  was  a  poet, 
and,  as  Mr.  Malone  has  discovered,  the  author  of  a  Drama 
-written  in  conjunction  with  Brome.  It  should  seem  that 
he  was  not  on  good  terms  with  his  father.  Fuller  says  tUat 
*^  Ben  was  not  happy  in  his  children.? 

As  many  points  of  his  character  are  obscure  or  disputed^ 
it  may  not  be  imnecessary  in  this  placj^  to  exhibit  the  evi- 
dence of  bis  contemporaries,  or  of  those  <who  lived  at '  n^ 

J  O  N  S  Q  N*  U» 

great  distance  of  time.  The  following  particulars  Au- 
brey collected  from  Dr.  Bathurst,  sir  Bennet  Hoskyns, 
Lacy  the  player^  and  others*. 

^^  I  remember  when  I  was  a  scholar  at  Trin.  Coll.  Oxoir. 
1646,  I  heard  Mr.  Ralph  Bathurst  (now  dean  of  Welles) 
aay,  that  Ben:  Johnson  was  a  Warwyckshire  man.  'Tis 
agreed  that  his  father  was  a  minister;  and  by  his  epistle 
D.  D.  of  Every  Man  —  to  Mr.  W.  Camden,  that  he  was 
Ik  Westminster  scholar,  and  that  Mr.  W.  Camden  was  his 
schoolmaster.  His  mother,  after  his  father's  death,  mar-r 
ried  a  bricklayer,  and  *tis  generally  f  said  that  he  wrought 
for  some  time  with  bis  fatber-in-lawe,  and  particularly  on 
the  garden  wall  of  Lincoln^s  inne  next  to  Chancery  lane ; 
and  that  a  knight,  a  bencher,  walking  thro",  and  bearing 
him  repeat  some  Greeke  verses  out  of  Homer,  discoursing 
with  him  and  finding  him  to  have  a  witt  extraordinary^ 
gave  him  some  exhibition  to  maintain  him  at  Trinity 
college  in  Cambridge,  where  he  was  — :  then  he  went 
itito  the  Lowe  Countryes,  and  spent  some  time,  not  very 
long,  in  the  armie ;  not  to  the  disgrace  of  [it] ,  as  you 
may  find  in  his  Epigrames.  Then  he  came  into  England, 
and  acted  and  wrote  at  the  Greene  Curtaine,  but  both  ill ; 
a  kind  of  nursery  or  obscure  playhouse  somewhere  in  the 
suburbs  (I  think  towards  Shoreditch  or  Clerkenwell).  Then 
he  undertook  again  to  write  a  play,  and  did  hitt  it  admira- 
bly well,  viz.  Evtry  Man  —  which  was  his  first  good  one. 
Sergeant  Jo.  Hoskins  of  Herefordshire  was  his  Father,  I 
remember  bis  sonhe  (sir  Bennet  Hoskins,  baronet,  who 
was  something  poetical  in  his  youth)  told  me^  that  when 
be  desired  to  be  adopted  his  sonne,  No,  sayd  he,  'tis 
honour  enough  for  me  to  be  your  brother :  I  am  your  father's 
Sonne:  'twas  he  that  polished  me:  I  do  acknowledge  it. 
He  was  (or  rather  had  been)  of  a  clear  and  faire  skin.  His 
habit  v^as  very  plain.  I  have  heard  Mr.  Lacy  the  player 
say,  that  he  was  wont  to  weare  a  coate  like  a  coachman's 
coate,  with  slitts  under  the  arm-pitts.  He  wolild  many 
times  exceede  in  drinke:  Canarie  was  his  beloved  liquour: 
then  he  would  tumble  home  to  bed ;  and  when  he  had 
thoroughly  perspired,  then  to*  studie.  I  have  seen  his 
studyeiog  chaire,  which  was  of  strawe,  ^such  as  old  womj&n 

*  For  the  transcription  of  this  article  It  is  perhaps  unnecessary  to  add,  ^hat 
the  Reader  is  indebted  to  Mr.  Malone's  Anbrey's  MSS.  .are  in  the  Asbmoleai^ 
Historical  Account  of  the  English  Stage.     Museum,  Oxford. 

j-  A  JPpw  cuptractions  in  the  manuscript  are  not  retained  in  tl^is  popy^ 

150  J  O  N  S  O  N. 

used  :  and  as  Aulus  Gellius  is  drawn  in.  When  I  was  in 
Oxon:  Bishop  Skinner  (Bp.  of  Oxford)  who  lay  at  our 
college  was  wont  to  say,  that  be  understood  an  author  as 
well  as  any  man  in  England.  He  mentions  in  his  Epi- 
grames,  a  son  that  he  had,  and  his  epitaph.  Long  since 
in  king  James  time,  I  have  beard  my  uncle  Dav^rs  (Dani^ 
vers)  say,  who  knew  him,  that  he  lived  without  Temple 
Barre  atacombe-maker^s  shop  about  the  Elephant^s  castle. 
In  his  later  time  he  lived  in  Westminster,  in  the  house 
under  which  you  passe  as  you  go  out  of  the  church-yard 
into  the  old  palace ;  where  he  dyed.  He  lyes  buried  in 
the  north-aisle,  the  path  square  of  stones,  the  rest  is  lo« 
zenge,  opposite  to  the  scutcheon  of  Robert  de  Ros,  with 
this  inscription  only  on  him,  in  a  pavement  square  of  blue: 
marble,  14  inches  square,  O  rare  Ben:  Jonsom:  which 
was  done  at  the  charge  of  Jack  Young,  afterwards  knighted^- 
who  walking  there  when  the  grave  was  covering,  gave  the 
fellow  eighteen  pence  to  cutt  it." 

Mr.  Zouch,  in  bis  Life  of  Walton,  has  furnished  the 
following  information  from  a  MS.  of  Walton^s  in  the  A$h«< 
molean  Museum. 

*^  I  only  knew  Ben  Jonson :  But  my  Lord  of  Winton 
(Dr.  Morley,  bishop  of  Winchester)  knew  him  very  well  $ 
and  says,  he  was  in  the  6\  that  is,  the  upermost  ffbrme  in 
Westminster  scole,  at  which  time  his  father  dyed,  and  hia 
mother  married  a  brickelayer,  who  made  him  (much  against 
bis  will)  help  him  in  his  trade ;  but  in  a  short  time,  his 
'  tcblemaister,  Mr.  Camden,  got  him  a  better  employment^ 
which  was  to  atend  or  acompany  a  son  of  sir  Walter  Bau# 
ley's  in  his  travills.  Within  a  short  time  after  their  return^ 
they  parted  (I  think  not  in  cole  bloud)  and  with  a  loue 
sutable  to  what  they  bad  in  their  travilles  (not  to  be  oo« 
mended).  And  then  Ben  began  to  set  up  for  himselfe  in 
the  trade  by  which  he  got  his  subsistance  and  fame,  of 
which  I  need  not  give  any  account.  He  got  in  time  to 
have  100/.  a  yeare  from  the  king,  also  a  pension  from  the 
cittie,  and  the  like  from  many  of  the  nobilitie  and  some  of 
the  gentry,  which  was  well  payM,  for  love  or  fere  of  his 
railing  in  verse,  or  prose,  or  boeth.  My  lord  told  me,  he 
told  hiofi  he  was  (in  his  long  retyrement  and  sickness,  when 
he  saw  him,  which  was  often)  much  afilickted,  that  bee 
bad  profained  the  scripture  in. his  playes,  and  lamented  it 
with  horror :  yet  that,  at  that  time  of  his  long  retyrement^ 
his  pension  (so  much  as  came  in)  was^  giuen  to  a  womaa 

JON  son:  151 

tfiat  gbuernM  him  (with  whome  he  liuM  &  dyed  nere  the 
Abie  in  Westminster ;)  and  that  nether  he  nor  she  tooke 
much  care  for  next  weike :  and  wood  be  sure  not  to  want 
wine ;  of  which  he  usually  took  too  much  before  he  went 
to  bed,  if  not  oftener  and  soner.  My  lord  tells  me,  he 
knowes  not,  but  thinks  he  was  born  in  Westminster.  The 
question  may  be  put  to  Mr.  Wood  very  easily  upon  what 

f grounds  he  is  positive  as  to  his  being  born  their;  he  is  a 
riendly  man,  and  will  resolve  it.     So  much  for  brave  Ben. 

' Nov.  22  (16)  80." 

Fuller,  in  addition  to  what  has  been  already  quoted, 
says  that  **  he  was  statutably  admitted  into  Saint  John's- 
college  in  Cambridge,  where  he  continued  but  few  weeks 
for  want  of  further  maintenance,  being  fain^  to  return  to 
the  trade  of  his  father-in-law.  And  let  not  them  blush 
that  have,  but  those  that  have  not  a  lawful  calling.  He 
helped  in  the  building  of  the  new  structure  of  Lincoln's- 
Inn,  when  having  a  trowell  in  his  hand,  he  had  a  book  in 
his  pocket.  Some  gentlemen  pitying  that  his  parts  should 
be  buried  under  the  rubbish  of  so  mean  a  calling,  did  by 
their  bounty  manumise  him  freely  to  follow  his  own  inge- 
nuous inclinations.  Indeed  his  parts  were  not  so  ready  to 
tun  of  themselves  as  able  to  answer  the  spur,  so  that  it 
may  be  truly  said  of  him,  that  he  had  an  elaborate  wit 
wrought  out  by  his  own  industry.  He  would  sit  silent  in 
learned  company,  and  suck  in  (besides  wine)  their  several 
humours  into  his  observation.  What  was  ore  in  others,  he 
was  able  to  refine  to  himself.  He  was  paramount  in  the 
dramatique  part  of  poetry,  and  taught  the  stage  an  exact 
conformity  to  the  laws  of  comedians.  His  comedies  were 
above  the  Volge  (which  are  only  tickled  with  downright 
obscenity),  and  took  not  so  well  at  the  first  stroke  as  at  the 
rebound,  when  beheld  the  second  time;  yea,  they  will 
endure  reading,  and  that  with  due  comoYendation,  so  lon^ 
as  either  ingenuity  or  learning  are  fashionable  in  our  na.- 
tion.  If  his  lajter  he  not  so  spriteful  and  vigorous  as  his 
first  pieces,  all  that  are  old  will,  and  all  that  desire  to  be 
old  should,  excuse  him  therein."  To  his  article  of  Shak- 
speare,  Fuller  subjoins,  ♦*  Many  were  the  wit-combates  be- 
twixt (Shakspeare)  and  Ben  Johnson,  which  two  I  behold 
like  a  Spanish  great  gallion,  and  an  English  man  of  war ; 
master  Johnson  (like  the  former)  was  built  far  higher  in 
learning ;  solid,  but  slow  in  his  performances.  Shakspeare, 
with  the  English  man  of  war,  lesser  in  bulk^  but  lighter  in 

1S9  J  O  N  S  O  N» 

wling,  oould  torn  with  all  tides,  tack  about  and  take  ad<« 
vantage  of  all  windsi  by  the  quickness  of  his  wit  and  in-i 

The  following  particulars  are  transcribed  from .  Oldys* 
]VIS  additions  to  Langbaine.  Oldys,  like  Spence,  picked 
up  the  traditions  of  his  day,  and  left  them  to  b^  examined 
and  authenticated  by  his  readers.  Such  contributions  .to 
biography  are,  no  doubt,  useful,  but  not  to  be  received  with 
implicit  credit. 

*^  Mr.  Camden  recommended   (Jonson)   to  sir  Walter 
llaleigh,  who  trusted  him  with  the  care  and  instruction  of 
liis  eldest  son  Walter,  a  gay  spark,  who  could  not  brook 
Ben's  rigorous  treatment,  but,  perceiving  one  foible  in  bis 
disposition,  inadiBUsepf  that  to  throw  o$  the  yoke  of  his 
government.     And  this  was  an  unlucky  bs^bit  3en  had  con«* 
tracted,  through  his  love  of  jovial  company,  of  being  overr 
taken  with  liquor,  which  sir  Walter  did  of  all  vices  most 
abominate,  and  hath  mo^t  exclaimed  against.     One  day, 
when  Ben  had  taken  a  plentiful  dose,  and  was  fallen  intp  a 
apund  sleep,  yoqng.  Raleigh  got  a  great  basket,  and  a 
couple  of  men,  who  laid  Ben  in  it,  and  then  with  a  pole 
carried  him  between  their  shoulders  to  sir  Walter,  telling 
him  their  young  master  had  sent  home  bis  tutor,     This  I 
had  from  a  MS  memorandum-book  written  in  the  time  of 
the  civil  Wars  by  Mr.  Oldisworth,  who  was  secretary^  I 
think,  to  Philip  earl  of  Pembroke.     Yet  in  1614,  when 
sir  Walter  published  his  History  of  the  World,  there  was  a 
good  understanding  between  him  and  Ben  Jon^on ;  for  the 
verses,  which  explain  the  grave  frontispiece  before  that 
histpry,  were  written  by  Jonspn,  and  are  reprinted  in  his 
^  Unde^wppds,'    where  the  poem  is  caUed  ^/  The  Mind 
pf  \he  frontispiece  to  a  bopk;''  but  b^  napaes  not  this 

>^  About  the  yei|.r  )622  soipe  lewd,  perjured^  woman 
deceived  and  jilted  him;  and  he  writes  a  sharp  poem  ou 
the  occasion.  And  in  another  poem,  called  his  picture, 
left  in  Scotland,  he  seems  to^think  she  slighted  him  for  his 
mountain  belly  and  his  rocky  face.''  We  have  alrei^dy 
seen  by  bishop  Morley's  account  J;hat  he  lived  with  a  wo- 
loan  in  his  latter  days,  who  assisted  him  in  speQding  bis 
-money.  ^  .  ,       . 

"  Bep  Jpnson/*  says  Qldys,  ^' was  charged  in  h^  ^*  Ppe- 
f^ster,"  1601,  with  having  libelled  or  ridiculed  t;he  lawyerSj^ 
lOldiers,  and  players  jj  so  be  afterwards  jqined  an  apoJio*! 

J  O  N  S  Q  N.  iss 

^tical  dmlogue  at  the  end  :of  it,  wherein  he  says  he  had 
been  provoked  for  three  years  on  every  stage  by  slanderers, 
as  to  his  self-conceit,  arrogance,  insolehce,  railing,  and 
plagiarism  by  translations.     As  to  law,   he  says  he  only 
brought  in  Ovid  chid  by  his  father  for  preferring  poetry  to 
it     As  to  the  soldiers,  he  swears  by  his  Mtise  they  are 
friends ;  he  loved  the  profession,  and  once  proved  or  ex* 
ercised  it,  as  I  take  it,  and  did  not  shame  it  more  then 
with  his  actions,  than  he  dare  now  with  his  writings.     And 
as  to  the  players,  he  had  taxed  some  sparingly,  but  they 
thought  each  man's  vice  belonged  to  the  whole  tribe.   That 
lie  was  not  moved  with  what  they  had  done  against  him, 
but  was  sorry  for  some  better  natures,  who  were  drawn  in 
by  the  rest  to  concur  in  the  exposure  or  derision  of  him* 
And  concludes,  that  since  his  comic  muse  had  been  so 
ominous  to  him,  he  will  try  if  tragedy  has  a  kinder  aspect. 
**  A  full  show  of  those  he  has  exposed  in  this  play  is 
not  BOW  easily  discernible.     Besides  Decker,  and  some 
.touches  on  some  play  that  has  a  Moor  in  it  (perhaps  Titus 
Androniculs ;    I  should  hope   he  did  not  dare   to  mean 
Othello)  some  speeches  of  such  a  character  being  recited 
.in  Act  III.  Scene  IV.  though  not  reflected  on,  he  makes 
Tucca  call  Histrio  the  player,  ^  a  lousy  slave,  proud  ras* 
cal,  you  grow  rich,  do  you  ?  and  purchase  your  twopenny 
tear-mouth;    and  copper-laced  scoundrels,'   &c.    which 
language  should  not  come  very  natural  from  him,  if  be 
ever  had  been  a  player  himself;  and  such  it  seems  he  was 
before  or  after." — 

Howel  in  one  of  his  letters  delineates  what  the  late  Mr. 
Seward  considered  as  the  leading  feature  of  Jonson's  cha- 

*^  I  was  invited  yesterday  to  a  solemn  supper  by  B.  J. 
where  you  were  deeply  remembered.  There  was  good 
company,  excellent  cheer,  choice  wines,  and  jovial  weU 
come.  One  thing  intervened  which  almost  spoiled  the 
relish  of  the  rest,  that  B.  began  to  engross  all  the  discourse; 
to  vapour  extremely  of  himself;  and  by  vilifying  others  to 
magnify  his  own  muse.  T.  Ca.  buzzed  me  in  the  ear,  that 
though  Ben  had  barrelled  up  a  great  deal  of  knowledge, 
yet  it  seems  he  had  not  read  the  ethics,  which,  amongst 
other  precepts  of  morality,  forbid  self-commendation,  de- 
claring it  to  be  an  ill-favoured  solecism  in  good  manners.'' 
The  account  Jonson  gave  of  himself  to  Drummond  is 
not  uniQt^resting,    It  was  first  published  in  th^  folio  ^edi-r 

154  J  O  N  S  O  N, 

tion  of  Drummortd's  Works,  1711.  **He,"  Ben  Jbnson^ 
*^  said  that  bis  grandfather  came  from  Carlisle,  to  which 
he  had  come  from  Annandale  in  Scotland  ;  that  he  served 
king  Henry  VIII.  and  was  a  gentleman.  His  father  lost 
his  estate  under  queen  Mary,  having  been  cast  in  prison 
and  forfeited;  and  at  Fast  he  turned  minister.  He  was 
posthumoQSy  being  born  a  month  after  his  father'?  deaths 
and  was  put  to  school  by  a  friend.  His  master  was  Cam* 
den.  Afterwards  he  was  taken  from  it,  and  put  to  another 
craft,  viz.  to  be  a  bricklayer,  which  he  could  not  endure^ 
but  went  into  the  Low  Countries,  and  returning  home  be 
again  betook  himself  to  his  wonted  studies.  In  his  service 
in  the  Low  Countries,  he  had,  in  the  view  of  both  the 
armies,  killed  an  enemy,  and  taken  the  opima  spolia  from 
him;  and  since  coming  to  England,  being  appealed  to  in 
a  duel,  be  had  killed  his  adversary,  who  had  hurt  him  in 
the  arm^  and  whose  sword  was  ten  inches  longer  than  his. 
for  this  crime  he  was  imprisoned,  and  almost  at  the  gal- 
lows. 7'hen  he  took  his  religion  on  trust  of  a  priest,  who 
^sited  him  in  prison.  He  was  twelve  years  a  papist ;  but 
after  this  he  was  reconciled  to4;he  church  of  England,  and 
left  off  to  be  a  recusant.  At  his  first  communion,  in  token 
of  his  true  reconciliation,  he  drank  out  the  full  cup  of  wine. 
H^  was  master  of  arts  in  both  universities.  In  the  time  of 
his  cbse  imprisonment  under  queen  Eiis&abeih,  there  were 
spies  to  catch  him,  but  he  was  advertised  of  them  by  the 
keeper.  He  had  an  epigram  on  the  spies.  He  married  a 
wife,  who  was  a  shrew,  yet  honest  to  him.  When  the 
king  came  to  England,  about  the  time  that  the  plague  was 
in  London,  he  (Ben  Jonson)  being  in  the  country  at  sir 
Robert  Cotton's  house,  with  old  Camden,  saw  in  a  vision 
.his  eldest  son,  then  a  young  child,  and  at  London,  appear 
unto  him  with  the  mark  of  a  bloody  cross  on  his  forehead, 
as  if  it  had  been  cut  with  a  sword ;  at  which,  amazed,  he 
prayed  unto  God,  and  in  the  morning  he  came  to  Mr«. 
Camden's  chamber  to  tell  him,  who  persuaded  him  it  was 
but  an  apprehension,  at  which  he  should  not  be  dejected. 
Jn  the  mean  time  came  letters  from  his  wife,  of  the  death 
of  that  boy  in  the  plague.  He  appeared  to  him,  he  said, 
of  a  manly  shape,  and  of  that  growth  he  thinks  be  shall  be 
at  the  resurrection. 

"  He  was  accused  by  sir  James  Murray  to  the  king,  for 
writing  something  against  the  Scots  in  a  play  called  **  East- 
ward Hoe,"  and  voluntarily  imprisoned  himself  with  Chap- 

J  O  N  S  O  R  ISS 

nan  and  Marstop,  who  had  written  it  amongst  then,  and 

it  was  reported  should  have  their  ears  and  noses  cut  After 
their  delivery,  he  entertained  all  bis  friends;  there  were 
present  Camden,  Seldeo,  and  others.  In  the  middle  of 
the  feast,  bis  old  mother  drank  to  bim,  and  showed:  him  a 
paper  which  she  designed  (if  the  sentence  had  past)  to  hav^ 
mixed  among  his  drink,  and  it  was  strong  and  lusty  poison  | 
and  to  show  that  she  was  no  churl,  she  told  that  she  de- 
signed first  to  have  drank  of  it  herself. 

''  H^  said  be  bad  spent  a  whole  night  in  lying  looking  to 
)iis  great  toe,  about  which  he  had  seen  Tartars  and  Turks^ 
Romans  and  Carthaginians,  fight,  in  his  imagination, 

*'  He  wrote  all  his  verses  first  in  prose,  as  his  mastef 
Camden  taught  him ;  and  said  that  verses  stood  by  seosei 
without  either  colours  or  accent. 

^^  He  used  to  say,  that  many  epigrams  were  ill  because 
they  expressed  in  the  end  what  should  have  been  under-^ 
stood  by  what  was  said  before,  as  that  of  sir  John  Davies; 
that  he  bad  a  pastoral  entitled  '  The  May-lord  ;^  his  awn 
name  is  Alkin;  Ethra,  the  countess  of  Bedford^  Mogbel 
Overberry,  the  old  countess  of  Suffolk;  an  enchantress} 
other  names  are  given  to  Somerset,  his  lady,  Pembroke^ 
the  countess  of  Rutland,  lady  Worth.  In  his  first  scene 
Alkiu  comes  in  mending  his  broken  pipe.  He  bringetb  in^ 
says  our  author,  clowns  making  mirth  and  foolish, sportf^ 
contrary  to  all  other  pastorals.  He  had  also  a  design  to 
write  a  fisher  or  pastoral  play,  and  nuike  the  stage  in 
the  Lomond  Lake ;  and  also  to  write  bis  foot- pilgrimage 
thither,  and  to  call  it  a  discovery.  In  a  poem  he  calleth 

'  The  heart  of  Scotland^  Britain^s  other  eye.* 

S*  That  be  had  an  intention  to  have  made  a  play  lik^ 
Plautus's  Amphitryo,  but  left  it  off;  for  that  be  could 
pever  find  two  so  like  one  to  the  other,  that  he  could  per?*^ 
suade  the  spectators  that  they  were  one. 

*^  That  he  had  a  design  to  write  an  epic  poem,  and  wa^ 
to  call  it  Chorologia,  of  the  worthies  of  his  country  raided 
by  Fame,  and  was  to  dedicate  it  to  his  country.  |t  is  all 
in  couplets,  for  be  detested  all  other  rhimes.  He  9ai4 
he  bad  written  a  discourse  of  poetry  both  against  Campion 
and  Daniel,  especially  the  last,  where  he  proves  coupletji 
to  be  the  best  sort  of  verses,  especially  when  they  are 
broke  like  he^^amieters^  and  that  cross  rhimes  an4  stanza^ 

W6  J  O  N  S  O  N. 

because  the  purpose  would  lead  beyotid  eiglit  lines,  vrerU 
all  forced." 

Ben  Jonson,  continues  Drummond,  **  was  a  great  lov^r 
land  praiser  of  himself,  a  contemner  and  scorner  of  others,, 
given  rather  to  lose  a  friend  than  a  jest ;  jealous  of  every 
word  and  action  of  those  about  him,  especially  after  driuk^ 
which  is  one  of  the  elements  in  which  he  lived  ;  a  dissem*^ 
bier  of  the  parts  which  reign  in  him  ;  k  bragger  of  scmie 
good  that  he  wanted,  thinkins  nothing  well  done,  but  whai^ 
either  be  himself  or  some  of  his  friends  have  said  or  done; 
lie  is  passionately  kind  and  angry,  careless  either  to  gain 
or  keep ;  vindictive,  but  if  he  be  well  answered  at  himself, 
interprets  best  sayings  and  deeds  often  to  the  worst.  He 
was  for  any  religion,  as  being  versed  in  both;  oppressed 
with  fancy,  which  hath  over- mastered  his  reason,  a  ^ene? 
ral  disease  in  many  poets.  His  inventions  are  smooth  and 
easy,  but  above  all  be  excelleth  in  a  translation.  When 
his  play  of  the  Silent  Woman  was  first  acted,  there  wene 
found  verses  after  on  the  stage  against  him,  concluding^ 
that  that  play  was  well  named  the  Silent  Woman,  because 
^here  was  never  one  man  to  say  plaudiie  to  it.'*  Drummond 
adds,  '^  In  short,  be  was  in  his  personal  character  the  very 
reverse  of  Shakspeare>  as  surly,  ill-natured,  proud,  and 
disagreeable,  as  Shakspeare  with  ten  times  his  merit  was 
gentle,  good*-natured,  easy,  and  amiable." 

Lord  Clarendon's  character  of  our  author  is  more  favour- 
able, and  from  so  accurate  a  judge  of  human  nature,  per- 
•  haps  more  valuable.  ^^  His  name,"  lerd  Clarendon  says^ 
*^  can  never  be  forgotten,  having  by  his  very  good  learn ^ 
ing,  and  the  severity  of  bis  nature  and  manners,  very  much 
reformed  the  stage;  and  indeed  the  English  poetry  itself^ 
His  natural  advantages  were,  judgment  to  order  and  govern 
faqcy,  rather  than  excess  of  fancy,  his  productions  being 
slow^and  upon  deliberation,  yet  then  abounding  with  gi:eat 
wit  and  fancy,  and  will  live  accordingly ;  and  surely  as  he 
did  exceedingly  exalt  the  English  language  in  eloquence, 
propriety,  and  masculine  expressions,  so  he  was  the  best 
judge  of,  and  fittest  to  prescribe  rules  to  poetry  and  pqets^ 
of  any  man  who  had  lived  with,  or  before  him,  or  since: 
if  Mr.  Cowley  bad  not  made  a  flight  beyond  all  men>  with 
that  modesty  yet,  as  to  ascribe  much  of  (bis  to  the  example 
and  learning  of  Ben  Jonson.  His  conversation  was  very 
good,  and  with  the  men  of  most  note;  and  be  had  for 
ma^y  years  an  ijeivtraoi'diiiary  kindness  for  Mr.  Hyde  (lord 

J  O  N  S  O  N.  1ST 

Clarendon),  till  he  found  he  betook  himself  Co  business^ 
which  he  believed  ought  never  to  be  preferred  before  his 
company.  He  lived  to  be  very  old,  and  till  the  palsy  made 
a  deep  impression  upon  his  body  and  his  mind.*^ 

From  these  accounts  it  may  surely  l>e  inferred  that  Jon-» 
son  in  his  life-time  occupied  a  high  station  in  the  literary 
world.     So  many  memorials  of  character,  and  so  many 
culogiums  on  his. talents,  have  not  fallen  to  the  lot  of  matiy 
writers  of  that  age.     His  failings,  however,  appear  lo  have 
been  so  conspicuous  as  to  obscure  his  virtues.    Addicted  to 
intemperance,    with  the  unequal  temper  which   habitual 
intemperance  creates,  and  disappointed  in  the  hopes  of 
wealth  and  independence,  vyhich  his  high  opinion  of  his 
talents  led  him  to  form,  degenerating  even  to  the  resources 
of  a  libeller  who  extorts  from  fear  what  is  denied  to  genius, 
he  became  arrogant,  and  careless  of  pleasing  even  those 
with  whom  he  associated.  Of  the  coarseness  of  his  manners 
Aere  can  be  no  doubt,  but  it  appears  at  the  same  time  that 
his  talents  were  such  as  made  his  temper  be  tolerated  for 
the  sake  of  his  conversation.     As  to  his  high  opinion  of 
himself,  he  did  not  probably  differ  from  his  contempp-^ 
raries,  who  hailed  him  as  the  reformer  of  the  stage,  and 
as  the  most  learned  of  critics ;  and  it  is  no  great  diminu;* 
tion  of  his  merit,  that  an  age  of  more  refinement  cannot 
find  enougti  to  justify  the  superior  light  in  which  he  was 
contemplated.     It  is  sufScient  that  he  did 'what  had  not 
been  done  before,  that  he  displayed  a  jddgment  to  which 
the  stage  had  been  a  stranger,  and  furnished  it  with  ex- 
amples of  regular  comedy  which  have  not  been  surpassed. 
His  memory  was  uncommonly  tenacious,  and  his  learning 
certainly  superior;  to  that  of  oiost  of  his  contemporaries. 
Pope  giyes  hiili  the  praise  of  having  *^  brooght  critical 
learning  into  togue,''  and  having  instructed  both  the  actora 
and  spectators  iu  what  was  the  proper  province  of  the  dra-» 
Inatic  muse.     His  "  English  Grammar,''  and  his  ^^  Disco* 
veries,"  both  written  in  his  advanced  years,  display  an  at- 
tachment td  the  interests  of  literature,  and  a  habit  of  re^ 
flection,  which  place  his  character  as  a  scholar  in  a  very 
favourable  point  of  view.     The  editor  of  a  recent  edition 
of  his  Discoveries,  justly  attributes  to  them  *^a  closeness 
and  precision  of  style,  weight  df  sentiment,  and  accuracy 
of  classical  learning.''  * 

Yet  whatever  may  be  thought  of  his  learning,  it  i^ 
greatly  over*rated,    when  opposed  or  prf  furred  ta  th^ 

I$S  JO  N  SON- 

genids  oT  hk  contemporary  Shakspeare.  Jonson^s  learning 
contributed  very  little  to  his  reputation  as  a  dramatic  poetl 
Where  he  seetns  to  have  employed  it  most,  as  in  his  **  Ca- 
taline/'  it  only  enables  hiiii  to  encumber  the  tragedy  with 
senj^il^  versifications  of  Sallust,  when  he  should  have  been 
studying  nature  and  the  passions.  Dryden,  whose  opinions 
are  ofteti  inconsistenty  considers  Jonson  as  the  greatest 
man  of  Us  age,  and  observes,  that  **  if  we  look  upon  hint 
when  he  was  himself  (for  his  last  plays  were  but  his  dotages^ 
he  was  the  most  learned  and  judicious  Writer  any  theatre 
ever  had.''  In  Another  place  (preface  to  the  "  Mock  As* 
trologpr*')  j  he  says  "  that  almost  all  Jonson's  pieces  were  but 
crambekis  coda,  the  same  humour  a  little  "varied  iand 
written  worse.'* 

It  is  certain  that  his  high  character  as  a  dramatic  writer 
has  not  descended  to  us  undiminished.  Of  his  fifty  dramasr, 
there  are  not  above  three  which  preserve  his  name  on  the 
iKage,  Ibut  these  indeed  are  excellent*  It  was  bis  misfor"- 
tune  to  be  obKged  to  dissipate  on  court  masks  and  pageants 
those  talt^nts  which  concentrated  might  have  furnished, 
dramas  eqiial  to  his  **  Volpone,"  "  Alchc;mist^'*  and  the 
•*  Silent  Woman."  Contrasted  with  the  boundless  and 
commanding  genius  of  Shakspeare,  Dr.  Johnson  has  hit 
his  character  with  success  in  his  celebrated  prologue. 

**  Then  Jonson  came,  instructed  from  the  school^ 
To  please  by  method,  and  invent  by  rule. 
•His  studious  patience,  and  laborious  art, 
Witibiregular  approach  assay*d  the  heart:  ^ 
Cold  approbation  gave  the  Hng'ring  bays, 
Fo]r  they  who  durst  not  oensure>  aenrce  .could  praise,** 

Among  \m  poems  there  are  few  which  can  be  specified 
as  oK^dels  ol  excellence.  The  "  Hymn'*  from  **  Cynthia^s  ^ 
Bevels,"  the  "  Ode  to  the  Memory  of  sir  Lucius  Gary," 
and^^l^r  H,  Morison/'  one  of  the  first  examples  of  the 
Piodarie>  or  irregular  ode,  and  some  of  his  songs,  and 
*^  Underwoods,"  are  brightened  by  occasional  rays  of  ge- 
nius, and  dignified  simplicity,  but  in  general  he  was  Ted 
into  glittering  and  fanciful  thoughts,  and  is  so  frequentljr 
captivated  with  these  as  to  neglect  his  versification.  Al- 
though be  had  long  atudied  poetry,  it  does  not  appear  that 
lie  could  pursue  a  train  of  poetical  sentiment  or  imagery 
so  far  as  to  produce  any  great  work.  His  best  efforts  were 
such  i^s  he  could  execute  almost  in  the  moment  of  concep- 
tion, fjind  fcequently  with,  an  epigrammatic^  turn  which  i^ 

J  O  N  S  O  N.  150 

very  striking.  He  ooce  meditated  anepfc  poem^  but  his 
habitual  irregularities  and  love  of  company  denied  the  ne- 
cessary perseverance. 

His  works  were  printed  thrice  in  folio  in  the  seventeenth 
ceatury^  and  thrice  in  the  eighteenth.  .  The  last  edition, 
in  seven  volumes,  Svo,  with  notes  and  additions  by  Mr. 
Whalley,  appeared  in  1756,  and  is  esteemed  the  most 
valuable,  but  Will  probably  be  superseded  by  an  edition 
which  is  said  to  be  preparing  by  the  acute  editor  of  Mas* 
singer's  works.^ 

JORDAENS  (Jacob),  a  painter  of  history  and  portraits, 
possessed  of  very  superior  abilities  in  his  art,  was  born  at 
Antwerp  iti  1594.     He  first  studied  with  Adam  Van  Oort, 
whose  daughter  he  married  at  an  early  period  of  his  life ; 
but  it  was  to  Rubens  he  stood  indebted  for  the  principal 
part  of  his  knowledge;  though  it  is  dubious  whether  he 
ever  was  admitted  into  the  school  of  that  master.     Certain 
it  is,  however,  that  he  more  forcibly  carried  into  effect  his 
principles  than  any  of  his  disciples,  except  Vaiidyke.    It 
is  said  by  Sandrart,  that  Rubeus  was  jealous  of  him,  but 
this  assertion  is  generally  thought  to  be  unfounded;  yet 
if  so  great  a  man  were  capable  of  that  mean  passion,  cer- 
tainly the  talents  of  Jordaens  might  well  excite  it<     He 
plain  ted  with  almost  incredible  force  and  brilliancy.     Nei- 
ther Rubens  nor  Tintoretto,  in  that  respect,  excel  him ;  his 
compositions  are  full  of  bustle,  and  designed  with  great 
truth,  even  grandeur  of  form.     His  defect  (and  it  must  be 
allowed  that  it  is  a  great  one,  in  an  art  whose  principal 
end  is  to  adorn;  to  improve,  to  please  mankind)  is  gross- 
xiess  of  subject  and  of  form  ;  not  indecent,  but  vulgar,  low 
common  life.     His  power  to  give  rotundity  and  relief  to 
his  figures^  is  amazing ;  and  his  execution  is  of  the  most 
tnasterly  kind.  .  The  French  have  possessed  themselves  of 
many  of  his  principal  works ;  two  are  particularly  notice- 
able in  the  gallery  of  the  Louvre,  the  Flemish  celebration* 
of  Twelfth  night,  known  by  the  appellation  of  ^^  Le  Roi 
boit,''  and  Christ  driving  the  money-changers  from  the 
temple.     He  was  remarkable  for  the  rapdity  of  his  execu- 
tion, and  appears  to  have  studied  his  figures  and  effects  by 
candle-iight,    or  in  bright  sun-dbine.     Having  ^obtained 
great  renown  and  success,,  he  died  ia  1678.' 

^  B'logf  Brit.-^ohnson  and  Chalmers's  English  Poets,  for  which  Uie  ah^ve 
.^tfkch  wstA  vfltitaa. 

•  Pilkington.— AfgcnTille,  vol  11).— Sir  Joshua  Reyoolds'a  Work!;;  see  ld« 
dez.— iUes*s  CjrcIopflBdia. 

1^0  J  o  It  d;  A  ic. 

JORDAN  (Charles  Stephen),  a  penson  diitkfgoisbl^ 
more  by  his  connections  than  by  bis  vorks,  was  botn  ik 
Berlin  in  1702/ and  discovered  early  a  taste  for  letters. 
He  was  brought  up  to  the  church,  but  becoming  ac- 
quainted with  Frederic,  then  prince,  and  afterwards  kin^ 
of  Prussia,  a  friendship  commenced  between  them  of  Ao 
common  sincerity  ;  and  when  Frederic  came  to  the  throne, 
be  prevailed  on  Jordan  to  abandon  the  cburdb  and  come  t<^ 
cQurt.  Here  he  became  the  confidential  friend  of  Frede^ 
ric,  and  had  the  courage  to  ^ive  him  on  ail  occasions  the 
best  advice,  and  to  oppose  to  bis  face  such  measures  as 
be  thought  hurtful.  Notwithstanding  this  freedom  he  was 
advanced  to  several  posts  of  profit  and  honour,  atid  became 
at  length  vice-president  of  the  academy  of  sciences  at 
Berlin  y  where  he  died  in  1745.  The  king  of  Prussia  erect- 
ed a  mausoleum  over  him,  and  also  honoured  him  with  the 
following  eloge :  "  Jordan,"  says  he,  "  was  bom  with  parts', 
lively,  penetrating,  yet  capable  of  application ;  his  memory 
vast  and  retentive ;  his  judgment  sure,  his  imagination 
brilliant;  always  governed  by  reason,'  yet  without  stiffnesi^ 
in  his  morals ;  open  in  conversation,  full  of  politeness  and 
benevolence;  cherishing  truth,  and  disguising  it;  humane, 
generous,  ready  to  serve ;  a  good  citizen ;  faithful  to  h\k 
frietids,  his  master,  and  his  country."  His  merits  as  an 
author  do  not^give  us  so  high  an  idea  of  him  as  the  above 
eloge,  or  as  the  more  interesting  account  given  by  Thi* 
bault.  U'li  only  writings  were,  "  L'Histoire  d'un  voyage 
literaire,"  in  France,  England,  and  Holland.  **  Un  Re* 
cueil  de  Litterature,  de  Philosophie,  &  de  Histoire."  A 
Life  of  M.  de  la  Croze,  in  French,  &c.' 


JORDEN  (Edward),  an  English  physician,  and  con« 
siderable  writer  on  chemistry  and  mineralogy,  was  bora  ih 
1569,  at  High  Halden  in  Kent,'  and  probably  educated  at 
Hart-hall,  Oxford.  He  visited  foreign  universities,  and 
took  his  degree  of  doctor  in  that  of  Padua.  After  his  re- 
ti^rn,  he  practised  in  London,  where  he  became  a  member 
of  the  college  of  physicians,  and  was  in  high  reputation  for 
learning  and  abilities.  He  ii^ured  his  fortune  by  engage 
ing  in  a  project  to  manufacture  alum.  We  are  ignorant 
where  his'works  were  situated ;  but  it  is  certain,  be  ob- 
tained a  grant  from  James  I.  of  the  profits  of  them,  which' 

1  Diet  HisU--«Thibaiilt'g  Anecdotes  of  Frederic  11.  king  of  Prassm,  vol.  iL 

JO  R  D  £  K  161 

lim  ^revoked  at  the  idoportomty  of  a  courtier ;  aD4  tliough 
he  made  ^plioation  fpr  redress,  be  never  obtained  it,  not* 
wilbstanding  the  king  appeared  particularly  sensible  of  tbe 
bardshi|>  of  his  case.  He  spent  tbe  latter  part  of  his  life 
at  Bath,  and  died  there,  of  the  gout  and  stone,  in  January 

JORTIN   (Dr.  John),   a  learned  English  diving   was 
born  in  tbe  parish  of  St.  Giles's,  Middlesex,  Oct.  23, 1^98. 
His  father,  Benatus,  was  a  native  of  Bretagne  in  France ; 
f^ame  over. to  England  about  1685,   when  protestantism 
was  no  longer  -tolerated  in  that  country ;  was  made  a  gen^ 
tleman  of  tbe  privy -chamber  in  1691 ;  became  afterwards 
secretary   to   lord   Orford,    sir  George  Rooke,    and    sir 
Cloude&iy  Sbovd ;  and  was  cast  away  with  the  last,  when 
bis  ship  struck  upon  tbe  rocks  of  Scilly,  Oct.  22,  1707. 
His  mother  was  Martha  Rogers,  of  an  ancient  and  respect-* 
able  family  in  Bucks,  which  bad  produced  some  clergy- 
men, distiDgdisbed  by  their  abilities  and  learning.   He  was 
educated  at  tbe  Charter^bouse,  where  he  made  a  good 
proficiency  in  Greek  and  Latin :  French  be  learned  at  home, 
and  he  iiqderstood  and  spoke  that  language  well. 
.    In  May  1715,  he  was  admitted  of  Jesus-college,.  Cam-* 
bridge ;  and,  about  two  years  after,  recommended  by  his 
tutor  Or.  Styan  Tbirlby,  who  was  very  fond  of  him,  and 
always  retained  a  friendship  for  him,  to  make  extracts  from 
Eustatbius,  for  the  use  of  Pope's  *^  Homer."     He  was  not 
employed  directly  by  Pope,  nor  did  it  ever  happen  to  him 
to  see  the  face  of  that  poet :  for,  being  of  a  shy  modest 
nature,,  he  felt  no  impulse. to  force  his  way  to  him;  noir* 
did  tbe  other  make  inquiry  about  him,  thoqgh  perfectly' 
satisfied  with  what  he  bad  done  for  him.     He  took  the  de- 
gree of  B.  A.  in  1718-11^,  and  M.  A.  in  1722  :  he  bad  been 
chosen  fellow  of  bis  college  soon  after  the  taking  of  his 
first  degree.     This  year  he  distinguished  himself  by  the 
publication  of  a  few  Latin  poems,  entitled,  ^^  Lusus  Poe-. 
tici ;" .  which. were  well  received,  and  were  twice  reprinted^ 
with  additions.     In  Sept,  1723,  he  entered  into  deacon'^ 
orders,  and  into  piiest*s  the  Jupe  following^  In  Jan.  1726-7, 
he  was. presented  by  his  college  to  Swavese^f,  near  Cam- 
bridge; but^  marrying  in  172?^,  he  resigned  that  living, 
and  so<;^n  ^after.  settled  himself  in  London,  where  he  was, 
engaged  £^  a  reader  and  preacher  at  a  chapel  in  Newv 

street,  near  Russell-street,  Bloomsbury. 

• » '  '  '  ',    ■  ,  -,•.'-■.'•* 

*  Aih,  Ok.  vol.  I.— Aikio's  Biof.  Meottoirs  of  Aleqicinc  '.  .    - 

Vol,  XIX.  M 

t62  JORTIN. 

la  this  town  be  spent  the  next  twenty «five  years  of  is» 
life:  for  though,  in  1737,  the  earl  pf  Wincbelsea  gave  hiiii 
the  living  of  Eastwell  in  Kent,  where  he  resided  a  little 
tiioe,  yet  lie  very  sooii  quitted  it,  and  returned  to  London*  . 
Here  for  many  years  he  had  employmeiit  as  a  preacher^ 
in  the  abovementioned  and  other  chapels ;  with  the  emolu* 
mentiLof  which  occasional  services,  and  a  competency  of 
fats  own,  he  supported  himself  and  family  in  a  decent 
though  private  manner,  dividing  his  leisure  hours  between 
his  books  and  his  friends/ especially  those  of  the  literati, 
with  whom  he  always  kept  up  a  close  and  intimate  connec*^ 
tion.  In  1730,  he  published  ^^Four  Sermons  upon  th^ 
Truth  of  the  Christian  Religion  :^*  the  substance  of^ 
which  was  afterwards  incorporated  in  a  work,  entitled/ 
**  Discourses  concerning  the  Truth  of  the  Christian  Re-» 
ligion,  1746/'  Svo. 

In  1731,  he  pablished  ^^  Miscellaueous  Observations 
upon  Authors,  ancient  and  modem/'  in  it  vols.  8vo.  This 
is  a  collection  of  critical  remarks,  of  which,  however,  he 
was  not  the  sole,  though  the  principal,  author :  Pearce, 
Massoi^,  Dr.  Taylor,  Wasse,  Theobald,  Dr.  Robinson, 
Uptot^  Thirlby,  and  others,  were  contributors  to  it.  This 
work  was  highly  approved  by  the  learned  here,  and  was 
translated  into  Latin  at  Amsterdam,  and  continued  on  the 
same  plan  by  D'Orville  and  Burman.  In  17{il,  archbishop 
Herring,  unsolicited,  gave  him  the  living  of  St  Dunstan 
in  the  East,  London.  This  prelate  had  long  entertained 
a  high  and  aiFectionate  regard  for  him  ;  had  endeavoured 
to  serve  him  in  many  instances  with  others;  and  after** 
wards,  in  1755,  conferred  upon  him  the  degree  of  D.  D« 
This  same  year,  1751,  came  out  his  first  volume  of  <'Re- 
marks  upon  Ecclesiastical  History,**  8vo.  This  work  was 
Inscribed  to  the  earl  of  Burlington ;  by  whom,  as  trustee 
for  the  Boylean  Lecture,  he  had,  through  the  application 
of  bishop  Herring  amd  bishop  SherU>ck,  been  appointed, 
in  1749,  to  preach  that  lecture.  There  is  a  preface  to  this 
volume  of  more  than  forty  pages,  which,  with  much  learn- 
ipg  and  ingenuity,  displays  a  spirit  of  liberty  and  candour. 
These  ^^  RemarKs  upon  Ecclesiastical  History*'  were  coil* 
tinued,  in  four  succeeding  volumes,  down  to  the  year  1517, 
when  Luther  began  the  work  of  reformation;  two,  pub* 
lished  by  himself,  in  1752  and  1754;  and  two,  after  his 
death,  in  1773. 

lO  ft  T  I  Ni  16S 

In  ll^i  be  pufblHhed  <«  She  DissertatioU  upon  difFerenk 
StibjectSyV  Sfo.  Thef  sixth  dissertation  is^  ^'  On  the  state 
of  the  dead,  as  described  by  Homer  and  Virgil  f  aud  the 
irefharks  in  this,  tetiding  to  establish  the  great  antiquitj  of 
the  doictrine  of  a  future  state,  interfered  with  Warburton 
in  his  "  Divine  Legation  of  Moses/*  and  drew  upon  htm 
from  that  quarter  a  very  severe  attack.  He  made  no  re-* 
f»iy ;  but  in  hi«  ^'  Adversaria*'  was  die  following  memoran-* 
dttfn,  wbiiih  shews  that  he  did  not  oppose  the  notions  of 
other  met),  from  atiy  spirit  of  envy  or  codtradiotiofi,  but 
ff6iii  a  full  persotsion  that  the  real  niatter  of  fact  was  aia 
he  had  represented  it.  **  I  have  examined,**  says  he,  ^<th^ 
slate  of  the  doad,  as  described  by  Homer  and  Virgil ;  and 
upon  that  dissertation  I  am  wilting  to  stake  all  the  little 
eredft  that  I  have  as  a  critic  and  philosopher.  I  have  there 
observed)  that  Homer  was  not  the  inventor  of  the  fabuloui 
history  of  the  gods :  he  had  those  stories,  and  also  the 
doctrine  of  a  fucufe  state,  from  old  traditions.  Many  no« 
tioHS  of  the  Pagans,  which  came  from  tradition,  are  con- 
sidered by  Barrow,  Serm.  viti.  vok  II.  in  which  sermon  the 
existence  of  God  is  proved  from  universal  consent*** 

In  1758,  appeared  his  '^  Life  of  Erasmus,*'  tn  one  vol. 
4to;  and  in  1760,  another  vol.  4to,  containing  <' Remalits 
upon  the  Works  of  Erasmus,**  and  an  ^<  Appendix  of  Ex^ 
tracts  from  Erasmus  and  other  Writers.**  In  the  prefiice 
to  the  former  Tolume,  he  says,  that  ^'  Le  Clere,  Yfh^ 
publishing  the  Works  of  Erasmus  at  Leyden,  drew  up  hi# 
Life  in  French,  collected  principally  from  his  letters,  land 
inserted  it  in  the  *  Bibliotheque  Cboisie  ;*  that;,  as  this  Life 
was  favourably  received  by  the  public,  he  had  taken  it  as  a 
groundwork  to  build  upon,  and  bad  translated  it,  not  super- 
sttfcioosly'and  closely,  but  with  much  freedom,  and  with  more 
attention  to  things  than  to  words ;  but  that  he  had  made 
continual  additions,  not  only  with  relation  to  the  history  of 
those  days,  but  to  the  life  of  Erasmus,  especially  where  Le 
Clerc  grew  more  remiss,  either  wearied  with  the  task,  or 
called  off  from  these  to  other  labours.^*  After  mentioning  a 
few  other  matters  to  his  readerSj  he  turns  his  discourse  to  his 
friends ;  "  recommending  himself  to  their  fovour,  whilst 
he  is  with  them,  and  his  name,  when  he  is  gone  hence  \ 
and  intreating  them  to  join  with  him  in,  a  wish,  that  he 
may  pass  the  evening  of  a  studious  and  unambitious  life  in 
an  bumble  but  not  a  slothful  obscurity,  and  never  fqrfeit 
the  kind  continuance  of  their  accustomed  approbation.** 

M  2 

164.  J  O  R  T  I  N. 

The  pliain  of  this  work,  however,  is  tigbly  objectionable, 
viinless  as  a  book  to  be  consulted.  It  contains,  in  that  re« 
qpect,  a  vast  mass  of  facts  and  opinions  tespecting  Eras- 
mus and  his  contemporaries,  put  together  in  chronological 
order,  and  of  great  importance  in  ecclesiastical  or  biogra- 
phical researches. 
.    But  whatever  DnJortin'swishesmightbe  as  to  retirement, 

4iewastoIivehereafterneithe^so  studiously  nor  so  obscurely 
jas  hut  imagination  bad  figured  out  to  him :  more  public  scenes 
jthan  any  he  had  yet  been  engaged  in  still  awaited  him.  For, 
Hay  ter,  bishop  of  London,  with  whom  he  had  been  upon  in- 
timate terms,  dying  in  176f ,  and  Osbaldiston,  who  was  alsb 
his  friend,  succeeding  to  that  se^,  he  was  made  domestic 
chaplain  to  this  bishop  in  Marchf  admitted  into  a  prebend 
of  St.  PauPs  the  same  month,  and  in  October  presented 
to  the  living  of  Kensington,  whither  he  went  to  reside  soon 
After,  and  there  performed  the  office  of  a  good  parish-» 
priest  as  long  as  he  lived.  In  1764,  he  was  appointed 
archdeacon  of  London,  and  soon  after  had  the  offer  of 
the  rectory  of  St.  James,  Westminster ;  which,  however^ 
he  refused,  from  thinking  his  situation  at  Kensington  more 
.to  his  honour,  as  well  as  better  adapted  to  his  now  ad« 
vanced  age.  Here  he  lived  occupied  (when  his  clerical 
functions  permitted)  amongSt  his  books,  and  enjoying 
himself  with  bis  usual  serenity,  till  Aug.  27,  1770:  when, 
being  seized  with' a  disorder  in  the  breast  and  lungs,  h^ 
grew  continually  worse  in.  spite  of  all  assistance ;  and^ 
without  undergoing  much  pain  in  the  course  of  his  illnesi^ 
died  Sept.  5,  in  his  7 2d  year.  He  preserved  his  under*- 
iltanding  to  the  last ;  and,  in  lainswer  to  a  female  attendant 
who  offered  him  something,  ^^  No,"  said  he,  with  much 
pomposure^  ^*  I  have  had  enough  of  every,  thing.-'  He  wa^ 
buried  in  the  new  church-yard  at  Kensington,  as  he  bad 
directed;  and  had  a  flat  stone  laid  over  him,  with  this  in- 
scription, dictated  by  himself : 

Joannes  Jortin 

'Mortalis  esse  desiit> 

Amio  Salutis  1770« 


He  left  a  widow  and  two  children,  Rogers^Jortin*,  of  Liki*' 

colnVinn,  in  the  profession  of  the  law ;  and  Martha,  mar»- 


•  This  9on  died  in  Jaljr  1795.     He  had  considerable  practice  in  the  court  of  v 
Evcfhequer.    His  vfi^^  who  survived  him,  was  one  of  the  daoghters  of  Or^  Maty^ 

J  O  R  T  I  N.  165 

ried  to  the  rev.  Samuel  Darbyy  fellow  of  Jesus^college,  ia 
Cambridge,  and  afterwards  rector  of  Whatfield,  in  Suffolk. 

Besides  his  principal  works,  which  have  already  been 
mentioned,  there  are  some  other  things  of  a  smaller  nature ; 
as,  '^  Remarks  upon  Spenser^s  Poems,*'  1734,  8vo,  at  the 
end  of  which  are  some  **  Remarks  upon  Milton ;''  **  Remarks 
,on  Seneca,"  printed  in  the  **  Present  State  of  the  Republic 
pf  Letters,"  for  Aug.  1734;  >'  A  Sermon  preached  at  the 
Consecration  of  Pearce  bishop  of  Bangor,"  1747  ;  a  few 
.^  Reoiarks  on  Ttllotson's  Sermons,"  given  to  his  friend 
Dr.  Birch,  and  printed  in  the  appendix  to  Birch's  Life  of 
that  prelate,  175S ;  '^  Letter  to  Mr.  Avison,  concerning 
tbe  Music  of  the  Ancients,"  subjoined  to  a  second  edition 
of  Avison's  ^' Essay  on  Musical  Expression,"  1753,  and  a 
few  ^*  Remarks  on  Phillips's  Life  of  Cardinal  Pole,'* 
painted  in  an  appendix  to  '^  Neve's  Animadversions^'  upon 
that  History,  1766.  In  1771,  the  year  after  his  death, 
4  volumes  of  his  ''  Sermons,"  in  8vo,  were  inscribed  by 
his  aon  Rogers  Jortiri,  esq.  to  his  parishioners  of  St.  Dun* 
Stan's,  at  whose  request  they  were  published;  and  these, 
being  well  received  by  the  public,  were  reprinted  in  1772,* 
with  the  addition  of  3  volumes  more.  At  the  end  of  the 
Ttb  vol.  aae  ^  Four  Charges,  delivered  to  the  Clergy  of  the 
Archdeaconry  of  London."  His  whole  Works  have  lately 
been  .reprinted,  inclnding  his  Life  of  Erasmus,  by  Messrs* 
White  and  Cochrane,  in  an  uniform  edition. 

Besides  greait  integrity,  great  humanity,  and  other  qua^ 
which  make  men  amiable  as  well  as  useful^  this 
learned  person  was  of  a  very  pleasant  and  facetious  turn ; 
as  bis  writings  abundantly  shew.  H6  had,  nevertheless, 
great  sensibility,  and  could  express  himself  with  warmth, 
and  even  with  some  degree  of  indignation,  when  he  thought 
the  occasion  warranted  liim:  to  do  sa  .  For  instance,  he 
had  a  great  respect  and.  fondness  for  critical  learning, 
which  he  so  much  cultivated ;  and  though  he  knew  and  al- 
lowed it  to  have  been  the  manners  of  pmud, 
fastidious,  and  insolent  critics,  yet  he  thought  the  re- 
storation of  letters,  and  the  civilization  of  Europe,  so. 
much  indebted  to  it,  that  he  could  ill  bear  to  see  it  con* 
temptoomly  treated.  Hence  alittle  tartness  sometimes  in. 
hsa  writings,  when  this  topic  falls  in  bis  way. 

For  the  motto  of  his  <<  Life  of  Erasmus,"  he  chose  the 
Ipllowing  words  of  Erasmus  himself:  ^*  iUud  certe  prse-^ 

166  J  O  R  T  I  N. 

B^ffOf  de  meis  Ittcubrattionibas,  quatetconqiie  sotit,  caih- 
4i4iu^J^^^^^^^^^°^  PosteritateiD :  tanetsi  oec  de  meo  se- 
culo  queri  poMum.*'  Yet  it  is  certain  tbat  be  had  very 
0tigbt  DOtioM  of  postbomoqs  fame  or  glory,  and  of  any 
teal  good  wbich  could  arise  from  it ;  a»  appears  frofm  what 
he  bas  collected  and  written  about  it,  in  a  note  upon 
Milton,  at  tbe  end  of  bis  *^  Remarks  upon'  Spenter*''  He 
would  sometimes  complain,  and  doubtless  witb  good  reason, 
of  tbe  low  estimation  into  wfaicb  learning  was  fitllen ;  and 
tbougbt  it  discountenanced  and  -discouraged,  indirectly  at 
least,  when  ignorant  and  wortbless  persons  were  adTanoad 
|0  high  Atations  and  great  preferments,  while  men  of  merit 
and  abilities  were  oveiloolced  and  neglected.  Yet  be  laid 
BO  undue  stress  upon  such  stations  and  preferments^ 
but  entertained  just  notions  concerning  what  must  ever 
oonstitttte  the  chief  good  and  'happiness  of  jBao,  and  if 
himself  believed  to  have  made  tbe  most  of  them.  Dr.  Parr 
bas  drawn  his  character  witb  his  usual  elegance  and  diaori^ 
minatioB.  ^^  Jortin,*'  says  he,  '<  whether  I  look  .back  to 
Ijii  verse,  to  his  pnose,  to  his  critioal,  or  to  his  theological 
w<^ks,  there  are  few  authors  to  whom  I  am  ao  jantch  in;* 
debted  for  rational  entertainment,  or  for  solid  instruction; 
Learned  «he  was,  without  pedantry.  He  was  iogemoos 
without  the  lactation  of  singularity.  He  was  a  loser  ottnub^ 
without  hovering  over  the  gloomy  abyss  of  scc^ioism,  and 
a  friend  tq  free  inquiry,  without  roving  ioaa  the  dreary  and 
pathless  wilds  of  latkudioarianism.  He  had  a -heart  which 
never  disgraced  the  powers  of  his  onderstanding.  Witb  a 
lively  imagination,  an  el^;ant  taste,  and  a  judgment  aoost 
masculine,  and  most  correct,  he  united  the  artless  and 
amiable  negligence  of  a  schooUboy.  Wit  without  ilb-na-^ 
tnre,  and  sense  without  ^Ebrt,<be  could  at  will  scatter  upon 
eveiy  subject;  and  in  every  book  the  writer  pseseols  us 
with  a  near  and  distinct  view  of  tliereal  man.'*^  . 

JOSEPH,  or  JOSIPPON  (Ben  GoRi(W,or  GoRioif  iDEa)^ 
L>e.  the  son  of  Gorion,  a  Jewish  historian,  is.  sometimes 
ccnfounded  by  the  rabbins  with  die  more  celebrated  histo- 
rian Jose|Aus.  He  lived  about  the  end  of  tbe  ninth,  or 
beginning  of  the  tenth  century,  and  left  a  History^of  the 
Jews,  in  Hebrew,  which  Gagnier  translated  into  Latin^ 
Oxford,  1706,  4to«  /There  is  also  an  edition  iniiebrew 
and  Latin,  Gotha,  1707,  4to.    Itisobvioas  ^om  internal 

1  NicboVs  Life  of  Bowyer. — Disney's  life  efJortif^, 

JO  S  E  P  It  167 

evidence,  that  thm  work  coold  not  hare  beeo  written  eer«' 
Her  than  tbe  ninth  century  ;  and  that  the  author  was,  ac* 
cording  to  all  appearance,  a  Jew  of  Languedoc' 

JOSEPH,  a  cdebrated  capuchin,  better  known  by  the 
name  of  Father  Joseph,  was  bom  November  4,  1577,  at 
Paris,  where  his  father^  John  de  Clerc,  had  an  office  in 
the  palace.  After  pursuing  his  studies  with  success,  be 
Yisited  Italy  and  Germany,  entered  into  the  army,  and 
gave  his  fiunily  the  most  flattering  expectation^  of  his.  fu'* 
ture  fortune,  when  he  suddenly  renounced  the  world,  and 
took  the  capuchins'  habit  in  1 599.  He  afterwards  preached> 
and  discharged  tbe  office  of  a  missionary  with  reputation^ 
was  entrusted  with  the  most  important  commissions  by  the 
cenrt,  and  contributed  much  to  the  reformation  of  Fon*^ 
tOYfauld.  He  sent  capuchin  misMonaries  into  England, 
Canada,  and  Turkey,  and  was  the  intimate  confidant  of 
cardinal  Richelieu,  to  whom  he  was  servilely  devoted* 
Father  Joseph  founded  the  new  order  of  Benedictine  nuns 
of  Calvary,  for  whom  he  procured  estabiisbmenta  at  An* 

Eers.  Louis  XIII.  had  nominated  him  to  the  cardinalate, 
nt  he  died  at  Reuel,  before  he  had  received  that  dignity, 
December  18,  163S.  Tbe  parliament  attended  his  funeral 
in  a  body.  The  abb^  Richard  has  published  two  lives  of 
diis  capuchin,  in  one  of  which,  in  2  vols.  l2mo,  he  repre* 
seats  him  as  a  saint ;  and  in  the  other,  entitled  ^'  Le  v6* 
riftable  Pere  Joseph,*^  as  an  artful  politician,  and  courtier. 
This  last  is  most  esteemed,  and  probably  most  to  be  cre- 

JOSEPH  pf  Exeter,  or  Josefhus  Iscanus,  a  writer  of 
considerable  taste  and  elegance,  in  an  age  generally  re- 
puted barbarous,  was  a  native  of  Devonshire^  and  flou-^ 
risbed  in  the  close  of  the  twelfth,  and  the  commencement 
of  the  thirteenth  centuries.  He  was  an  ecclesiastic,  and 
patronized  by  Baldwin,  archbishop  of  Canterbury.  Some 
sa^  that  he  was  a  priest  of  the  cathedral  of  Exeter,  fronl 
which  he  took  his  name.  According  to  Camden,  he  ac- 
companied Richard  L  of  England  into  the  Holy  Land,  and 
was  a  great  favourite  with  that  prince.  By  archbishop 
Baldwin's  interest  be  was  made  archbishop  of  Bourdeaux, 
where  he  is  supposed  to  have  died  in  tbe  reign  of  Henry  IIL 
and  to  have  been  buried  in  the  cathedral  of  that  city.     He 

1  Moreri  in  art.  B«^ii  Gorioo.— Lardner*i  Works.— Diet  Hist.—- S»xii  Oaom. 
«   *  Moreri.-<d>ict,  Hist. 

168  JOSEPH. 

was  fttttbor  of  two  epic  poems  in  Latia  heroics.     Tbe  fiffst^ 

in  six  books,  is  on  the  Trojan  war ;  the  other  is  entitied 

^*  Antiocbesis/'  tbewar  of  Antioch,  or  the  Crasade;  of 

this  last  only  a  fragment  remains,  in  which  tbe*  heroes  of 

Britain  are  celebrated.     His  style  is  not  only  for  the  moi^ 

part  pure)  but  rich  and  ornamented,  and  his  versification 

approaches  the  best  models  of  antiquity.     His  diction  is 

compounded  chiefly  of  Ovid,  Statins,  and  Claudian,  the 

favourite  poets  of  the  age,  and  wants  only  Vir^lian  chas^ 

tity. .  *^  Italy ,^    says  Warton  in  his   History  of  £nglish 

Poetry,  ^^  had  at  that  time  produced  no  poet  comparable 

tQ  him.'*     He  was  also  author  of  love  verses,  epigrams^ 

and  miscellaneous  poems.    His  "  De  Belio  Trojano,  lib*  V.'^ 

was  published   at   Basil,  1541,.  8vo;    Lond.   I675y  Svo^ 

Francfort,   1620,  4to,  and  ibid.  1623;    Amst.  1702,  4to. 

All  that  remains  of  his  '^  Antiochesis*'  js  printed  in  .Warton^s 

<V  History  of  rEnglisb  Poetry.*'     His  love*verses,  &c.  are- 


JOSEPHIN.     SeeARPINO.  ,  ■    ^ 

JOSEPHUS  (Flavius),  the  celebrated  historian  of  tiui 

Jews,  was  born  at  Jerussdem,  of  parents  who  belonged  to 

the  illustrious  Asmonean  family^  about  the  year  37.     He 

soon  discovered  great  acuteness  and  penetration,  and  made 

so  quick  a  progress  in  the  learning  of  the  Jews,  that- he 

ifas  occasiouaiiy  consulted  by  the  chief  priests,  and  role«s 

pf  the  city,  even  at  the  age  of  sixteen.     For'  tbe^  purpose 

of  studying  the  history  and  tenets  of  the  several  Jewish. 

sects,  he  became  for  three  years  a  pupil  of  Banun,  a  her- 

niit,  who  bad  acquired  great  fane  for  wisdom ;  and  with 

him  lived  a  recluse  and  abstemious  life.    After  thts  he  he^ 

o»m%vf  the. sect  of  the  Pharisees,  of  which  he  was  &  very 

great  ornament     In  the  year  63,  he  went  to  Rome,  where 

^  Jew  comediani  .who  happened  to  be  in  favour  with  Nero^ 

served  hijos  mnch  a.t  court,  by  making  him  known  to  Pop^ 

psea,  ythQ^e  protection  was  very  useful  to  him,  and  enabled 

him  tp  procure  liberty  for  soibe.of  his  countryinen.    Upon 

his  returu  to  his  country,  where  he  found  all  things  in  con*^ 

fusion/ he  had  tbe  command  of  some  troops,  and  distiti^ 

guished  himself  at  tbe  siege  of  Jotapat^,  which  he  defended 

seven  weeks  against  Vespasian  and  Titus,  but  was  taken 

pHsoaer.  A  short  time  after,  Vespa»an  granted  him  his  life^ 

y  LoKind.r*-BaIe«)—Pits.-^Pnace'8  Worthies  of  Deveii. — Warton*s  HnU  of 



at  tbe  intercession  of  Titus,  who  had  conceived  a  great 
esteem*  for  faitn«  He  now  visited  Egypt,  and  took  up  his 
residence  at  Alexandria,  where  he  doubtless  studied  the 
.Grecian  and  Egyptian  philosophy.  His  patron,  Titus, 
carried  ,bini  with  him  to  the  siege  of  Jerusalem,  after  the 
taking  of  which,  he  attended  Titus  to  Rome,  where  Ves^ 
pasian  gave  him  the  freedom  of  the  eity,  and  settled  a  pen- 
sion upon  him.  At  Rome  he  cultivated  the  Greek  Ian* 
guage,  and  began  to  write  his  History.  He  continued  to 
experience  favour  under  Titus  and  Domitian,  and  lived 
beyond  the  1 3th  year  of  Domitian,  when  be  was  fifty-six ; 
for  his  books  of  *^  Antiquities"  end  there;  and  aftet  that 
period  he  composed  his  books  against  Apion.  In  what  year 
be  died  is  uncertain. 

His  *^  HistcNy  of  the  Jewish  War  and  the  Destruction 
of  Jerusalem,*'  in  seven  books,  was  composed  at  the  com- 
mand of  Vespasian ;  first  in  the  Hebrew  language,  for  the 
use  of  his  own  countrymen,  and  afterwards  in  the  Greek* 
It  is  singularly  interesting  and,  affecting,  as  the  historian 
was  an  eye-witness  of  all  he  relate^.  With  the  very  strdng 
ocriottring  of  an  animated  style  and  noble  expression,  he 
paints  to  the  imagination,  and.  affects  the  heart  National 
vanity  atid  partiality,  however,  led  him  to  imagine  that  all 
kttovdedge  and  wisdom  had  originated  in  Judea,  and  had 
flowed  thence  through  all  the  nations  of  the  earth ;  a  notion 
wfaid)^  says  Brucker,.  gave  rise  to  many  errors  and  misre- 
presentations in  his  writings.  The  authenticity  of  the  ce- 
lebffated  passage  in  Josepbus,  respecting  our  Saviour,  is 
ably  vindicated  by  our  learned  countryman^  Jacob  Bryantj 
in  his  '<  Vindicis  Flavians^.'' 

Josephus's  ^^  Jewish  Antiquities,*'  in  20  books,  written  in 
Greek,  is  also  a  very  noble  work  ;  thei  r  history  is  deduced  from 
the  origin'  of  the  world  to  the  i2tfa  ytor  of  Neio,  wben  the 
'  Jews  began  to  rebel  against  the  Romans.  At  the  conclu- 
sion'of  the  ^'  Antiquities,"  he  subjoined  the  *^  History  of 
his  own  Li£e,"  although  in  the  editions  of  his  Works  it  bss 
usually,  been  considered  as  a  distinct  produption.  He 
wrote  also  two  books  against  Apion,  a  grammarian  of 
Alexandria,  and  a  great  adversary  of  the  Jews.  These 
contain  many  curiouR  fragments  of  ancient  historians.  We 
have  also  a  discourse  of  his  '*  upon  the  Martyrdom  of  the 
Maccabees,"  which  is  a  master-piece  of  eloquence ;  but 
its  authenticity  has  been  doubted,  and  Wbiston  would  hot 
admit  it  in  his  translation. 

,170  JOSEPHU6. 

Tbe  works  of  Josepbus,  with  Latin  versions,  hu^e  hem 
pftexi  piiblisbed  :  but  the  best  editions  are  those  of  Iiiid«> 
«0D,  Oj(ford|  1720,  2  vols,  fol.;  and  of  Havercamp,  at 
J!UQsterda|B»  1727,  in  2  vols,  folio.  They  have,  also  been 
tran§bited  in^  modern  languages ;  into  English  by  L'Es^ 
Ijr^pge,  and  again  by  Whistoo,  in  2  vols,  fol.* 
.  JO  VINIAN,  a  supposed  heretic  of  the  fourth  ceatnry,  was 
W  Italian  monk,  and  observed  all  the  austerities  of  amonasi- 
tJ(C  life  for  a  time,  and  taught  some  points  of  doctrine  di«- 
FeQtIy .opposite  to  the  growing  superstitions;  for  thislie  waa 
€|ipeUed  Rome^  and  fled  to  Milan,  with  an  intent  to  engage 
Ambrose,  bishop  of  that  place,  and  the  emperor  Tfaeodosuis, 
who  was  then  in  that  city,  in  his  favour ;  but  Syriciua, 
dien  bishop  of  Rome,  dispatched  three  presbyters  to  Mi» 
)ftn,  Crescentiiis,  Leopardus,  and  Alexander,  with  letters 
Ip  that  church,  which  are  stiU  extant  in  Ambi ose'a  works^ 
^pq^ainting  them  with  the  proceedings  of  himself  and  hit 
followers,  in  consequence  of  which  he  was  rejected  hf 
Ambrose,  and  driven  out  of  the  town  by  the  empero«. 
Fi^om  I^iiUOf  Jovinian  retsmed  to  the  neighbourhood  of 
Iftpipe,  wbeare  bis  followers  continued  to  assemble  under  bis 
direction,  till  ihe  year  396,  when  the  emperor  Hoomiuf 
c<^mmanded  him  and  his  accomplices  to  be  whipped  and 
ti,ani4ied  into  different  islands.  Jovinian  himself  was  cob» 
^ned  to  Boas,  a  small  island  on  the  coast  of  Dalmatian 
where  be  died  about  the  year  406.  Jovinian  wrote  several 
b^oks,  which  were  aoswered  by  Jerome  in  the  year  392, 
but  in  such  a  manner  as  to  render  it  difficult  to.know  what 
y^fite  Jovinian's  errors,  or  what  his  general  character,  ex<» 
cept  that  he  was  no  friend  to  cidibacy  or  £ssting.* 
.  JOVIUS  (Paul),  or  Paullo  Giovio,  an  Italian  bifto«- 
ijan^  was  a  native  of  Como,  and  was  born  in  1483.  Being 
^arly  deprived  of  bis  father,  he  was  educated  nnd»  the 
c^jre  of  bis  elder  brother  Benedict,  who  was  also  a  historical 
writer.  Aiter  having  studied  at  Padua,  Milan,  and  Bavia, 
be  took  the  degree  of  M.  D.  and  practised  for  some  4ume ; 
but  an  early  propensity  led  him  to  the  study  and  compo* 
sition  of  history.  Having  completed  a  volume,  be  pre* 
sented  it  to  Leo  X.  at  Rome,  in  1516,  who  expressed  a 
very  high  opinion  of  him,  and  gave  him  a  pension  and  tbe 
rank  of  knighthood.    Jovius  now  became  intimate 


>  Life   in  Worki.— Lardner'^  Works.— <:iave»   vol.   I.— ^lazii  Oaomast.-^ 
•  M«'eri.  — Milner'f  Cliareh  Hist  to).  IL  p.  876.— Moshtin. 


i  0  V  I«».  ^i 

ite  lils0fi|i  of  Eome,  aod  wrota  s^iwi^I  Lutio  {K>^p8|  (wluob 
afkpeared  in  the  ^<  Coryciaoa/'  ^qd  otb^r  cplliQoiioiM. 
:,/)dfter  tbe  death  of  l.eo>  Adrian  VI.  presemed  hbn  to  a 
4:aiionry  in  jtl^  c{itbedral  of  Como,  and  Clemanjt  VII.  «pr 
pointed  Uo)  on^  of  bis  attendant  cwrtiers,  provided  bim 
with  a  bandspgie  e»^b|isbment  in  tbe  Yatican»  gl^re  bim 
iJie  preoentori^bip  of  Como»  and  Ua>iiy  the  biifopric  of 
Noc^ra*  Daring  the  9ack]|ig  of  the  city  of  Rome,  in  19^% 
JoFitts  was  robbed  of  a  ^onsideriible  mm  of  nioney  and  cf 
Ilia  mantuoripls^  bu|  reoav^f^  the  latter*  Under  the 
fMfttiiicaAe  cf  Paol  UI>  be  wished  to  exchange  bis  b^thop^- 
ric  of  Nocera  for  that  of  Como,  and  even  carried  Ua 
Hflifailiao  to  the  place  of  oardinalf  but  iiva«  duiappointod  in 
both*  .His  lavourite  re^idenice  was  at  a  hewtiful  yiUa  on 
^  bf  nks  of  tbi»  bike  of  Como,  where  be  puraned  his 
ftndies,  and. in  bisinfisenni  made  a  ooUection  of  porttaits 
of  eminent  characteffi,  to  each  of  which  be  affiled  an  in» 
•cription,  or  brief  memoir,  some  highly  fairouiaUei  eftben 
sarcastimUy  severe^r  These  memoirs  have  b^eea  f neqnendy 
printed  under  the  tide  ^^  Elogia  dootornip  Vimrumy"  and 
tbe  portraits^  engraved  in  wood,  have  heen  published 
noder  tbe  title  of  ^^  Musssi  Joviani  imagieues/*  Basilf  157?« 
About  two  years  before .  bis  death,  he  qeitled  bis  retice^ 
ment,  and  took  up  his  residence  in  Flomnoe,  where  be 
died  in  15529  aad*was  buried  in  the  aburch  of  St  Lnu- 
l^ence^  in  that  city»  .  "^  y 

.  His  historical  worics^  wfai^h  are  all  iq  4be  \jb^x\  tongue, 
wvkaten  with  >great  facility,  wes^  first  printed  at  Flonance, 
]550-^-p*529  in  2  toIs.  fbl.  and  agaiti  at  Strasbinrgh,  in  lfi56. 
They  are  to  be  read  with  great  caiition,  as  he  ¥ras  not  nn-* 
justly  aecused  of  flattery  and  malignity,  and  of  having  sa« 
eiificed  his  talents  to  senrile  and  interested  purposes.  He 
indeed  openly  acknowledges  the  venality  of  bis  ivriting% 
and  is  said  to  have  asserted  that  he  had  t pro  pens,  the  one 
of  iron,  and  the  other  of  gi^,  which  he  made  use  of  aU 
teraately,  as  occasioB  required.  Bnt  bis*  greatest  blemisil 
is  tbe  defective  or  perverted  morality  with  which  bis  worka 
abound;  yet  with  all  tfais,  says  bis  late  Uographer^  the 
writings  of  Jovtus  cannot  be  wholly  rejected  witbont  .the 
loss  of  much  important  information,  copiously  narrated  and 
elegantly  eapressed^ 

His  other  writings  are  a  small  tract,  '^  De  Piscibus  Rg- 
raanisr,**'  jpublished  in  1524,  -fol.  and  reprinted  in  ISii^, 
8vo  \  tbe  live^  of  the  twelve  Visconti  lords  and  dukes  of 

IW  J  O  V  I  u  s. 

Milan ;  a  des<?riptipn  of  the  island  of  Gi^at  Britain^  ^ 
Muscovy,  of  the  lake  of  Como;  and  the  ealo^es  of  mcii 
who  have  distinguished  themselves  in  arms.  Three  of  the 
last  books  of  the  history  of  Paul,  with  some  works  of  his 
brother  Benedict,  have  lately  been  discovered  among  the 
domestic  MSS.  of  a  descendant  of  the  family.  His  bf04» 
ther  Benedict  appears  to  htive  been  equally  conversant 
with  science  and  literature.  Among-  bis  writings  are^  the 
history  of  Gc^mo^  his  native  plaee ;  a  treatise  on^  the  trans^ 
actions  and  mauiiers  of  the  Swiss ;  a  c<dlectioii  (tf  100 
letters;  several  translations  from  the  Greek,  and  sonsa 
specimens  of  Latin  poetry.' 

•  ^  JOUBERT  (Francis)i  a  learned  priest  of  MontpeUier^ 
whose  father  was  syndic  of  the  states  of  Languedoc,  which 
bflSce  he  himself  held  before  he  became  an  ecclesiastic^ 
was  bom  in  1689.  He  wrote  an  explanation  of  the  histtfty 
of  Joseph,  12mo;  *^  Caractcare  esseotiel  aux  Rrophdtes,^ 
]2ma;.^<  Lettves  sur  Tlnterpretation  des  Saintes  £cri«> 
taires,''  12mo;  and  Explanations  of  the  propheicies  of  Je* 
remiab,  Ezekid,  Datiiel,  5  vols.  12mo;  of  the  Mioor^ 
Prophets,  6  vols.  12mo  ;  of  the  Revelations,  2  vols*  12mo. 
His  attachment  to  the  Jansenists  occasioned  his  being  con-* 
fined  six  weeks  in  the  Bastille  on  false  suspicions.  He  died 
1763,  aged  seventy-four.' 

:  JOUBERT  (Laurent),  a  learned  physician^  and  royal 
professor  at  Montpellier,  was  born  at  Valence,  in  the  pm- 
vioce  of  Dauphine,  in  France,  on  the  16th  of  Decenolier, 
1529,  of  a  good  family.  After  he  had.  finished  his* school 
education,  he  went  to  Montpellier,  where  he  was  matrico^ 
lated  in  the  faculty  of  medicine  on  the  1st  of  March,  155€^ 
and  took  bis  degree  of  bachelor  the  following  year.  He 
afterwards  studied  at  Padua,*  where  he  attended  the  lec^ 
ture^of  the  celebrated  FaUopins,  and  at  some  other  places ; 
but,  returning  to  Montpellier,.  he  finished  his  exercises, 
and  received  the  degree  of  doctor  in  1558.  The  manner 
iu  which  he  had'  performed  his  acts  procured  for  him  so 
much  of  the;  confidence  and  esteem  of  Honor6  Castellan, 
that  this  professor,  being  soramoned  to  court  in  the  fol-* 
lowing  year,  to  hold  the  office  of  first  physician  of  Catha- 
rine de  Mecticis,  queen  of  Henry  IL  be  nominated  Jou« 
bert  to  give  the  lectures  in  the  schools  during  has  absence.;  . 

1  Tirabotchf.-^NioeroDi  rol.  XXV.«*RQiooe>  LeO't-^sui  Onooaactieon. 
s  Diet.  Hist. 

JOUBEE.t,  lit 

rnkdlovhert  ftequilted  bbnsalf  in  &o  distiogutAhed  »  man-^ 
tter,  that  OQ  the  death  of  pfofessor  Rptidelet  in  1566^  he 
iras  immediately  xmraed  bin  jiHeceswir  in  the  chair. '  He 
was  likewise  the  secood  suoceasor  of  Rondele^  in  the  dig* 
Bity  of  chancellory  faaTing  foHowed  Saporta  in  1574«  He 
waa  called  to  Parts  by  Bcniy  III.  io  1579,:  who  entertained 
hopes  that  Joubert  would  be  able  to  cure  the  barrenness 
of  Loii^isa  de  Lorraine,  bis  queen.  But  his  attempts  proved 
unsuccessful;  and  he  returned  to  Montpellier  with  the 
title  of  physician  in  ordinary  to  the  king,  and  continued 
to  practise  there  to  bis  death,  October  21,11583. 

His  Latin  works,  written  with  correctness  and  elegance, 
have  been  frequently  reprinted  under  the  tii;le  of  **  Operum 
Latinorum  Tomus  primus  et  secundjus."     The  first  edition 
is  that  of  Lyons,  in  1&82,  folio;  the  subsequent  ones  ap-- 
peared  at  Francfort,  in  1599,  1645,  apd  1668, 'also  in  fo). 
He  published  also. some  medical  treatises  in  French,  par* 
ticolariy  a  treatise  on  ^VLaugbter,  its  causes  and  effects,'* 
lir79,  8yo  ;  but  of  all  his  works,  that  in  which  he  ventured 
to  raise  bis  voice  against  popular  medical  errors,  was  the 
most  distinguished  ;  ^'  Erreurs  populaires  toucbant  la  Mi^ 
d^cine,"  Bourdeaux,  1579.     This,  was  printed  ten    sue--- 
cesstve  times  dn  the  course  of  six  months  ;  a  degree  of  fa- 
vour, however,  which  it  appears  to.  have  acquired  by  its 
levity  of  manner,  and  the  indelicacy  of  some  of  the  sub- 
jects.' * 
.JOUVENCI,   or  rather  JOUVANCEY  (Jo&EP)a  dr), 
a  celebrated  Jesuit,   was  born  September  14,   1643,    at 
Paris.     He  taught  rhetoric  with  uncommon  reputation  at 
Caen,  la  Fleche,  and  Paris.     At  length  he  was  invited  to 
Rome,  in  1669,  that,  he  might  continue  ^^The  History  .of 
the  Jesuits,'.'  with  more  freedoin  than  he  could  have  done 
in  France,  and  died  in  that  city  May  29,  1719. .   His  prin* 
cipal  works  are,  two  volumes' of  Latin  Speeches,.  12mo; 
a  small  tract  entitled  ^^  De  ratione  discendi  et  docendi," 
much  esteemed;    Notes,   in  Latin,  on  Persius^  Juveual^  ' 
Terebce,  Horace,   Martial,    Ovid's   Metamorphoses,)  ^.  ' 
The  fifth  part  of  the  '^  History  of  the  Je^aits,"  in  Latin, 
from  1591  to  .1616,  fol. ;  .as  a  supplement  to  Fathers  Or^ 
l^andino,^  Sacchini,  and  Poussines.     All  ^ouvenci's  works 
are.w/itten  in  pure  Latin,  and^in  this. consists  their prin«c^ 

■  Geo*  I)k;t«i^Nicei«tt^  vol.  XXXV.-^4le«^\Crfilop«iim,Vfj^^  aii^ 


1T4  J  O  U  V  E  N  C  L 

eipal  exe^eoce.  Bm  Hbtory  of  the  Jesuit^  in  whiSb  b« 
ondettabet  to  justify  hi*  brf^her,  Pere  Guignard,  who  wn 
hatiged  by  setitence  of  pariiameiit  on  account  of  Cbatel't 
inlimoiis  iittenipt,  and  to  represent  bhn  as  a  martjr,  bi»»g 
printed  at  Rome,  1710,  foL  made  much  noise,  and  was 
eoffd^omed  by  t^o  decrees  of  the  parliament  of  Paris; 
one  Feb.  22,  1713 ;  the  other,  March  24th  the  same  yter« 
This  last  sentence  suppresses  die  work,  and  contains  tbo 
declaration  which  had  been  demanded  from  the  Jesmts^ 
8ef«ral  pieces  appeared  on  this  occasion  agafaiM  P.  Jotr-^ 
venci's  history,  1713,  19mo.^ 

#OUVENET  (Joim),   an  historical   painter,   born  at 
Roiaeo,  in  Normandy,  in  1644,  received  his  first  instruc* 
tions  from  his  father ;  but  his  principal  teacher  'i^as  Pons* 
sm,  and  his  most  useful  studies  the  works  of  that  master. 
He  had  a  ready  invention,  and  was  therefore  employed  to 
adorn  the  apartments  of  Versailles  and  the  Trianon.     Iti 
Ihe  hospital  of  the  invalids  at  Paris,  he  painted  the  twelve 
apostles  i  each  figure  14  feet  high.    It  must  be  acknow- 
ledged, however,  that  he  failed  in  true  taste.     His  style 
partakes  too  much  of  French  fiippaiicy ;  the  substitution 
of  something  striking  for  what  is  solid  and  good  -,  and  his 
coloaring  is  heavy.     In  the  latti^  end  of  his  life,  be  was^ 
struck  with  a  palsy  on  his  right  side,  and  after  having  fried 
to  no  purpose  the  virtue  of  mineral  waters,  despaired  of 
being  able  to  paint  any  longer ;  but  in  one  of  his  lectures 
bappe^ning  to  take  the  pencil  into  his  left  hand,  and  trying 
to  retouch  a  piece  before  him,  the  attempt  succeeded  so 
well,  that  it  encouraged  him  to  make  others ;  till  at  length 
he  deteffpined  to  finish  with  his  left  band  ai  lai^e  cieltng, 
which  he  had  begun  in  the  ^nd  hall  of  the  parliament  at 
Rouen,  and  a  large  piece  of  the  Annunciation,  in  the  choir 
of  the  church  of  Paris.    These  last  itorkl^  are  no  ways  in«- 
ferior  to  any  of  his  best.     He  died  at  JParis  in  1717.* 

JOY,  JOYE,  or  GEE  (John),  one  of  iJm&  early  promoters 
of  the  reformation,  was  a  naftive  of  the  codnty  of  Bedford, 
and  educated  at  Peterhouse,  In  Cambridge,  where  he  took 
the  degree  of  B.  A.  in  1513,  and  that  of  M.  A.  in  1.5 it, 
and  the  same  year  was  admitted  a  fellow.  In  15^7,  being 
a  strenuous  advocate  for  the  doctrines  of  the  refoirmation^ 
and  ^n  intimate  friend  of  the  celebrated  Tindale,  he  was 

y  Moreri.«*eidt.  deLTATOcit — Saxit  OaoiMst, 

«  Ari^enviUe,  vol,  IV. — ^Pilkmgton.  * 

accttied  of  heresy,  vvhtdi  obliged  kriki  to  retfigft  bis  fell6«r^ 
ship ;  a¥id  finditig  himself  in  danger  frdafi  the  «:otitinual 
p^sectttions  of  Woldey^  sir  Thomas  Morie,  and  Fisher, 
ht  t^tined  to  Gertinanyi  wbe^re  he  Continued  ti^uy  years, 
Hh  had  a  concern  in  the  stiperinteadance  of  Tindale^a 
Bihte^  printed  at  Antwerp  ih  1533,  and  is  ranked  by  Alkiett 
as  a  printer  hitaiself ;  but,  not  content  with  corrections  of 
tb^  pre^s,  he  took  liberties  with  the  translation,  of  which 
lltndale  c6iliplained  with  justice,  and  Joy  published  an 
apology.  Of  these  the  Header  will  find  ample  informatioti 
in  Lewis.  When  Joy  returned  to  Englaml  is  not  known, 
but  it  is  toid  that  be  died  in  1553,  and  was  bot-ied  in  bis 
nativis  country.  Besides  his  tlranslatk>ns  of  sotne  parts  of  " 
the  Bible,  he  published,  1.  *'  On  the  unity  and  schism  of 
the  ancient  church,"  Wesal,  1534,  8vo.  2.  "  The  sub-, 
version  of  More's  false  foundation,*'  Embden,  1534,  12mo. 
9.  '<  Epistle  to  the  prior  of  Newenhatn/*  Strasburgh,  1527, 
3vo.  4.  ^  Coaiinentary  on  Daniel,  from  Melancthon," 
&c.  (jeneva,.  1545,  Lond.  1550,  8vo.  5.  **  A  present 
consoliition  for  the  sufferance  of  persecution  Tor  righteous^- 
ness^*'  1544^  12aio:  and  other  works,  enumerated  by 
Tanner. '  • 

JOYNER  (William),  alias  Lyde,  seeond  son  of  William 
Joyner,  alias  Lyde*,  of  Horspath,  near  Oxford,  by  Anne 
his  wife,  daughter  and  coheir  of  Ekiward  Leyworth,  M.  D. 
of  Oxford,  was  born  in  St.  Gileses  parish  there,  April 
1622,  educated  partly  in  Thame,  but  more  in  Coventry 
free-school,  elected  demy  of  Magdalen-college,  1626,  and 
afterwards  fellow.  But,  ^*  upon  a  foresight  of  the  utter 
ruin  of  the  church  of  England  by  the  presbyterians  in  the 
time  of  the  rebellion,*'  he  changed  bis  religion  for  that  of 
Rome,  renounced  his  fellowship,  1644,  and  being  taken 
into  the  service  of  the  earl  of  Glamorgan,  went  with  him 
into  Irelabd,  and  continued  there  till  the  royal  cause  de- 
clined in  that  country.  He  then  accompanied  that  earl  in 
his  travels  abroad ;  and  some  time  after  being  recommended 
to  the  siervice  of  the  hon.  Walter  Montague,  abbot  of  St. 
Martin,  near  Pontoise,  he  continued  several  years  inliis 
family  as  his  steward,  esteemed  for  his  learning,  sincere 

'l^  In  the  Oent.  Mag.  for  1781,  p.  38,  dalen^  Oxford,  on  Bdward  Joyner» 
is  «  cvrioas  Lalia  epiuph,  taken  front  alias  Lyde,  who  was  proba&ly  the  eU 
tke  parish  cfaarch  of  St.  Mary  Mag-     der brother  of  Williaoi. 

^  Tannen-^Ba)e.««^wit*s  History  of  the  TransUtiona  of  the  Bible. — Ames's 
and  Herbert's  Typographicftl  Atttiqnitiei* 

XU  J  O  Y  N  E  R. 

^iety>  and  great  fidelity.  At  his  return  he  lived  very  re*^ 
tired  in  London  ;  till,  on  the  breaking  out  of  the  popish 
plot  in  1678,  be  retired  to  Horspath,  where  30iue  time 
Hfter  he  was  seized  for  a  Jesuit,  or  priest,  and  bound  to 
appear  at  the  quarter-sessions  at  Oxford.  Being  found  to 
be  a, mere  lay-papist,  and  discharged,  he  went  to  Ickfordy 
an  objseure  village  in  Buckinghamshire,  near  Thame,  and 
there  spent  many  years  in  devout  retirement  In  1687  he 
was  restored  to  his  fellowship  by  James  II.  but  expelled 
from  it  after  a  yearns  enjoyment,  and  retired  to  his  former 
recess,  where,  says  Wood,  his  apparel,  which  was  for* 
merly  gay,  was  then  very  rustical,  little  better  than  that  of 
a  day-labourer,  and  his  diet  and  lodging  suitable.  In  one 
of  his  letters  to  Wood,  April  12,  1692,  he  told  him  that 
**  the  present  place  of  his  residence  is  a  poor  thatcht-house, 
where  the  roof  is  of  the  same  stuff  in  the  chamber  where 
be  lodged,  which  he  assured  me  was  never  guilty  of  pay*** 
ing  cbininey-tax.  However,  he  hoped  that  all  this  woi^ld 
HOC  make  a  person  neglected  and  despicable  who  had  for- 
merly slept  in  the  royal  palaces  of  France,  under  a  roof 
fretted  and  embossed  with  gold  ;  whereas,  this  is  doubly 
and  trebly  interweaved  only  with  venerable  cobwebs,  which 
can  plead  nothing  of  rarity  besides  the  antiquity."  This 
person&ge  has  written,  1.  *^  The  Roman  Empress,''  a  co« 
medy,  Lond.  1670,  4to.  2.  ^  Some  Observations  on  the 
Life  of  Cardinal  Pole,"  1686,  8vo.  3.  Various  Latin  and 
English  poems,  scattered  in  several  books,  especially  a 
large  English  copy  in  **  Horti  Carolini  Rosa  altera,"  1640.  . 
He  died  at  Ickford,  Sept.  14,  1706.  He  was  great  uncle^ 
to  Thomas  Philips,  canon  of  Tongres,  who  wrote  the. 
"  Life  of  Cardinal  Pole,"  published  in  1766.* 

JUAN  (Doer  George),  a  learned  Spanish  matbemati-^ 
clan,  knight  of  Malta,  and  commander  of  the  band  of  gen- 
tlemen marine  guards,  was  chosen,  with  Ulloa,  to  attend 
the  French  academicians,  who  went  to  Peru,  for  the  pur* 
pose  of  measuring  a  degree  on  the  meridian,  in  order  to 
determine  the  earth's  figure.  They  embarked  May  26, 
1735.  Ulloa  undertook  the  historical  part  of  the  voyage, 
which  appeared  translated  into  French,  Amsterdam,  1752, 
2  vols.  4to;  and  D.  George  Juan  the  astronomical  part,  who 
accordingly  published  a  large  work  on  the  earth's  figure, 
printed  in  Spanish.     On  his  return  he  went  to  Paris,  1745» 

•  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  JI. — Biog.  Dram. 

JUAN.  177 

^ere  the  academy  of  sciences. admililed  biai  a  member. 
He  died  at  Madrid,  1773,  leaving  several  works  in  Spanish 
on  naval  affairs,  a  tratislation  of  which  would  be  useful.' 

JUDA,  or  JEHUDA,  HAKKADOSH,  or  the  Saint,  a 
rabbi  celebrated  for  his  learning  and  riches,  according  to 
the  Jewish  historians,  lived  in  the  time  of  the  emperor 
Marcus  Antoninus,  whom  he  made  a  proselyte  to  Judaism,' 
and  it  was  by  his  order  that  Jehuda  compiled  the  Mishna^ 
the  history  of  which  is  briefly  this  :  The  sect  of  the  Pha- 
risees, after  the  destruction' of' Jerusalem,  prevailing  over 
the  rest,  the  study  of  traditions  became  the  chief  object  of 
attention  in  all  the  Jewish  schools.  The  U'umber  of  these 
traditions  had,' in  a  long  course- of  time,  so  greatly  in-' 
creased,'  that  the  doctors,  whose  principal  employment 
it  was  to  illustrate  them  by  new  explanations,  and  to  con« 
firm  their  authority,  found  it  necessary  to  assist  their  re-, 
collection  by  committing  them,  under  distinct  heads,  to 
writing.  At  the  same  time,  their  disciples  took  minutes  of 
the  explanations  of  their  preceptors,  many  of  which  were 
preserved,  and  grew  up  into  voluminous  commentaries.' 
The  confusion  which  arose  from  these  causes  was  now  be-^ 
come  so  troublesome,  that,  notwithstanding  what  Hillel 
bad  before  done  in  arranging  the  traditions,  Jehuda  found 
it  necessary  to  attempt  a  new  digest  of  the  oral  law,  and  of 
the  commentaries  of  their  most  famous  doctors.,  This  ar- 
duous undertaking  is  said  to  have  employed  him  forty 
years.  It  was  completed,  according  to  the  unanimous 
testimony  of  the  Jews,  which  in  this  case  there  is  no  suffi- 
cient reason  to  dispute,  about  the  close  of  the  second 
century.  This  Mishna,  or  first  Talmud,  comprehends  all 
the  laws,  institutions,  and  rules  oflife,  which,  beside  the  aii-^ 
cient  Hebrew  scriptures,  the  Jews  supposed  themselves  bound 
to  observe.  Notwithstanding  the  obscurities,  inconsisten- 
cies, and  absurdities  with  which  this  coilectioa  abounds,  it 
soon  obtained  credit  among  the  Jews  as  a  sacred  book.  But 
as  the  Mishna  did  not  completely  provide  for  many  cases* 
which  arose  in  the  practice  of  ecclesiastical  law,  and  many 
of  its  prescriptions  and  decisions  were  found  to  require  fur- 
ther comments  and  illustrations,  the  task  of  supplying  these 
defects  was  undertaken  by  the  rabbis  Chiiam  and  Oschaiam, 
and  others,  disciples  of  Jehudah  ;  who  not  only  wrote  ex- 
planations of  the  Mishna,  but  made  material  additions  to 

1  Diet.  Hist.— Cyclopaedia,  art  t)egree. 

Vol.  XIX.  N 


17$  J  U  D  A. 

tbi^  voluminoua  compftlMon.  These >  commeiitaries  mid 
afldilioiM  were  coHected  by  the  rabbi  Jochanan  ben  £Ue«>  - 
ser^  probably  io  the  fifth  century,  under  the  name  of  the' 
^\  Gemara/'  because  it  completed  the  Mithna*  This  col- 
l^ptioa  was  afterwards  called  the  Jerusalem  Gemara,  to  di9* 
tingukb  it  fromt  another  of  the  same  kiiul  made  in  Babylon, 
a);  the  beginning  of  the  sixth  century.' 

.  JUDAH  (Ljso),  one  of  the  reformersy  son  of  John  Ju«  . 
dah»  a  Gerotat^  priest,  was  born  in  1482,  in  Alsace.     Some 
authors  have  reported  that  be  was  a  converted  Jew,  but 
f^er  Simoh  has  proved  that  he  neither  was  a  Jew,  nor  of 
Jewish  eytractioo,  but  the  son  of  the  above  John  Judah,  or, 
de  Jada»  who,  according  to  the  custom  of  those  times,  kept, 
a  concubine,  by  whom  be  had  this  Leo.     He  was  edu- 
cated at  Slestadt,  and  thence  in  1502,  was  sent  to  Basil  to ' 
pursue  hi^  acadeoHcal  studies.     Here  l>e  had  for  a  fellow-* 
student)  the  afterwards  much  celebrated  Zuinglius;  and 
from  him,  who  bad  at  a  very  eairly  age  been  shocked  at 
the  superstitious  practices  of  the  church  of  Rome,  he  re* 
ceived  such  impressions^  as  disposed  him  to  embrace  the 
reformed  religion.     Having  obtained  his  degree  of  M.  A. 
in  ijil2,  he  was  appointed  minister  of  a  Swiss  church,  to 
the  duties  of  whiclyi  he  applied  himself  with  indefatigable 
2eal,  pr^ching  boldly  in  defence  of  the  protestant  reli- 
gion.   At  length  he  was  appointed  by  the  magistrates  and 
ecclesiastical  assembly  of  Zurich,  pastor  of  the  church  of 
St.  Peter  in  that  city,  and  became  very  celebrated  as  an 
advocajbe,  as  well  from  the  press  as  the  pulpit,  of  the  re* 
formed  religion,  for  about*  eighteen  years.     At  the  desire 
of  his  brethren,  he  undertook  a  translation,  from  the  He* . 
hrew  imto  Latin^  of  the  whole  Old  Testament ;  >)ut  the  mag«^ 
nitude  of  the  work,  and  the  closeness  with  which  he  ap- 
plied to  it,  impaired  his  health;  and  before  he  had  com«> 
pleted  it,,  he  fell  a  sacrifice  to  his  labours,  June  9,  1542, 
when  be  was  about  sixty  years  of  age.    The  translation  was 
finished  by  other  hands,  and  was  printed  at  Zurich  in  1543^ 
and  two  years  afterwards  it  was  reprinted  at  Paris  by  Robert 
Stephens,  accoBOfianying  the  Vulgate  versibn,  in  adjoining 
columns,  but  without  the  name  of  the  author  of  the  new 
veirsion.    Judah  was  likewise  the  author  of  ^^  Annotations 
upoD  Genesis  and  Exodus,*'  in  which  he  was  assisted  by 
ZttiB^iusy  and  uponrthe  four  gospels,  and  the  greater  part,^ 

*  Brasker^-— Saxii  Onomast* 

j  U  D  A  H.  *7d 



of  the  epistles.  He  also  composed  a  larger  |Li)d  smaller 
catechbm,  and  translated  some  of  ZuingliusV  works  tiito 
Latin.  The  Spanish  divines,  notwithstaiKling.  the  severity 
of  the  Inquisition,  did  not  hesitate  to  reprint  tlie  Latin 
Bible  of  Leo  Judah,  with  the  notes  ascribed  to  Yatabius^ 
thotigh  some  of  them  werq  from  the  pen  of  .Galvin«  Some 
parttcqlars  of  Judah  and  of  this  translation^  not  generally 
known,  may  be  found  in  a  book  written  by  a  dii^ne  of 
Zurich,  and  printed  in  that  cky  in  1616,  entitled  ^' Visi'^ 
dicis  pro  Bibliorum  translatione  Tigurina."' 

JUDEX  (Matthew),  one  of  the  principal  writcfrs  of 
the  Centuries  of  Magdeburg,  was  born  Sept  21,  1528^  at 
Tippolswald,  in  Misni^.  His  inclination  to  literature!  in^ 
duced  bis  father  to  send  him  to  study  at  Dresden  :  but  the 
.college  of  Wittenberg  being  more  to  his  mind^  he  remoriefd 
thither,  and  afterwards  was  driven,  Wy  necessity^  to  Mag*- 
deburg.  Here  he  supported  himself  by^li^ng  tutor  in  the 
family  of  a  lawyer,  who  sent  hiai  with  his  s«m  tx}  WitDeii!^ 
berg,  in  1546.  This  gave  him  an  opportum^  of  com- 
pleting his  own  studies ;  and  he  obtained  the  4ilgrae  of 
M.  A.  in  this  university,  1 548.  He  then  returned  t^  Mag:*- 
deburg,  and  taught  the  second  form  there  for  some  yMT^i 
and  in  1554,  was  chosen  minister  of  St.  Ulric's  chureb. 

In  1559,  he  quitted  his  church  at  Magdeburg,  hekB^f 
promoted  to  the  divinity  professor's  chair. at  Jena  in  1539; 
but  did  not  keep  possession  of  it  above  eighteen  months, 
being  deprived  by  order  of  John  Frederic  duke  of  SaxonyL 
He  remained,  however,  six  months  longer  at  Jena,  and 
thence  returning  to  Magdeburg,  was  obliged,  in  six  months 
more,  to  retire  to  Wismar.  He  suffered  many  persecu^ 
tions  and  venations,  which  appear  to  have  shortened  kib 
days,  as  he  died  in  1564,  in  the  very  prime  of  life.  He 
was  a  man  of  good  morals,  laborious,  zealous,  learned ;  and 
wrote  a  great  many  books  on  religious  controversies ;  and 
one,  very  rare,  ^*De  Typographic  inventione,"Copenhageny 
1566,  8vo.  He  understood  music  very,  well,  and  had  some 
knowledge  of  mathematics. .  He  could  write  versies  both  in 
Laitin  and  Greek,  and  had  designed  to  write  an  ecdesias^ 
tkal  history  of  his  own  time*  Besides  the  share  he  had  in 
the  first  two  Centuries  of  Magdeburg,  he  was  concerned 
in  the  German  translation  of  the  first  three  Centuries. 
These  Centuries  form  an  ecclesiastical  history,  carried 

.  1  Melchior  ▲d9Bi.-«SiiiiOA'»  Bibl.  Critique.— 9«xU  Ooonast. 

N  2 



down  to  1293,  and  were  cooipiled  by  various  protestant 
divines  of  Magdeburg.  The  title  is  **  Historia  ecclesiastics 
congesta  per  Magdeburgenses,  et  alios/'  Basil,  1562,  13 
vols,  folio,  which  is  the  best  edition.* 

JUENNIN  (Gaspard),  at  learned  divine  of  the  congre- 

fation  of  the  oratory,  was  born  in  1650,  at  Varembon  \h 
kQsse,  in  the  diocese  of  Lyons.  He  taught  theology  in 
several  houses  of  the  Oratory,  and  in  the  seminary  de  St. 
Magloire,  at  Paris,  where  he  died  Deceniber  16,  1713. 
His  principal  works  are,  a  "  Treatise  on  the  Sacraments,^' 
2  vols,  folio,  in  Latin ;  "  Theological  Institutions,''  7  vols. 
J  2mo,  also  in  Latin.  This  last  was  condemned  at  Rome, 
and  by  M.  Godet,  bishop  of  Chartres,  and  cardinal  de 
Bissy,  as  reviving  the  errors  of  Jansenius.  Cardinal  de 
Noailies  also  prohibited  it  in  his  diocese^  but  was  afterwards, 
satisfied  with  the  ^^planation  given  him  by  the  author. 
Juennin  wrote  against  the  mandates  of  M.  Godet  and  car- 
dinal de  Bissy  ;  which  two  apologetical  defences  were  pub- 
lished in  .12mo,  without  any  name.  He  also  left  an 
"  Abridged  System  of  Divinity,"  by  question  and  answer, 
for  th^use  of  persons  going  to  be  examined  for  holy  orders; 
'*  Ija  Th^orie  practique  des  Sacremens,"  3  vofe.  12mo, 
without  the  author's  name ;  "  Th^ologie  Morale,"  6  vols. 
12mo;  '^  Cas  de  Conscience  sur  la  vertu  de  Justice  et 
d'Equit^,"  4  vols.  12mo.* 

JUGLARIS  (Aloysius),  an  Italian  Jesuit,  and  a  cele- 
brated writer  of  panegyrics,  was  born  at  Nice,  and  admitted 
into  the  society  in  1622.  He  taught  rhetoric  for  the  space 
of  ten  years.  Being  afterwards  called  to  the  court  of  Sa- 
voy, to  be  entrusted  with  the  education  of  prince  Charles 
Emanuel,  he  began  to  publish  his  first  works  at  Turin; 
He  died  at  Messina,  Nov.  15, 1 653.  All  his  works  were 
printed  together  at  Lucca,  in  1710.  This  .collection  con- 
tains, 1.  A  hundred  panegyrics  upon  Jesus  Christ;  printed 
the  first  time  at  Genoa  in  1641.  2.  Forty  p^begyrics 
written  in  honour  of  Lewis  XIII.  printed  at  Lyons  in  1644. 

3.  Many  inscriptions,  epitaphs,  aud  encomiums,  upon  se- 
veral subjects ;  printed  likewise  at*  Lyons  in  the  same  ^ear. 

4.  Panegyrics  upon  the  greatest  bishops  that  have  been  in 
the  church ;  printed  also  at  Lyons  in  the  same  year,  and 
reprinted  at  Genoa  in  1653,  with  this  title,  *^  Pars  Secunda 
Elogiorum  humana  comptectens." '  ' 

"^  Qen.  Dict,-«Morerk 

*  Moreri.— Diet.  His^ 

*  »iif& 

JULIAN.  lil 


JULIAN,  a  Roman  emperor,  commonly,  although  per- 
haps not  very  justly,  styled  the  Apostate,  was  the  younger 
son  of  Constantius,  brother  of  Constantine  the  Great.  He 
was  the  first  fruit  of  a  second  marriage  of  his  father  with 
Basilina,  after  the  birth  of  Gallus,  whom  be  had  by  Galla 
bis  first  consort.  He  was  born  Nov.  6,  in  the  yeat  331,  at 
Constantinople ;  and,  according  to  the  medals  of  him, 
Jiamed  Flavius  Claudius  Julianus.  During  the  life  of  Con- 
stantine, he  received  the  first  rudiments  of  his  education 
at  the  court  of  Constantinople ;  but,  upon  the  death  of 
this  emperor,  ail  his  relations  being  suspected  of  criminal ' 
actions,  Julian's  father  was  obliged  to  seek  his  safety  by 
flight;  and  his  son  Julian's  escape  was  entirely  owing  to 
Marc,  bishop  of  Arethusa,  without  whose  care  he  had 
inevitably  perished  in  the  persecution  of  bis  family.  As 
soon  as  the  storm  was  over,  and  Constantius,  the  son  of 
Constantine,  quietly  seated  on  the  imperial  'throne,  he 
sent  young  Julian  to  Eusebius,  bishop  of  Niconoedia,  who 
was  related  to  him  by  his  mother's  side,  and  who  educated 
him  in  the  Christian  faith ;  but  at  the  same  time  empildyed 
an  eunuch  called  Mardonius,  who  was  a  pagan,  to  teach 
him  grammar,  while  Eulolius,  a  Christian  of  doubtful  cha- 
racter, was  his  master  in  rhetoric  Julian  made  a  very 
quick  progress  in  learning;  and,  being  sent  afterwards  to 
Athens  to  complete  his  education,  he  became  the  darling 
of  that  nursery  of  polite  literature,  and  particularly  com- 
menced an  acquaintance  with  St.  Basil  and  Gregory  of 
Nazianzen.  This  last,  however,  observed  something  in 
him  which  rendered  bis  sincerity  in  the  Christian  faith  stis- 
pected  :  and  it  is  certain,  that,  notwithstanding  all  the 
*  care  of  his  preceptor  Eusebius,  this  young  prince  was  en- 
tirely perverted  by  Maximus,  an  Ephesian  philoscrphei^ 
and  magician.  His  cousin  Qonstantius  the  emperor  was 
advertised  of  his  conduct ;  and  Julian,  to  prevent  the  ^ef- 
fects, and  save  his  life,  professed  himself  a  monk,  and 
took  the  habit,  but,  under  this  character  in  public,  he 
secretly  embraced  paganism.  Some  time  before,  his  bro- 
ther Gallus  and  he  had  taken  orders,  and  executed  the 
office  of  reader  in  the  church ;  but  the  religious  sentiments 
of  the  two  brothers  were  widely  different. 

As. soon  as  Julian  had  attained  the  age  of  manhood,  ac- 
cording to  the  Roman  law,  Constantius,  at  the  solicitation 
of  his  consort,  the  empress  Eosebia,  raised  him  to  the  dig- 
p^ty  of  Cssar,  on  i^'is  birtb-dayy  Nov.  6,  in  the  yei^r  3if3  f  . 

19»  ,  J  U  L  I  A  N» 

aod  ^  the  sarn^  tiaie  the  emperor  gave  htm  his  sister  Re* 
Una  in  marriage,  and  made  him  general  of  the  army  ill 
Gaul.  Julian  filled  his  command  with  surprizing  abilities^ 
^d  shewed  himself  every  viray  equal  to  the  trust ;  whifik 
was  the  more  extraordinary,  as  he  had  never  any  instruct 
ttons  in  the  military  art.  The  principal  officers  under  him^ 
from  whom  he  was  to  expect  assistance,  were  very  back* 
ward  in  performing  this  service ;  restrained  apparently  by 
the  danger  of  seeming  too  much  attached  to  him,  and 
thereby  incurring. the  emperor's  displeasure,  whose  jea« 
lousy  on  this  head  was  no  secret.  Under  all  these  disad* 
i^antag^  our  young  warrior  performed  wonders  ;  he  was 
not  afraid  to  undertake  the  enterprize  of  driving  the  bar*» 
)>arian$  out  of  Gaul ;  and  he  completed  the  design  io  a 
yery  little  time,  having  obtained  one  of  the  most  signal 
yicjtories  of  that  age,  near  Strasbourg.  In  this  battle  he 
ISQgaged  no  less  dian  seven  German  kings,  one  of  whom 
vm  the  famous  Chrodomairus ;  who  had  always  beaten 
the  Romans  till  this  time,  but  was  now  Julian's  prisoner. 
The  defeat  of  the  Salii  and  Chamavi,  French  people,  fol-* 
IpiH^d  al  the  heels  of  this  victory ;  and  the  Germans,  being 
fcpoquered  again,  were  constrained  to  beg  a  peace*  Our 
hero  was  crowned  with  these  glorious  laurels,  when  Con» 
•tantius,  who  was  hard  pressed  by  the  Persians,  sent  for  a 
detachment  of  troops  frpm  the  army  in  Gaul  to  augment 
tift  forces.  This  order  was  ill  relished  by  the  Gauls,  who 
were  reluctant  to  fight  out  of  their  own  country.  Julian 
took  advantage  of  this  ill  humour,  and  got  himself  declared 
emperor  by  the  army ;  but,  not  being  able  to  prevail  with 
Con^tantius  to  acknowledge  him  in  that  character,  be  went 
W;itb  th^se  troops  to  lUyria,  where  he  continued  till  the 
deftth  ef  Constantins,  which  happened  Nov.  2,  361.. 

Julian  no  sooner  saw  himself  master  of  the  world,  than 
he  threw  off  all  the  .disguise  of  his  religion,  for  it  merely 
was  a  disguise.  There  appears  very  little  reason  to  think 
ibat  Julias  had  ever  cordially  embn^ced,  or  ever  studied 
with  attention,  the  principles  of  Christianity.  )Iad  this 
kieen  the  case,  be  might  have  seen  that  those  principles  led 
|o  a  conduct  very  opposite  to  that  which  be  beheld  in  the 
conduct  of  Constantius,  .  whose  cruelty  to  his  relations 
perhaps 'first  excited  his  hatred  against  Christianity.  From 
his  youth  be  had  practised  dissimulation  with  consummate^ 
artifice,  aqd  it  was  rather  hypocrisy  than  Christianity  which 
i|e  bald  now  to.  sha^  oft   .Accordingly  he  qow  expressly. 

JU  La  A  ^fr  tti 

pmf«ss«d  hiifidetf  a'  t>^gan,  ord«rM  theiir  temt>1es  to  ht  ^ 
open,  and  re-established  tb^^ir  Worship :  be  also  assstim^ 
the  character  ai%d  station  of  the  ^rereign  pontiff,  and  wa$ 
wrested  with  the  whole  pagan  ceremonial,  resolving  to 
oflPace  the  mark  of  his  baptism  by  the  blood  of  the  heathen; 
sacrifices.  In  short,  he  resblved  to  efiect  the  nttef  ruin  of 
Cbristianitj,  and  in  this  attempt  united  solid  judgment 
with  indefatigable  assiduity •  Neither  address  nor  deitt^- 
ritj  was  wanting,  nor  all  that  the  wit  or  prudence  of  man 
coaid  do.  We  find,  indeed,  in  this  emperof  all  the  gfi^at 
qualities  which  a  projector  could  conceive,  or  an  adversary 
woald  require,  to  secure  success.  H^  was  eloquent  and' 
liberal,  artful^  insinuating,  and  iodefatfgable  ;  which,  join- 
ed to  a  severe  temperance,  a  love  of  justice,  and  a  coti-' 
rage  superior  to  aU  trials,  first  gained  him  the  affections,' 
and  soon  after  the  peaceable  possession,  of  the  whole  em* 
ptre.  He  bad  been,  as  we  have  just  remarked,  compelled 
to  profess^  the  Christian  religion  to  the  time  when  he  as- 
samedtbt^  purple;  but  his  aversion  to  his  uncle  Constan* 
tinw  and  bis  cousin  Constantius,  on  account  of  the  cruelties 
dxecenied'on  his  family,  had  prejudiced  him  against  the 
Christian  reilgton ;  and  his  attachment  to  some  Platonic 
sephttt,  who  had  been  employed  in  his  education,  gave 
him  aa  Violent  a  bias  towards  paganism.  4ie  was  ambitious  ;; 
and  paganism,  in  some  of  its  theurgic  rltes,^'had  fiatterecl 
and  end^ui^ged  his  views  of  the  diadem.  He  was  vain/ 
which  a[iade  him  aspire  to  the  glory  of  re-establishing  ther 
ancient  riteff.  He  was  very  learned,  and  fond  ofGrecis^ti 
literatarO)  the  very  soul  of  which,  in  his  opinion,  was  the 
old  ibeplogy  :  but,  above  all,  notwithstanding  a  consider- 
able mixture  of  enthusiasm,  his  superstition  was  exceSsivej^ 
and  what  nothing  but  the  blood  of  hecatombs  codld  ap* 

With  these  dispositions  he  came  to  the  empire,  and  con- 
sequently with  a  determined  purpose  of  subverting  th^* 
Christian  and  restoring  the  pagan  worship.     His  predeces- 
sors bad  left  hkn' the  repeated  experience  of  the  inefflcacjy 
of  downright  force.   The  virtne  or  the  past  times  then  feii*' 
leered  this  effort  fruitless,  ^be  numbers  of  the  present  WouW 
have  made  it  n^w  dangerous  :  he  found  it  necessary^  tl)ere-" 
feite,  to  change  his  ground*.     His  knovrtedge  of  human  na-^ 
tibre  f arrttsiied  htm  WHh  arti^s;  and  his  knowledge  o^  th€ 
ftatb  be  had  abandoned,  enabled  him  to  direct  those  arms 
t&  most  adMa^ntaf^.    lie  began  wMv't^^eMablishnig  i^aiiV 

r84  JULIA  N. 

ism  by  law,  and  granting  a  foil  liberty  of  conscience'  to 
the  Cbristians.     On  this  principle,  he  restored  those  to 
their  civil  rights  who  had  been  banished  on  account  of  their 
religion,  and  even  affected  to  reconcile  to  a  mutlial  for-, 
bearance  the  various  .sects  of  Christianity*     Yet  he  put 
on  this  mask  of  moderation  for  no  other  porpose  than  to 
inflame  the  dissensions  in  the  church,     He  then  fined  and 
banished  such  of  the  more  popular  clergy  as  had  abused 
their  poWer,  either  in  exciting  the  people  to  burn  and  de- 
stroy pagan  temples,  or  to  commit  violence  on  an  opposite 
sect :  and  it  cannot  be  denied,  but  that  in  the  turbulent 
^nd  insolent  manners  of  some  of  tiiem,  he  found  a  plausi<# 
ble  pretext  for  this  severity.     He  proceeded  to  revoke  and 
take  away  those  immunities,  honours,  and  revenues,  which 
his  uncle  and  cousin  had  granted  to  the  clergy.     Neither 
was  his  pretence  for  this  altogether  unreasonable.     He 
judged  the  grants  to  be  exorbitant ;  and,  besides,  as  they 
were  attendant  on  a  national  religion,  when  the  estabUsb- 
ment  came  to  be  transferred  frbm  Christianity  to  paganism^ 
he  concluded  they  must  follow  the  religion  of  the  st«teu 
But  there  was  one  immunity  he  took  away,  which  no  good 
policy,  even  under  an  .establishment,  should  have  granted 
them ;  and  this  was  an  exemption  from  the  civil  tribunals. 
He  went  still  farther :  he  disqualified  the  Christian  laity  for 
bearing  offices  in  the  state ;  and  even  this  the  security  of 
the  established  religion  may  often  require..    But;  his  most 
illiberal  treatment  of  the  Christians,  was  bis  forbidding  the 
professors  of  that  religion  to  teach  polite  letters,  and  the 
sciences,  in  the  public  schools;  and  Amm.  Marcellinus 
censures  this  part  of  his  conduct  as  a  breach  in  his  general 
character  of  humanity,  (lib.  xx.  c.  10.)     His  more  imme-* 
diate  design,  in  this,  was  to  hinder  the  youth  from  taking 
impressions  to  the  disadvantage  of  paganism  ;  his  remoter 
view,  to  deprive  Christianity  of  the  support  of  human  lite- 
rature..  Not  content  with  this,  he  endeavoured  even  to 
destroy  what  was  already  written  in  defence  of  Christianity. 
With  this  view  he  wrote  to  the  governor  and '  treasurer- 
general  of  Egypt,  to  send  him  the  library  of  Qeorge,hishop 
of  Alexandria,  who,  for  his  cruelty  and  tyranny,  hs^d  been 
torn  in  pieces  by  the  p^ple  :  nay,  to  such  a  length  did  his 
aversion  to.  the  name  of  Christ  carry  him,  as  to. decree,  by 
a  public  edict^  th§t  his  fplipwejcs  shoi^ld  be  no  longer  called 
Christians,  hut  Chileans;    well  knowing  the  eScaay  of 
a  nick-naa(ie  to  render  a  professiqn  ridiculous.     In  the 

JULIAN.  185 

mean  time,  the  animosities  between  the  different  sects  of 
Christianity,  furnished  him  with  the  means  of  carrying  oa 
these  projects.  Being,  for  exaoiple,  well  assured  that  the 
Arian  church  of  Edessa  was  very  rteb,  he  took  advaotage 
of  their  oppressing  and  perseculing  the  Valmitinians  to 
seize  every  thing  belonging^  to  that  church,  and  divided 
the  plunder  among  his  soldiers ;  scornfully  telUng  the 
Edes^ans,  he  did  this  to  ease  them  of  their  burthens,  that 
they  migfat  proceed  mote  lightly,  and  with  less  'iihpedi«* 
mexit,  in  their  journey  to  bea?6it.  He  seent  farther,  still,* 
if  we  may  believe  .the  historian  Socrates,  andy  in  order  to 
raise  money  to  defray  the  extraondiQary  expense  of  his 
Persian  expedition,  he  imposed  a  tax  or  tribute  on,  all  who 
would  not. sacrifice  to  the  pagan  idols.  The  tax,  it  is 
true,  was  proportioned  to  eveiy  man's  circumstances,  but 
was  as  truly  an  infringement  upon  his  act  of  toleration. 
And  though  be  forbore  persecuting  to  death  by  law,,  which 
would  have  been  a  direct  contradiction  tor  that  act,  yet  be 
connived  at  the  fury  of  the  people,  and  the  brutality  of  the 
governors  of  provinces,  who,  during  his  short  reign,  brought 
many  martyrs  to  the  stake.  He  put  such  into  governments, 
whose  inhumanity  and  blind  zeal  for  their  country  super- 
Itttions  were  most  distinguished.  And  when  the  suffering 
churches  presented  their  complaints  to  him,  he  dismissed 
them  with  cruel  scofli^,  telling  them,  their  religion  directed 
ttiem  to  suffer  without  murmurioig. 

Such  were  Julian's  e£Ports  to  subvert  Christianity;  and 
it  cannot  be  denied,  that  the  behaviour  of  many  of  the 
Christians  at  that  time  furnished  pretence  enough  for  most 
of  the  proceedings  against  them  in  the  view  of  state- policy. 
Besides  that  they  branded  the  state  religion,  and  made  a 
merit  of  affronting  the  public  worship,  it>is  well  known 
that  they  were  continually  guilty  of  seditions ;  and  did  »ot 
scruple  to  assert,  that  nothing  hindered  them  from  engag- 
ing in  open  rebdlion,  but  the  improbability  of  succeeding 
in  it  for  want  of  numbers.  During  these  measures,  his 
projects  to  support  and  reform  paganism  went  hand  in  hand 
with  his  attempts  to  destroy  Christianity.  He  wrote,  and 
he  preached,  in  defence  of  the  Gentile  superstition,  and 
has  himself  acquainted  us  with  the  ill-snccess  of  his  mini-. 
-  stry  at  Bercea.  Of  his  controversial  writings,  his  answever, 
Cyril,  hath  given  us  a  large  ^^cimen,  by  which  we  see 
he  was- equally  intent  to  recommend  pi^anism,  and  to  dis- 
credit revelation.    In  his  reformation  oCthe Gentile  super- 

ifti  J  XJ  L  1  A  K- 

stitiony  he  endeavoured  to  hide  the  abiurdity  of  its  tradi^ 
tiofis  by  moral  and  philosophical  allegorieB.  These  he 
fbond  provided  for  him  prtneipally  by  philosophers  of  bis 
own  sect^  the  Piatonists*  For  they^not  without  the  assists 
ance  of  the  other  se^ts^  bad,  ever  svnce  the  appearance  of 
Ohrisdanity)  been  refining  the  theology  of  paganism^  to 
oppose  it  to  that  of  revelation  ;  under  pretence,  that  tbett 
new-invented  allegories  were  the  ancient  ^irit  of  the  leti 
ter,  which  the  first  poetical  divines  bald  tfaos  conveyed  to 
posterity.  He  then  attempted  to  correct  the  morals  of  the 
pagan  priesthood,  and  regolate  them  on  the  practice  of 
the  first  Ohrijs^tians.  In  his  epistle  toAr^acius,  the  chief 
priest  of  Galacia,  he  not  only  requires  of  them  a  personal 
behaviour  void  of  offence,  but  that  theiy  reform  their  house-^' 
hold  an  the  same  principle :  be  directs,  that  they  who  at* 
tend  at  the  altar  should  abstain  from  the  theatre,  the  tavern^ 
and  the  exercise  of  all  ignoble  professions;  that  in^  their 
private  obaraeter  they  be  meeh  and  humble;  but  that,  in 
tiie  act^  and  offices  of  religion,  they  assume  a  character 
cotiformable  to  the  majesty  of  the  immortal  gods,  whosQ 
minitievs  they  are.  And,  above  all,  he  recommends  to 
tbeqi  the  virtues  of  charity  and  benevolence.  With  re- 
glird  to  discipline  and  reiigioujt  policy,  he  establishetl 
readers  in  divinity ;  planned  an  establUbment  for  the  order 
and  parts  of  the  divine  offices;  designed  a  regular  and 
formal  service,  with  days  and  hoars  of  worship.  He'bad^ 
^Iso  decreed  to  fbund  hospitals  for  the  poor,  monasteries 
fev  the  devout,  and  to  prescribe  and  enjoin  inrtiatory  and; 
expiatory  sacrifices ;  with  instrecttons  for  converts,  and  i 
course  of  penance  for  offenders;  and,  in  all  things,  to 
ienitate  the  ohiiVeb  discipline  ^t  that  time.  In  this  way  he 
endeavoured  to  destroy  Christian  principles,  and  at  the 
same  time  to  establish  Christianr  practice. 

But  as  the  indifferenee  and  corruptions  of  Pa^anismj, 
joined  to  the  inflexibility  arind  perseverance  of  the  Christi- 
afis,  prevented  his  project  fVom  advancing  with  the  speed 
lie  desired,  be  grew  chagrined,  and  even  threatened,  aftet 
hh  return  from  the  Persian  expedition^  effectually  to  ruin 
the- Christian  religion.  He  bad  before,  in  pursuance  of 
hb  geMral  sefaeme  of  opposing  revelation  to  itself,  by 
selling  ene  sect  against  another,  written  to  the  body  or 
eommunity  of  tlie  Jews ;  aasur^pg  them  of  his  protection, 
kia  ce^eern  ft»r  tbein  former  ilk  esag^,  and  bis 'fixed  pur-  * 
pes^  lo  scriBeo  them  from  fpltii^e  oppren^ofty  that  th^ 


might  he  III  liliMlyi  and  ib  a  disposUioQ  to  redpuble  their 
W»i  for  the  prosperity  of  his  reign ;  and  concluded  with  a 
promise,  that,  if  he  came  back  victorious  from  the  Persian 
war,  be  would  rebuild  Jerusalem,  restore  them  to  their 
possessions,  Jive  with  them  in  the  hplycity^  and  join  with 
them  in  their  worship  of  the  great  God  of  tbe  uuiveme; 
The  rebuilding  of  the  temple  at  Jarusaleqi  was  thought  a 
sure  means  of  destroying  Christianity,  since  the  final  de^ 
structicm  of  that  temple  had  been  foretold  both  by  Christ 
and  his  apbstles ;  if  therefore  the  lye  could  be  given  to 
their  predictions,  their  religion  would  be  no  more.     This 
scheme,  therefore,  he  set  about  immediately.     The  com* 
plating  of  su^h  an  edifice  would  be  a  work  of  time,  and  h^ 
pleased  himself  with  the  glory  of  atchieving  so  bold  nn  en<* 
terprize.    Accordingly,  the  attempt  was  made,  and  what 
was  the  consequence  will  be  seen  by  the  following  aecoaut 
of  it  from  Ammianus  Marcellinus.     ^'  Julian,  baring  beeit 
already  thrice  consul,  faking  Sallust  prsefect  of  tbe  several 
Gauls  for  his  colleague,  entered  a  fourth  time  on  ih)s  high 
magistracy.     It  appeared  strange  to  see  a  private  man  asso* 
ciated  with  Augustus  ;  a  thing  of  which,  since  the  consu^  . 
late  of  Dioclesian  and  Aristobulus,  history  afforded  no  ex-* 
ample*     And  although  bis  sensibility  of  the  maqy  and  great 
events,  which  this  year  was  likely  to  produce,  made  him 
very  anxious  for  the  future,  yet  he  pushed  on  the  various 
and  complicated  preparations  for  this  expedition  with  the 
utmost  application :  and,  having  an  eye  in  every  quarter, 
and  being  desirous  to  eternize  bis  reign  by  the  greatness  of 
his  achievements,  be  projected  to  rebuild,  at  an  immense 
expence,  tbe  proud  and  magnificent  temple  of  Jerusalem^ 
which,  after  many  combats,  attended  with  nduch  bloodshed 
on  both  sides,  during  the  si^ge  by  Vespasian,  was,  with 
great  diiBculty,  taken  and  destroyed  by  Titus.     He  edm« 
mitted  the  conduct  of  this  affair  to  Alypius  of  Antio^b,  who 
formerly  had  been  lieutenant  in  Britain.     When,  tbere^ 
fore,  this  Alypius  bad  set  himself  to  tbe  vigorous  execution 
of  his  charge,  in  which  he  had  all  tbe  assistance  that  tb6 
governor  of  the  province  could  affoed  him,  horrible  bal)s  of 
fire  breaking  out  near  tbe  foundations,  with  frequent  and 
reiterated  attacks,  rendered  the  place  from  time  to  time  in-* 
accessible  to  the  scorched  and  blasted  workmen;  and  the 
vicjtprious  element  continuing  in.  this  manner,  obstinately- 
and  resolutely  bent,  as  it  were,  to  drive  them,  to  a  distance^ 
Alypius  thought  best  to  give  over  the  eoterprispe.  ^  Irf  the 

188  JULIAN. 

mean  licney  though  Julian  was  still  at  Antiocb  when  this 
happened,  yet  he  was  so  wholly  taken  up  by  the  Persian 
expedition,  that  he  had  not  leisure  to  attend  to  it.  He  set 
•out  soon  after  upon  that  expedition,  in  which  he  succeeded 
yery  well  at  first ;  and,  taking  several  places  from  the  Per* 
sians,  he  advanced  as  £ar  as  Ctesipho  without  meeting  with 
any  body  to  oppose  him.  However,  there  passed  several 
engagements  in  this,  place,  in  which  it  is  said  the  Romans 
;)iad  almost  always  the  advantage ;  but  the  distressed  con* 
dition  of  their  army,  for  want  of  necessaries,  obliged  them 
to  come  to  a  decisive  battle.  This  was  begun  June  26, 
in  the  year  363,  and  victory  appeared  to  declare  itself  an 
their  side ;  ^faen  Julian,  who  was  engaged  personally  in 
the  fight  without  jiis  helmet,  received  a  mortal  wound  upon 
jiis  head,  which  put  a  period  to  his  life  the  following  night.'* 
TUs  fact  of  the  interruption  given  to  the  rebuilding  of  the 
temi^le  of  Jerusalem  has  been  denied  by  some  oMKlern  in«* 
fidek,  but  nothing  of  the  kind  seems  better  attested;  and 
although  it  may  be  supposed  that  the  eruption  was  not 
without  natural  causes,  and  that  the  seeds  of  it  lay  in  the 
bowels  of  the  earth,  yet,  as  Dr.  Jortin  observes, .  the  fire's 
bjreaking  out  at  the  very  instant  when  the  Jews  and  Pagans 
were  attempting  to  rebuild  the  temple,  its  being  renewed 
iipon  their,  renewed  attempt  to  go  on,  and  ceasing  when 
they  gave  over,  are  circumstances  which  plainly  shew  a 
providential  interposition. 

.  We  have,  in  the  course  of  his  memoir,  had  occasion  to 
exhibit  soipe  qualities  to  the  disadvantage  of  Julian  ;  yet 
we  must  in  justice  add,  that  he  was  sober  and  vigilant,  free 
from  the  debaucheries  of  women ;  and,  to  spm  up  all,  re« 
markabiy  mild,  merciful,  good-natured,  and,  in  general, 
most  amiable ;  except  in  bis  passions  which  arose  from  his 
aversion  to  Christianity.  He  not  only  encouraged  leuers 
by  his  patronage,  but  was  himself  a  learned  writer.  As  a 
philosopher,  he  strictly  adhered  to  the  Alexandrian  or 
Eclectic  school.  He  professes  himself  a  warm  admirer  of 
Pythagoras  and  Plato,  and  recommends  an  union  of  their 
tenets  with  those  of  Aristotle.  The  later  Platonists,  of  his 
pwn  period,  he  loads  with  encomiums,  particularly  Jam* 
blicbus,  whom  he  calls  <^  The  Light  of  the  World,"  and 
<<  The  Physician  of  the  Mind.''  Amidst  the  numerous 
traces  of  an  enthusiastic  and  bigoted  attachment  to  Pagan 
theology  and  philosophy,  and  of  an  inveterate  enmity  to 
Christianity,  which  are  to  be  found  in  bis  writings,  the 

JULIAN.  189 

candid  reader  will  discern  many  marks  of  genius  and  eru- 
dition. Concerning  the  manners  of  Julian,  Libanius  writes, 
that  no  philosopher,  in  the  lowest  state  of  poverty,  was 
ever  more  temperate,  or  more  ready  to  practise  rigorous 
abstinence  from  food,  as  the  means  of  preparing  his  mind 
for  conversing  with  ^  the  gods.  Like  Plotinus,  Porphyry, 
Jamblicbus,  and  others  of  this  fanatical  sect,  he  dealt  in 
visions  and  extastes,  and  pretended  to  a  supernatural  in- 
tercourse with  divinities.  Suidas  relates,  probably  from 
some  writings  of  the  credulous  Eunapius  now  lost,  an  ora- 
cular prediction  concerning  his  death.  Besides  bis  answer 
to  St.  Cyril,  and  "  Misopogon,"  he  wrote  some  other  dis- 
courses, epistles,  &c.  in  which  are  many  proofs  of  genius 
and  erudition,  conveyed  in  an  elegant  style.  And  his  re- 
scripts in  the  Theodosian  code  shew,  that  he  made  more 
good  laws,  in  the  short  time  of  his  reign,  than  any  erope* 
ror  either  before  or  after  him.  His  works  were  published 
in  Greek  and  Latin  by  Spanheim  in  1696,  2  vols.fol. ;  and 
a  selection  from  them  in  England  by  Mr.  Duncombe,  1784, 
2  vols.'  8vo,  translated  principally  from  La  Bleterie,  who 
wrote  an  excellent  life  of  Julian.* 

JULIEN  (Peter),  an  eminent  French  sculptor,  profes- 
sor of  the  schools  of  sculpture  and  painting,  a  member  of 
the  French  Institute  and  of  the  legion  of  honour,  was  bom 
at  Paulien,  in  the  department  of  the  Haute-Loire,  in  1731. 
He  was  the  pupil  first  of  Samuel,  a  sculptor  in  Puy  en 
Velay,  with  whom  he  remained  two  years,  after  which  he 
was  placed  at  Lyons  under  Rtache,  another  artist,  where 
be  made  great  progress  in  sculpture,  and  after  gaining  a 
prii^e  at  the  academy  of  Lyons,  came  to  Paris.  Here  lie 
entered  the  school  of  William  Coustou,  statuary  to  the 
king,  in  1765,  and  gained  the  prize  of  sculpture  for  a 
beautiful  bas-^relief,  representing  Sabinus  offering  his  cha- 
riot to  the  vestals,  when  the  Gauls  were  about  to  invade 
Rome.  There  was  a  simplicity  in  the  style,  taste,  and 
character  of  this  piece  which  struck  the  connoisseurs  as 
something  different  from  what  they  had  been  accustomed 
to  $ee  in  the  modern  school.  The  artist,  according  to  the 
custom  of  the  times,  enjoyed  the  usual  pension  for  three 
years  at  Paris,  and  did  not  go  to  Rome  until  1768,  where, 
kiff  fame  having  preceded  him,  he  was  employed  by  the 

^  CaYe.— >La  Bleterie'f  Life.— Mosheim  and  Milner.«~GibWon's  History.-^ 
Saxii  Onomast. 

^90  J  U  L  I  E  N. 

president  Bdenger  to  execute  a  inausoleuni  in  itiarble 
for  bis  wife  ahd  daughter.  Besides  the  other  Iab6ur8  en- 
joined to  the.  pensionary  artists^  Julien  oiade  copies,  in 
•marble,  for  the  president  Ocardi,  of  the  Apollo  Belvidere, 
the  Flora  in  the  Farnese  palace,  and  the  Gladiator  in  the 
Borghese  palace,  all  which  are  now  in  the  collection  zt  Ver- 
sailles. He  was  afterwards  recalled  to  Paris  to  assist  CoU- 
stou  in  the  mausoleum  for  the  dauphin  sod  ckuipfaiiiess^ 
Of  this  he  executed  the  6gure  of  ioifaortality,  and  had  tbe 
charge  of  removing  tbe  whole  to  the  cathedral  of  Sens, 
where  it  now  is. 

His  fame  being  fifliy  established,  be  was,  although  other- 
wise a  man  of  great  modesty,  ambitious  of  a  seat  in  the 
academy  of  painting  and  sculpture,  and  with 'that  view 
preteDted  them  with  a  Ganymede,  but  notwithstanding  its. 
sM^knowledged  merit,  he  did  not  at  this  time  succeed.  In 
1779,  however,  he  made  a  second  effort,  and  bis  *^  Dying 
Gladiator"  procured  him  immediate  admission  into  the 
academy.  He  tv'as  then  employed  by  the  king  to  make 
the  statue  of  La  Fontaine,  which  is  reckoned  bis  master- 
piece in  that  style.'  He  also  executed  various  bas-relievos 
fori^e  castle  of  Rambouillet,  and  a  woman  bathing,  wUch 
is  now  in  tbe  hall  of  the  Senate  at  Paris,  and  allowed  to^be 
one  of  the  finest  specimens  of  modern  art.  His  last  work 
w^  the  statue  of  Nicolas  Poussin,  for  tbe  ball  of  tbe  In- 
stitute. This  excellent  artist  died,  after  a  long  illness,  at 
Paris  in  January  1804.^ 

:  JULIEN  (Simon),  another  able  French  artist,  and  a 
member  of  the  ancient  academy  of  paioting,  was  born  in 
i736,  of  poor  parents  at  the  village  of  Carigliano  near 
Locarno  in  Swisserland,  and  was  first  a  pupil  of  Bardon 
at  Marseilles ;  and  afterwards  of  Carlo  Vanloo'  at  Paris, 
where  having  gained  tbe  prize  of  the  academy,  he  was  sent 
to  tbe  French  school  at  Rome  under  Natoire.  The  sight 
6f  the  ancient  and  ihodern  works  of  that  city  determined 
him  to  abandon  tbe  manfner  taught  in  France,  and  adopt 
that  of  the  great  masters  of  Italy.  This  procured  him^ 
andong  the  wits,  the  name  of  Julien  the  apostate,  to  distin<» 
gush  bim  from  others  of  the  same  name,  and  of  the  same 
$obool.  His  successes  at  Rome  prolonged  his  stay  there 
for  ten  years,  after  which  be  returned  to  Paris^  and  distii]?< 
guigbed  himself  by  various  works  of  great  merit.    He 

1  Diet  Hist. 

J  U  L  I  R  N*  \n 

painted  for  the  hotel  of  the  princ€fs»  Kinski  a  St.  lOominic^. 
and  several  decorations  for  ceilings,  mentioned  in  the  ^^  Re-^ 
cueil  des  curiosites  de  Paris,"  which  attracted  tbei  atten- 
tion of  connoisseurs  and  strangers.  Among  the  .work^ 
which  be  exhibited  to  the  academy,  when  uomiqaled  a 
member,  was  the  ^*  Triumph  of  Aurelian,"  ejiecuied  for 
the  duke  de  Rochefoacault.  In  the  saloon  of  St.  Louis,  he 
exhibited  in  1788,  his  fine  picture,  ^^  Study  spreading  her 
flowers  oyer  Time,''  a  work,  of  admirable  composition.. 
This  was  sent  into  England,  and  engraved.  Amotig  other 
capital  performances  from  his  hand  may  be  mentioned  his 
Jupiter  and  Juno,  and  Aurora  and  Titan.  His  last  impor-- 
tant  work  was  an  altar-piece  for  the  ebapel  of  the  arch* 
bishop  of  Paris  at  Conflans,  representing  St.  Anthony  in  a 
trance.  Notwithstanding  his  merit,  we  have  to  add  tbait' 
this  artist  died  poor,  in  1799.^ 


JUNCKER,  or  JUNKER  (Christian),  was  born  Oct. 
16,  1663^  at  Dresden.  He  acquired  greaC  knowledge  of 
the  belles  lettres  and  medals,  and  was  successively  teacher 
at  Schleusingen,  Eysenacb,  and  Altenburg,  where  be  died 
June  19,  1714.  He  had  been  admitted  a  member  of  the 
royal  society  at  Berlin  in  171  i»  He  left  a  great  number  of. 
German  translations  from  ancient  authors,  and  several  edi- 
tions of  classic  authors,  with  notes,  in  the  style  of  those 
published  by  Minellius;  also,  ^^  Schediasma  de  Diariis 
eruditorum  i*^  *^  Centuria  feminaruoi  eruditione  et  scriptis 
illMstrium ;''  ^^  Theatruni  Latinitatis  uuiversse  Reghero-* 
Junkerianum,''  <^  Lineae  eruditionis  universe  et  Hisfeoriae 
PhilosophicsBj'*  <*  Vita  Lutberi  ex  nummis,"  "Vita  Lun 
dolpbi,*'  &c.  He  was  historiographer  to  the  Ernestine, 
branch  of  the  house  of  Saxony.  Poverty  obliged  him  to 
write  rather  in  haste,  which  may  be  discovered  in  bis; 

JUNCKER  (GoTTLOB  JoH>])»  a  learned  physician,  was: 
born  on  the  3d  of  June,  1680,  at  LondorfF,  near  Giessen,t 
in  Hesse.     He  pursued  his  medical  studies  at  Marpurg  and'. 
Erfurt,  and  afterwards  toolt  the  degree  of  M.  D.  at  Halle, 
in  1718.     He  became  subsequently  a  distinguished  pro- 
fessor in  this  university,  and  attained  a  high  reputation  as 
Il^ysici^a  to  th^  public  hospital.     He  <^ied  at  Haile,.  Oot.^ 
25]^  1759.     His  works,  which  are  chiefly  compilations,  have 

»  Diet.  Hist.  •  Ibid.— Morsri.««<^xi4  Onofinst. 

192  J  U  N  C  K  E  R. 


been  much  esteemed,  and  are  still  occasionally  referred  to, 
especially  as  they  contain  the  best  .and  most  compendiou9 
view  of  the  doctrines  of  Stahl,  which  he  espoused  and 
taught.  Tliey  are  as  follows:  l.  ^^  Conspectus  MedicinsB' 
Tbeoretico-practicoe,  Tabulis  137  primarios  morbos,  me- 
thodo  Stahliana  tractandos,  exbibens/'  Halle,  1718,  4to; 
2.  **  Conspectus  CViirurgiae,'*  &c.  ibid,  1721,  4to;  3, 
**  Conspectus  Formularum  Medicarum^"  &c.  ibid.  1793^ 
4to;  4.  ^*  Conspectus  Therapeiae  generalis,  &c.  Tabulis. 
20  metbodp  Stahlian^  conscriptus/'  ibid.  1725,  4to;  5, 
"  Conspectus  Chemiae  Theoretico-practicae  in  forma  Tabu- 
larum  reprsesentatus,  &c.  Tomus  prior,'^  ibid.  1730,  4to. 
This  is  an  elementary  work  on  chemistry,  according  to  the 
principles  of  Becher  and  Stahi.  6.  "  Conspectus  Physio*- 
logiac,"  ibid.  1735,  4to;  and  7.  "  Conspectus  Pathologiee/* 
ibid.  1736,  4to.  Juncker  likewise  published  many  acade^ 
mical  theses  on  medical,  chirurgical,  and  philosophical 
subjects.  * 

JUNCTIN  (Francis),  in  Italian  Giuntino,  a  celebrated 
mathemlatician  and  astrologer  of  the  sixteenth  century,  was 
born  1523,  at  Florence.  He  published  Commentaries,  in 
Latin,  on  the  Spbsera  of  Holywood  or  Sacro  Bosco,  1577 
and  1578,  2  vols.  8vo ;  "Speculum  Astrologi©,''  Lugd. 
1581,  2  vols.  foL  and  other  works  relating  to  astronomy.^ 
There  is  also  a  treatise  written  by  him  in  French  on  the 
comet  which  appeared  in  1577,  8vo;  and  another  an  there^ 
formation  of  the  calendar  by  Gregory  XIII.  8 vo,  in  Latin. 
He  had  quitted  the  Carmelite  order,  and  became  a  pro* 
iestant,  but  returned  afterwards  to  the  Catholic  church, 
and  spent  the  chief  of  his  life  at  Lyons,  where  his  conduct 
was  very  irregular.     He  died  1590.* 

JUNGEJIMAN  (Godfrey),  a  native  of  Leipsic^  was  the 
first  ii»bo  published  an  ancient  Greek  translation  of  '^  Csb* 
Bar's  Commentaries,'^  Francfort,  1606,  2  vols.  4to,  a  work 
much  in  request ;  and  gave  a  Latin  version  of  ^he  "  Pasto- 
rals" of  Longus,  with  notes,  Han.  1605,  8vq.  Some  of  his 
letters  are  also  printed.  He  died  August  16,  .1610,  at 
Hanau.  Lewis  Jungerman,  his  brother,  born  also  at 
JLeipsic,  was  an  excellent  botanist,  and  to  him  are  attril^ 
bated,  *^  Hortus  Eystettensis,''  *^  Catalogus  piantamm 
qu8^  circa  Altorfin urn  uascuntur/' Altorf^  1646,  8n>^  anil 

1  Rees's  Cyclopaedia  from  Eloy  and  Haller. 

*■  Moreru--^ibl.  Franc,  de  La  Croix  cUi  Maiae,  voL  T. 

■  r 

J  U  N  G  E  R  M  A  N.  19S 

*'  CornUcopis  Florie  Giessensis,*'  Giessse,  1623,  4to.  He 
died  June  7, 1653,  at  Altorf.  Gaspard  Jungerman,  another 
brother^  was  alsd  a  man  oMearning.  * 
'  JUNGIUS  (Joachim),  an  eminent  mathematician,  phy'* 
sician,  and  botanist,  the  son  of  a  schoolmaster  at  Lubec, 
in  Germany,  was  bom  October  21,  1587.  His  mother 
was  daughter  to  a  clergyman  of  the  cathedral  church  at 
Lubec.  Jungius,  having  linfortunately  been  deprived  of 
his  father  very  early  in  life  (for  he  was  stabbed  one  evening 
upon  bis  return  home  from  a  convivial  party),  was  obliged 
to  depend  almost  entirely  upoii  bis  T>wn  exertions  for  know* 
ledge ;  yet  in  his  youth,  he  became  a  very  subtle  logician, 
and  ingenious  disputant,  and  thus  prepared  his  mind  for 
that  clearness  of  investigation  and  accuracy  of  judgment^ 
iifrbtch  were  so  eminently  conspicuous  in  the  works  which 
he  published  at  a  more  advanced  period  of  his  life.  Se- 
lecting the  study  of  medicine  as  a  profession^  he  travelled 
over  a  great  part  of  Italy  and  Germany,  in  order  to  culti* 
vate  the  acquaintance  of  the  most  distinguished  physicians 
of  that  time.  He  had  previously  graduated  with  distin^ 
guished  honour  at  the  university  of  Giessen  A.D.  1607, 
and  reknained  there  a  few  years  as  mathematical  tutor.  Ii| 
1625  beMvas  cfhosen  professor  of  physic  at  Helmstadt,  but, 
on  account  of  the  Danish  war,  he  was  obliged,  soon  after 
his  appointment,  to  iiy  to  Brunswick,  whence  he  soon  re- 
turned to  Helmstadt,  and  in  1629  was  appointed  rector  of 
the  school  at  Hamburgh. 

Jungius  seems  to  have  eminently  distinguished  himself 
in  the  several  studies  of  theology,  medicine,  mathematics^ 
flfietaphysics,  and  botany,  upon  all  which  pursuits  his  opi- 
nions and  observations  are  handed  down  to  us  in  his  writings, 
though  the  most  fadaous  part  of  his  work,  entitled  '*  Doxo-* 
scopias  Physicte  Minores,''  is  upon  the  last  mentioned  sub- 
ject, botany.  This  book  was  first  printed  at  Hambuf^h,  in 
4to,  A.D.  1662,  and  again,  in  1679,  under  the  care  of 
Martin  Fogel,  with  this  additional  title,  ^'  PrsBcipuarum 
opinionum  physicarum."  A  copy  of  the  former  edition  of 
this  work  is  in  the  Linnasan  library,  having  been  presented 
to  I^innsus  by  his  pupil,  professor  P.  D.  Gis^ke,  of  Ham- 
burgh. The  botanical  piart  of  it,  included  in  the  third 
section  of  the  second  part,  occupies  about  100' pages,  and- 
jn^tfu/is  many  judicious  and  acute  rules  for  making  distitfi^t 

>  QeD.  Diet.— Moreri.— Saxii  OnomMt—Haller  Bib).  Bot, 

Vol.  XIX.  O 

194  '  J  U  N  G  I  U  S. 

sspecies  of  plants,  as  tvell  as  some  curious  remarbs  upotr 
genera.  He  was  a  great  critic  in  botanical  nomenclature ; 
and  constructed  a  variety  of  terms  which  agree  with  thos^ 
of  Linnacu^  and  his  remarks  upon  botanical  discriitiination 
have  been  of  considerable  advantage  to  succeeding  bo- 
tanists, and  many  of  his  definitions  are  repeatedly  made 
use  of  by  our  immortal  countryman,  Ray.  He  was  the  first 
who  projected  and  raised  a  literary  society  in  Germany, 
though  this  institution  did  not  share  a  better  fate  than  the  one 
which  had  just  before  been  founded  in  this  country  (and 
which  appears  to  have  served  for  its  model)  by  Hugh  La- 
timer, Thomas  Linacre,  and  others,  for  the  purpose  of 
discussing  and  illustrating  Aristotle's  philosophy.  They 
both  flourished  but  for  a  short  period,  though  the  Heunetic 
or  Ereunetic  society,  as  it  was  called,  established  by  pro- 
fessor  Jungius,  was  on  a  far  mot^e  comprehensive  plan  than 
the  other,  and  may  indeed  be  considered  aft  having,  in 
some  measure,  dmbraced  the  same  views  with  which  the 
royal  society  was  afterwards  instituted  iti  Great  Britain. 
The  fame  of  Jungius  was  originally  diffused  through  thia 
country  by  his  noble  pupil,  the  honourable  Charles  Caven- 
dish, who  appears  to  have  studied  under  him  at  Hamburgh. 
This  gentleman  was  brother  to  the  earl  of  Newcastle,  who 
had  the  care  of  Charles  I.  when  a  youth. 

After  a  long  lif^,  spent  in  the  acquirement  and  diffusion 
iof  general  philosophical  knowledge,  and  having  always 
manifested  a  strong  attachment  to  the  i^utheran  cbifrch; 
professor  Jungius  departed  this  life  September  23,  1657, 
and  was  buried  in  the  church  of  St.  John  at  Hamburgh, 
where  a  handsome  tablet  was  inscribed  to  his  memory  by 
his  Ariend  and  pupil,  Midiael  Kirsten.  The  following  ia 
a  list  of  his  works,  as  given  by  Martin  Foget,  who  ecSted 
the  second  edition  of  his  "  0oxoscopiiaB.'*  1.  **  Logi<>9 
Hamburge^sis,"  Hamb.  1638,  8vo.  2.  <^  Geomi9t^i<i  Em-*, 
pirica,"  Rostock  and  Hamb.  4to.  3.  "  Doxoscopia^  Phy- 
sicsd.  Mtnores,  sive  Isagoge  Physica  Doxoscopica.*^  Hamb* 
1662,  4to.  4.  *'  Kurzer  Bericht  von  der  Didactica  oder 
Lehrkuast  Wolfgangi  Ratichii,  dnrch  Christoph.  Helvictini 
und  Joacb.  JuDgium,"  Giessen,  1614,  4to.  5.  ^^Disptitii^ 
tiones  d^  naturaJi  Dei  cognitione :  de  potentiA  activft ;  de 
loco  Ariatotetis,  lib.  3.  de  codo,  t  66  :  de  figuris  locuni 
replentibiis :  de  relattonibus :  denocionibus  secondk:  d«p 
demonstratione  tritermina:  de  definitionibus,''  &c.^ 

1  Chaufepie.— -Rees'i  Cyclop!edta.«-3asii  OnoBMstieoii. 

Junius.  us 

Junius  (Adrian),  a  learned  Hollander^  was  born,  in 
151 1  or  1512,  at  Hoorn,  of  which  place  his  father  had  been 
tecretary,  and  five  times  burgomaster.  Having  passed 
through  his  first  studies  at  Haerlem  and  Lpuvain,  he  fixed 
upon  physic  for  his  profession,  and,  for  his  improvementt 
resolved  to  travel  abroad.  Accordingly^,  going  first  to 
France,  he  put  himself  under  the  care  of  James  Houlier^ 
a  celebrated  physician  at  Paris.  Thence  he  went  to  Bo^ 
logna  in  Italy,  where  he  was.  admitted  M.  I),  and  afters 
wards,  passing  through  several  part's  of  Germany^  arrived 
in  England,  and  became  physician  to  the  duke  of  Norfolk 
in  1543,  and  was  afterwards  retained  in  that  quality  by  a 
certain  great  lady.  He  continued  in  England  several  years, 
>and  wrote  many  books  there;  among  others,  a  Greek  and 
Latin  lexicon,  to.vbrhich  he  added  above  6500  words.  Ha 
dedicated  this  work,  in  1548,  to  Edward  VI.  with  the  titiei 
of  king.  Edward  not  being  acknowledged  such  by  thel 
pope,  our  author,  who  was  of  that  religion,  fell  under  the 
ilispleasure  of  the  court  of  Rome  for  his  dedication^  and 
was  prosecuted  for  it  a  long  time  after.  His  Works,  were 
put  into  the  *^  Index  Expurgatorius,^'  where  he  was  branded 
as  a  Calvinist,  and  an  author  *^  damnatsB  memortSB,"  of 
condemned  memory;  a  disgrace  which  gave  him  great 
uneasiness  and  concern ;  and,  in  order  to  be  freed  from  it, 
having  laid  his  case  before  cardinal  Granville,  he  applied,, 
by  the  advice  of  Arias  Montanus,  directly  to  the  pope, 
and  prepared  an  apology,  shewing  the  indispensable  ne-^ 
cessity  h^  was  upder  of  giving  Edward  the  title  of  king, 
and  at  the  same  time  protesting  he  bad  always  been  a  good 
catholic.  V    . 

Before  the  death  of  Edward,  he  returned  io  his  own 
country,  and  led  a  sedentary  life,  closely  pursuing  biS' 
studies ;  but,  upon'  the  accession  of  queen  Mary,  he  re«« 
turned  thither  ^  and,  being  a  very  good  poet,  he  published, 
in  1554,  an  epithalamium  on  the. marriage  of  Philip  IL 
with  that  queen,  entitled  "  Philippis.'-  This  address  could 
not  fail  of  introducing  him  in  a  favourable .  light  to  that 
court,  whei^ee  he  would  probably  have  made  a  cM>nsiderabl«' 
fortune,  had  not  the  turbulent  state  of  those  times  driven 
him  home  again.  He  confined  himself  some. time  in  Hoorn, 
b«it,  after  a  while,  settled  at  Haerlem ;  and  repaired  .the 
disappoinUBent  be'suttftifled  respecting  ^  his  financfis  in 
England,  by  marrying  a  young  woman  of  fortune,  which 
he  knew  how  to  imp'rote  by  making  the*  most  of  his  dedi« 

O  2 

I9S  J  i;  N  I  u  s. 

^atk)n»  to  his  books^  of  which  he  published  three  at  Ha«r^ 
jiem  in  1 556.  Some  years  after^  he  accepted  an  offer  from 
the  king  of  Denmark,  to  be  his  physician,  with  a  consider- 
able salary,  and  removed  to  Copenhagen;  but  neither 
liking  the  climate  nor  genius  of  the  inhabitants,  he  left  the 
country  about  1564,  very  abruptly,  without  taking  leave  of 
the  king.  Returning  to  Haeilem,  he  practised  physic,  and 
was  made  principal  o-f  the  college,  or  great  school,  in  that 
town.  He  continued  there  tiM  the  place  was  besieged  by 
the  Spaniards  in  1573,  when  he  found  means  to  escape,  by 
oi)taining  leave  to  attend  the  prince  of  Orange,  who  desired 
his  assistance  as  a  physician ;  but  lo&t  hk  library,  in  which 
be  had  left  a  great  many  works  which  had  cost  him  much 
pains  and  labour ;  and.  the  loss  was  aggravated  by  this 
circumstance,  that  they  were  almost  fit* for  the  press.  Ii^t 
this*exigency  he  went  to  Middleburgh,  where  the  prince 
bad  procured  him  a  public  salary  to  practise  physic ;  but 
the  air  of  the  Country  did  not  agree  with  his  constitution, 
and  he  fell  into  some  disorders,  which,  with  the  grief  he 
felt  for  the  loss  of  his  library,  put  an  end  to  bis  life  in  1'575. 
There  was  a  design  to  have  given  him  a  professorship  at 
Leyden,  which  university  was  but  just  rising  when  he  died. 
He  had  a  prodigious  menfiory,.  which  enabled  him  to  trea- 
sure up  a  vast  stock  of  learning.  Besides  his  skill  in  physic, 
which  was  his  profession,  he  was  an  historian,  poet,  philo- 
sopher, and  understood  perfectly  eight  languages.  Hi» 
works  make  up  24  articles,  among  which  arp,  ^  Lexicon* 
^rsBCO^^Latinum,"  1548;  '^Adagiorum  ab  f^rasmo  omisso- 
rum  centuriaB  octo  &  dimidia,"  1558 ;  which  last  was  p^b- 
lished  after  bis  death,  as  others  of  his  pieces  were.^ 
!  JUNIUS,  or  Du  JON  (Francis),  professor  of  divinity 
at  Leyden,  was  descended  of  a  noble  family,  and  born  at' 
JBourges.  in  1545.  At  the  age,  of  thirteen  he  began  ta 
^udy  the  law,  and  afterwards  went  to  Geneva,  to  study  the 
langu^;es ;  but  being  restrained  in  bis  pursuits  for  want  of 
a  proper  support  from  his  family,  he  resolved  to  get  his 
bread  by  teaching  school,  which  he  pursued  till  1565, 
when  he  was  made  minister  of  the  Walloon  church  at  AnW 
.weqp.  B^it  as  this  ^as  both  a  troublesome  and  dangerous 
post,  oii>  account  of  the  tumultuous  conflicts  between  the 
papists  and  protestants  at  that  time,  h^  was  soon  obliged  to 
withdrair  into^  Gefoiaay.     He  went  first  to  Heidelbergt 

,        ^       I  Gen.  Diet,— Kieeroo;  vol.  VU.<»-^SaxH  OooButsticoiw 

JUNIUS.  197 

"turhe're  the  elector^  Frederic  III.  received  him  very  gra* 
eiously.  Hie  then  made  a  visit  to  bis  mother,  who  was  stiil 
living  at  Bourges ;  after  which,  returning  to  the  Palatinate, 
he  was  made  minister  of  the  church  of  Schoon  there. 
This  was  but  a  small  congregation  ;  and,  while  he  held  it, 
be  was  sent  by  the  elector  to  the  prince  of  Orange's  army, 
during  the  unsuccessful  expedition  of  1568.  He  continiaed 
chaplain  to  that  prince  till  the  troops  returned  into  Ger- 
many;  when  he  resumed  his  church  in  the  <  Palatine,  and 
resided  upon  it  till  1379.  This  year  his  patron,  the  elec- 
tor, appointed  him  to  translate  the  Old  Testament  jointly 
«yith  IVemellius,  which  employment  brought  him  to  Hei- 
delberg. ,  He  afterwards  read  public  lectures  at  Neustadt, 
till  prince  Casimir,  administrator  of  the  electorate,  gave 
him  the  divinity-professor's  chair  at  Heidelberg.  He  re- 
'  turned  into  France  with  the  duke  de  Bouillon ;  and  paying 
his  respects  to  Henry  IV;  that  prince  sent  him  upon  some 
cnission  iiiito  Germany.  Returning  to  give  an  account  of 
his  success,  and  passing  through  Holland,  he  was  invited 
4o  .be  divinity-professor  at  Leyden:;  and,  obtaining  the 
permission  of  tbie  French  ambassador,  he  accepted*  the 
o^er  in  1592.  He  had  passed  through  mainy  scenes  of 
life,  and  he  wrote  an  account  of  them  himself  this  year:: 
after  which,  he  filled  the  chair  at  Leyden  with  great  repu- 
tation for  the  space  of  ten  years,  when  he  died  of  the 
|>  1602. 

He  was  married  no  less  than  four  times,  and  by  his  third 
wife  had  a  son,  who  is  4:he  subject  of  the  next  article. 
The  titles  of  his  works  are  sixty^four  iu  number,  among 
which  are,  ^'  Commentarilss"  on  the  first  three  chapters  of 
Xrenesis,  the  prophecies  of  Ezeklel,  Daniel,  and  Jonah  ^ 
**  Sacred  Parallels"  and  **  Notes*'  upon  the  book  of  Reve- 
lation ;  **  Hebrew  Lexicon  ;'*  **  Grammar  of  the  Hebrew 
Tongne;**  ^^  Notes  on  Cicero's  Epistles  to  Atticus,"  But 
what  he  is  chiefly,  and  almost  only,  known  for  liow,  is  his 
Latin  ^version  of  the  Hebrew  text  of  the  Bible,  jointly  with 
Ttemelliui.  He  was  a  man  of  great  learning  and  pious 
zeal,  and  his  life  by  Melchior  Adam  affords  many  interest- 
ing particulars  of  him  in  ^oth  -.characteps*  In  the  account 
of  his  life  written  by  himself,  he  relates  that  in  his  youth 
he  was  seduced  into  ^theism,  from  which  he  represents 
liimself  as  almost  miraculously  redeemed,  and  this  appears 
;to  have  made  a  lasting  impression  on  him.^ 

1  Mdchior  AdAin.*«-Gen.  Diet,— Niceron,  toI.  XVL 

198  JUNIUS. 

JUNIUS  (Francis,  or  Fkan^ois  Du  JON),  son  of  tbe 
preceding,  was  born  at  Heidelberg  in  1589,  and  received 
the  first  elements  of  his  education  at  Leyden,  apparently 
with  a  view  to  letters ;  but  upon  the  death  of  his  father  ia 
1602,  resolving  to  go  into  the  army  in  the  service  of  the 
prince  of  Orange,  he  applied  himself  particularly  to  such 
branches  of  the  mathematics  as  are  necessary  to  make  a 
figure  in  the  military  life.  He  had  made  a  gpod  progress 
in  these  accomplishments  at  twenty  years  of  age ;  when 
the  war  being  concluded  by  a  truce  for*  twelve  years  in 
1609,  occasioned  a  change  in  his  purpose,  and  inclined 
him  to  cultivate  the  arts  of  peace  by  a  close  application  to 
study.  His  first  literary  employment  was  to  collect,  digest, 
and  publish  some  of  his  father^s  writings.  After  some 
years  spent  thus  in  his  own  country,  he  resolved,  for  far-* 
iher  improvement,  to  travel  abroad.  With  that  view  be 
went  first  to  France,  and  then  to  England,  in  which  be 
arrived  in  1620,  and  having  recommended  himself  by  his 
leatning  and  amiable  manners  to  the  literati  there,  he  was 
taken  into  the  family  of  Thomas  earl  of  Arundel,  in  which  be 
continued  for  the  space  of  thirty  years.  Ouring  his  abode 
there  he  made  frequent  excursions  to  Oxford,  chiefly  for 
the  sake  of  the  Bodleian  and  other  libraries ;  where, 
meeting  with  several  Anglo*Saxon  books,  he  resolved  to 
study  the  language,  whicsb  was  at  that  time  neglected.  H^ 
soon  perceived  that  the  Anglo-Saxon  tongue  would  be  of 
service  to  him  for  discovering  many  etymologies  necessary 
to  clear  up  the  Flemish,  Belgic,  German,  and  English, 
languages;  and  therefore  devoted  himself  wholly  to  that 
study.  He  afterwards  learned  the  ancient  language  of  tbe 
Goths,  Francs,  Cimbri,  and  Prisons ;  by  which  he  disco- 
vered the  etymology  of  several  Italian,  French,  and  Spa- 
nish words ;  for  the  Goths,  Vandals,  French,  Burgundians^, 
and  Germans,  spread  their  language  in  the  provinces  they 
conquered,  of  which  some  vestiges  are  still  left. 

After  a  careful  course  of  these  studies  and  researches^ 
he  announced  his  having  discovered  that  the  Gothic  was 
the  mother  of  all  the  Teutonic  totigues ;  whence  sprang 
the  old  Cimbrian,  transmitted  to  posterity  by  the  remain^ 
of  the  Runic,  as  likewise  the  Swedish,  Danish,  Norwegian, 
Icelandish,  in  which  the  inhabitants  of  the  country  ex- 
pressed their  thoughts  at  that  time.  From  the  Anglo* 
*Sax6n,  which  itself  is  either  a  branch  of  tlie  Gothic  or  it^ 
sister,  and  daughter   pf  th§  sapae   mother^   spr^g  the 


JUNIUS.  f«9 

English,  £lcotch,  Belgic,  and  the  old  laiigulage  of  Friesland. 
From  the  Gothic,  and  Saxon  languages  sprang  that  of  the 
Fraocts  which,  is  the  mother^tongue  of  Uppef- Germany. 
He  was  so  passionately  fond  of  this  study,  that,*after  thirty 
years  chiefly  spent  upon  it  in  England,  being  infornted 
there  wene  some  villages  in  Friesland  where  the  ancient 
language  of  the  Saxons  was  preserved,  he  went  thither  and 
Hved  two  years  among  l^em.  Theu^  returning  into  Hol- 
land, he  met  with  the  old  Gothic  M,S.  called  the  Silver 
One,  because  the  four  gospels  are  written  there  in  silver 
Crotbic  letters.  He  devoted  hit  whole  study  in  the  expli- 
cation  of  it,  which  he  completed  in  a  Uttle  time,  and  pub« 
bshed  it,  with  notes  of  Dr.  Marshall,  in  1665,  under  the 
title  ^*  Glossarium  Gotbicum  in  quatuor  evangelia  Gothica,*' 
]>ordrac,  1665, 4to.  Dr.  Marshairs  performance  is  entitled 
'.^  Observaliones  in  evangeliorum  versiones  per  antiquas 
^kas,  Gothicam  sc.  &  Angb^Saxonicam,'*  &c.  ibid.  Junius 
iretttrned  kuta  £ngiaad  in  1674,  in  order  to  peruse  such 
.£ogli«h->Saxoo  books  as  bad  hitherto  escaped  his  diligence, 
Qspeoially  those  in  the  Cottonian  library.  In  Oct.  1676, 
he  mtited  to  Oxford.  He  was  now  87,  and  intended  not 
t0  leave  that  beloved  university  any  more.  At  first  fae^had 
lodgings  opposite  to.  Lincoln  college,  for  the  sake  of  Dr. 
MarsliaU,  rector  of  that  society,  who  had  been  bis  pupil  in 
the  study  of  the  Northern  languages,  and  was  th^n  a  great 
critic,  a»  well  as  Junius,  in  them.  Afterwards,  he  intended 
to.  put  some  of  his  nbtes  and  collections  into  order;  and,  to 
avoid  the  interruption  of  frequent  visits,  he  removed  to  an 
obscure  house  ia  St.  Ebbe's  parish,  where  he  digested  some 
things /or  the  press,  and  made  a  deed  of  gift  of  all  his 
MSS*  and  collecjtions  to  the  public  library^. 

.  In  Aug.  1677,  upon  the  invitation  of  his  nephew.  Dr. 
Isaap  Vofisius,  caooci  of  Windsor,  he>¥ent  to  his  house, 
ayid  th^re  died  of  a  fever,  Nov.  19  following.  His  corpse 
was  interred  in  St  George's  ehapei,  within  the  castle,  and 
thie  following  year  a  table  of  white  marble  was  fixed  to  the 
wall,  near  his  ^rave,  with  an  inscription  in  Latin.  He  was 
not  only  very  learned,  but  a  mai)  of  irreproachable  cha- 
racter.    As  a  laborious  student,  perhaps  few  have  excelled 


*  There  is  a  list  of  them  in  Ath.  Ox.  scribe^  for  tlie  press.     Hw  etymolo- 

under  Uiis  article.    The  chief  is  his  gicon  Anglicanuin"  was  published    ia 

iviostary,  ia  #v«  Ungoaget,  explain-  174>3»  hi  folio,  by  Edward  Lye,  M.  A. 

ing  the  origin  of  the  northeni  Ian-  vicar  of  Little  Houghton  in  N«rtbainp- 

guages.     It   Goolains  nine   volumes,  (Uwshire. 
vhich  bishop  Fell  caused  to  be  tran- 

200  JUNIUS. 

bim.  He  used  to  rise  at  four  in  the  mornings  both  winter 
and  summer^  and  study  till  dinner-time,  which  was  at  one  ; 
after  dimier.he  used  some  bodily  exercise,  walking  or  run^ 
ning,  but  returned  to  his  studies  at  three,  and  did  not 
leave  them  till  ^  eight,  when  he  went  to  supper,  and  then 
to  bed.  He  very  seldom  stirred  abroad,  and  never  but 
when  some  business  obliged  him.  Notwithstanding  this, 
he  enjoyed  a  perfect  state  of  health,  and  was  never  once 
sick.  Though  he  spent  so  long  a  series  of  years  in  thi^ 
solitary  manner,  he  was  a  man  of  a  pVeasant  and  social 
temper,  even  in  his  extreme  old  age.  He  was  free  from 
peevishness,  and  affable  to  those  who  visited  him,  thougli 
he  did  not  like  to  be  interrupted.  Besides  the  **  Glossarium 
Gotbicum,*^  the  chief  of  his  printed  works  are,  i.  thi^ 
intituled  ^<  De  pictura  veterum,'*  1637,  4to.  and  printed 
again,  with  large  additions,  1694,  at  Hotterdam,  in  folio. 
He  printed  likewise  an  English  translation,  entitled,  **  The 
Painting  of  the  Ancients  ;*'  in  tbr6e  books,-  with  additions 
and  alterations,  Lond.  1638.  To  the  folio  edition  was  pre« 
fixed  his  life,  written  by  GrsBvius.  2.  ^^  Observationes  in 
Willerami  Francicam  paraphrasiu  Cantici  canticorum,'- 
Amst.  1655,  8vo.  3.  Several  letters  in  *^  Ger.  Joh.  Vossii 
&  clarorum  virorum  ad  eum  epistolse,*'  Lond.  1690,  foU 
where  Vossius  styles  our  author  ^^  vir  omnifaria  doctrina  & 
generis  splendore  ornatissimus,' *^  -    t 

.  JURI£U  (Peter),  a  French  protestant  divine,  somfletimes 
csjled  by  the  catholics  the  Goliah  of  the  protestants,  was 
born  Dec.  24,  1637.  His  father,  Daniel  Jurieu,  was  mi- 
nister of  the  reformed  religion  at  Mer;  his  mother,  the 
daughter  of  Peter  du  Moulin,  minister  and  professor  at 
Sedan.  He  was  sent,  after  the  first  rudiments  of  his  edu* 
cation  under  Rivet  in  Holland,  to  his  maternal  uncle  Peter 
du  Moulin,  then  in  England;  where,  having  finished  his 
theological  studies,  be  took  orders  in  that  church ;  but, 
upon  the  death  of  his  father,  being  called  home  to  succeed 
him  at  Mer,  and  finding  what  he  had  done  in  England 
disliked  by  the  reformed  in  bis  own  country,  he  submitted 
to  a  re-ordination  by  presbyters,  according  to  the  form  of  the 
foreign  protestant  churches.  After  some  time,  he  officiated 
in  the  French  church  of  Vitri,  where  the  people  were  so 
much  pleased  with  him,  that  they  endeavoured  to  procure 
bis  settlement  among  them;  and  here  he  composed  big 

I  Gen,  Pict.-»Niceroii,  ▼ol.j2CV].-^Atlif  Ox.  vol,  U.^^Itile  by  Grjetiiw, 

JUKI  E  U.  301 

*5  Treatise  of  Devotiou.'*  Before  this,  ia  1670,  he  had 
attracted  public  attention  by  refuting  a  project  for  reuniting 
all  the  sects  of  Christiauity,  wrote  by  d^Huisseau,  minister 
of  Saumur.  He  was  afterwards  invited  to  Sedan,  where 
be  discharged  the  office  of  professor  in  divinity  and  He* 
brew  with  great  reputation.  In  1673  he  wrote  his  ^^Pre- 
servative against  Popery/'  which  he  opposed  to  the  expo* 
sition  of  the  doctrine  <>f  the  catholic  church  by  M.  de 
Meaux,  bishop  of  Condom.  This  treatise  did  great  credit 
to  tlie  author,  who  endeavoured  to  prove  that  the  prelate 
iiad  disguised  the  doctrine  of  his  church.  In  1675,  Jurieir 
published  the  first  part  of  his  work  (the  whole  of  whicl^ 
appeared  in  1685),  entitled  ^^  La  Justification  de  la  Mo- 
rale," &c.  or,  "  A  Vindication  of  the  Morality  of  the  Pro- 
testants  against  the  Accusatipua  of  Mr.  Arnauld,^'  ice.  Ia 
1.681,  the  university  of  Sedan  being  taken  from  the  pro- 
testants^,  our  professor  reserved  to  accept  an  invitation; 
sent  to  him  from  that  of  Rouen  ;  but  discovering,  in  the 
mean  time,  that  the  French  court  knew  him  to  be  the  author 
of  a  work  be  bad  published  anonymously,  under  the  title  of 
**  La  Politique  du  Clerg^,''  which  was  a  severe  satire  oti 
the. Roman  catholics^  he  was  apprehensive  of  being  prose- 
cutedj  aud  therefore  retired  hastily  into  Holland,  where 
he  almost  immediately  received  an  offer  -  of  the  divinity^ 
chair  in  the  university  of  Grooingen  ;  but  his  friends  hav- 
ipg  founded  the  same  professorship  for  him  at  Rottardam^ 
he  preferred  this  residence  to  the  other ;  and  he  was  also 
appointed  minister  of  the  Walloon  church  in  the  same 
town.  He  had  not  been  long  in  this  happy  situatioup- 
when  he  pifiduced  to  the  public  <'  Les  derniers  Efibrts  de 
riunocence  afflig^e,''  or  ^<  The  last  Efforts  of  afflicted 

At  Rotterdam^  having  nothing  to  fear,  he  gave  full  scope 
to  his  imagination,  which  was  naturally  too  warm  and  san- 
guine. Jn  this  temper  be  applied  himself  to  study  the 
book  of  ^^  the  Revelations,"  and  thought  he  had  certainly 
discovered  the  true  meaning  of  it  by  a  kind  of  iuspiration^ 

*  The  prtncipaUty  of  Sedan  had  there  maiotaiped,  with  all  the  rights  aod 
been  a  iovercigm  state  till.  1648  ;  when  pririleges  which  it  then  enjoyed  :  yet 
tbft  doke  of  Bouillon  yitMed  it  up  to  all  this  could  not  save  the  uoiversity  z 
jLewis  XII.  on  condition  that  every  the  king  even  ordered,  that  it  ahoold  bo 
thing  should  continue  in  the  state  in  suppressed  before  any  other.  The  de- 
which  it  then  was.  Lewis  XIV,  rati-  cree  was  made  July  9,  1681,  and  noti- 
fied the  same  treaty ;  and  promised,  fied  to  the  universiiy  ttie  14th  of  ^be  ' 
that  the  protestant  religion  should  be  same  month,  ' 

2M  J  D  R  I  E  U. 

whicb  tbewed  him,  that  France  was  the  place  of  tlie  great 
city,  wbere  the  wittiesses  meotiooed  in  t&e  apocalypse  lay 
dead,  bat  not  boiied ;  and  that  they  were  to  rise  to  life 
again  io  three  years  and  a  half,  nameiy,  in  1689.     He  was 
unalterably  6ze«i  and  confirmed  in  this  persoasion  by  the 
rerciutioa  which  happened  in  England  in  16SS ;  and  even 
nddiessed  a  letter  upon  the  subject  to  king  William,  whom 
lie  considered  as  the  instroment  intended  by  God  to  carry 
his  designs  into  ezeention.     At  home,  however,  all  this 
was  charged  upon  him  as  an  artifice,  only  to  prepare  the 
people  for  a  moch  greater  revolntion ;  and  be  wa»  sus- 
pected to  haiboar  no  other  design  than  that  of  exciting 
people  to  take  up  arms,  and  setting  all  Europe  in  a  flame. 
The  foundation  of  this  belief  was  bis  not  shewing  any  signs 
of  confusion  after  the  event  had  given  the  lye  to  his  pro- 
phecies :  they  built  likewise  cmi  this,  that,  after  the  eX^ 
ample  of  Comenius,  he  had  attempted  to  re-unite  the  Lu- 
therans and  Calvinists,  in  hopes  of  increasing  the  number 
of  troops  to  attack  Antichrist.     But  these  accusations  were 
brought  only  by  the  Romanists,  his  constant  enemies,  while 
his  more  indulgent  friends  attributed  his  prophecies  to  en- 
tbusiasm,  and  it  is  certain,  that,  under  this  period  of  men- 
tal delusion,  he  affected  to  believe  a  great  number  of  pro- 
digies, which   he  maintained  were  so  many  presages  or 
forerunners  of  the  accomplishment  of  the  prophecies.   Nor 
is  it  true  that  he  was  indifferent  to  the  ill  success  of  what  he 
bad  predicted  in  his  '<  L'accomplissement  des  Propheties,'* 
Botterdara,  1686  :  on  the  contrary^  his  chagrin  was  great; 
and  it  was  not  a  little  heightened  when  he  thought  himself 
insulted  by  some  of  his  best  friends,  who  opposed  his  sen- 
timents.    This  drew  him  into  violent  disputes,  and  parti- 
cularly with  Bayle  *,  who  wrote  against  him.     The  oppo- 
sition of  Bayle  was  the  more  resented  by  hira^  as  he  had 
been  a  friend  to  him,  and  was  instrumental  in  procuring 
faim  the  philosophical  chair  at  Sedan  in  1675.     They  seent 
to  have  been  very  intimately  connected ;  for,  after  the  sup^ 
pression  of  that  university,  they  were  preferred  together 
to  different  professorships  at  Rotterdam  io  1681 ;  and  th^y 
both  wrote  against  Maimbourg's  **  History  of  Calvinisip*'  in 
1682.     But  here,  it  is  ^aid,  the  first  seeds  of  the  quarrel 

*  See  the  article  of  Zuerins  Box-  nods  against  oar  apthor,  upon  inforpna- 

borniuSt  in  the  last  Tolume  of  his  Diet,  tion  of  his  having  maintained,  that  it 

Kem.  (o),  where  there  is. a  particular  was  lawful  to  hate  one's  enenues. 

account  of  the  proceedinss  in  some  sy-  . 

J  U  R  I  E  U.  «08 

between  them  were  sown.  Both  the  pieces  excelled  in 
different  ways.  Jurieu^s  was  more  complete  and  full  than 
Baylors,  and  he  answered  Maimbourg  with  a  great  deal  of 
strength ;  but  then  the  reader  did  not  meet  there  with  that 
easy  and  natural  style,  those  lively  arid  agreeable  refiec- 
tions  which  distinguished  the  latter.  The  preference  given 
'  to  Bayle  was  observed  by  Jurieu  with  disdain  :  be  began 
to  look  upon  Bayle  as  his  competitor,  conceived  a  jealousy 
and  hatred  for  him ;  and  to  what  length  it  was  carried  af* 
terwards  may  be  seen  in  our  article  of  Bayle.  In  shorty  it 
must  not  be  dissembled,  that  our  author's  conduct  was  far 
from  being  commendable  in  regard  to  Bayle,  or  any  of  hit 
antagonists.  Even  those  synods,  where  his  authority  was 
the  greatest,  engaged  in  the  contest,  and  justified  Mr: 
Saurin,  pastor  of  Utrecht,  and  other- persons  of  merit, 
whom  Jurieu  had  not  spared  to  accuse  of  heterodoxy :  nay, 
the  matter  was  caiYied  so  far^  that,  in  some  of  these  church 
parliaments  there  passed  decrees,  in  which,  though  his 
Bame  was  not  mentioned,  }'et  the  opinions  he  bad  ad« 
vanoed  upon  baptism,  justiBcation,  and  the  new  system  of 
the  church,  were  absolutely  condemned.  These  tronblesr 
continued'  while  he  lived,  and  at  length  threw  him  into  a 
lowness  of  spirits,  under  wbieh  he  languished  for  several 
years  before  his  death;  yet  he  continued  to  employ  his 
pen,  and  revised  and  printed  his  history  of  opinions,  and 
forms  of  religious  worship,  ^^  Histoire  des  dogmes  et  des 
cultes,*'  which  he  had  composed  in  his  youth,  a  wort  of 
tery  considerable  merit.  In  the  two  or  three  last  years  of 
bis  life  he  wrote  only  some  devotional  pieces.  At  length 
he  sunk  under  a  load  of  infirmities,  at  Rotterdam,  Jan. 
11,  1713.  He  was  unquestionably  a  man  of  considerable 
learning,  but  peculiar  in  some  of  his  own  notions,  and  in- 
tolerant to  those  of  others.  Among  bis  works,  not  men<^ 
tioned  above,  are  *^  Histoire  du  Calvin isme  et  du  Papisme 
mise  en  parallele,'*  &c.  1683,  3  vols. ;  **  Lettres  Pastorales.'* 
These  letters  are  upon  the  subject  of  the  accomplishment 
of  the  prophecies.  In  one  of  them,  for  Jan.  1695,  having 
quoted,  as  proof  of  the  favourable  intentions  of  the  allies,  a 
proposal  for  peace,  drawn  up  by  the  diet  of  Ratisbon, 
which  had  been  forged  by  a  speculative  politrciaii  in  Am-^ 
sterdam,  he  was  so  ashamed  of  his  having  been  imposed 
«pon  by  this  fictitioiis  piece,  that  he  instantly  printed 
another  edition  of  bis  letter,  in  which  he  omitted  thajt  article, 
?.  <*  Parallele  d^  trois  Lettres  pastorales  de  Mr.  Jurieu,  &c/' 

I  / 

«04  J  U  R  I  E  u; 

1696,  quoted  in  a  ^'Dissertation  concerning  defamatorjr 
Libels,^'  at  the  end  of  Bay  le's  Diet.  4.  '*  Trait^  de  1' unit4 
xle  r^glise,'*  &c.  1688.  5.  "  Le  vray  systeme  de  I'^glise 
et  la  veritable  analyse  de  lafoi,"  &.c.  1686.  6.  ^<  L'Esprit 
de  Mr.  Arnauld,"  1684.  7. "  Abr^g^  de  I'Histoire  du  Con- 
cile  de  Trente,"  &c.  1683,  8.^"  Les  pr^jugez  legitimes 
contre  le  papisme,^'  1685.  9.  ^'  Le  Janseniste  convainqu 
de  vaine  sophistiquerie."  10.  '<  Le  Pbilosophe  de  Rotter- 
dam accust^,  atteint,  et  comvaincu.'*  11.  ^*  Trait^  histo- 
rique,  contenantle  jugement  d*un  Protestant  surla  Th^o- 
logie  Mystique/'  &c.  1700.  12.  '^  Jugement  sur  les  mi- 
thodes  rigides  et  relach^es,'*  &c,  1686.  13.  "Traitg  de 
la  Nature  et  la  Grace."  14.  *'  Apologie  pour  Taccomplisse-. 
inent  de  Proph^ties,"  1687.  15.  "  Quelque  Sermons,"  &c.? 
JURIN  (JaM£S),  born  in  1684,  and  a  physician  of  the 
inatbematical  sect,  was  educated  in  Trinity  college,  Cam- 
bridge, of  which  he  was  fellow  in  1711.  He  was  after- 
wards well  known  in  London  as  an  eminent  physician  ;  was 
physician  to  Guy's  hospital,  and  was,  during  several  years, 
an  active  member  and  secretary  of  the  royal  society,  and 
at  the  time  of  his  death  in  1750,  president  of  the  col-' 
lege  of  physicians.  He  distinguished  himself  by  a  series* 
of  ingenious  essays,  published  in  the  Philosophical  Tratis- 
actioDS  in  1718,  1719,  &c.  and  afterwards  printed  coU 
lectively,  in  1732,  under  the  title  of  ^^  Physico-Matbema- 
tical  Dissertations,*'  in  which  mathematical  science  was 
applied  with  considerable  acuteness  to  physiological  sub- 
jects. These  papers  involved  him  in  several  controversies ; 
first  with  Keill,  in  consequence  of  his  calculations  in  re- 
gard to  the  force  of  the  contractions  of  the  heart,  against 
which  also  Senac  published  some  objections,  which  he 
answered.  To  Smith's  System  of  Optics,  published  in 
1738,  Jurin  added  **  An  Essay  upon  distinct  and  indistinct 
Vision,"  in  which  he  made  subtle  calculations  of  the. 
efaainges  necessary  to  be  made  in  the  figure  of  the  eye  to 
accommodate  it  to  the  different  distances  of  objects.  This 
paper  was  commented  on  by  Robins,  to  whom  Jurin  wrote, 
a  reply.  He  had  likewise  controversies  with  Michelotti 
respecting  the  force  of  running  water,  and  with  the  philo- 
sophers of  the  school  of  Leibnitz  on  living  forces.  He 
communicated  to  the  royal  society  some  experiments  made 
jwith  a  view  to  determine  the  specific  gravity  of  the  hqcpfu^ 

1  Chanfepie.— 0ei  Maizeftox'i  Life  of  Bayle.-^DicU  WsU         , 

J  U  R  I  N.  205 

blood,,  and  be  contributed  much  to  the  improvement  of 
their  meteorol(^ical  observations.  He  was  a  warm  partisan 
and  an  active  defender  of  the  practice  of  inoculation ;  and 
in  several  publications,  giving  an  account  of  its  success 
from  1723  to  1727,  established  its  utility  upon  the  true 
foundation  of  a  comparison  between  the  respective  mor- 
tality of  the  casual  and  the  inoculated  smalUpox.  Dr. 
Jurin  was  also  editor  of  Varenius's  Geography,  2  vols*  Svo,^ 
1712,  published  at  the  request  of  sir  Isaac  Newton  and  Dr. 
Behtley.  In  "  The  Works  of  the  Learned"  for  1737—8 
— 9,  he  carried  on  a  controversy  with  Dr.  Pemberton,  in 
defence  of  Newton,  and  signed  his  papers  '^  Philalethes 
Cantabrigiensis.*'  ^ 

JUSSIEU  (Antony  de),  an  eminent  botahist,  was  bora 
at  Lyons  in  1686.  He  cultivated,  with  so  much  success,  a 
talent  for  natural  history,  which  discovered  itself  in  bia 
earliest  years^  that,  in  1712,  he  obtained  a  place  in  the 
academy  of  sciences.  After  traversing  various  parts  of 
Europe,  he  settled  in  Paris,  where  he  published  various 
works  on  the  most  interesting  parts  of  natural  history.  He. 
published  an  appendix  to  Touruefort,  and  methodized  and. 
abridged  the  work  of  Barrelier,  on  the  plants  of  France, 
Spain,  and  Italy.  He  also  practised  physic,  and,  w^TQr 
niarkable  on  all  occasions  for  charity  to  the  poor,  to  whom 
he  niot  only  gave  advice,  but  alms«  He  nevertheless  jefi^ 
behind  him  a  very  considerable  fortune,  of  whicbhisl^rothei^ 
Bernard  was  the  heir.  He  died  of  an  apoplexy,  at  the 
age  of  seventy-two,  in  1758.' 

JUSSIEU  (Bebnard),  brother  of  the  preceding,  was 
also  a  native  of  Lyons,  and  born  in  1699«  Like  his  bro«o 
ther  he  was  a  practitioner  of  physic,  and  eminent  for  his 
botanical  skill  and  researches,  and  was  one  of  the  first. bo^^* 
tanists  who  aimed  at  a  natural  system  of  anrangeiaent^ 
He  was  member  of  various  learned  academies  in  Europe ; 
curator  of  the  plants  of  the  royal  garden  at  Paris,  and  was 
invited  by  the  king  himself  to  superintend  the  arrangement 
of  a  botanical  garden  at  Trianon.  He  was  highly  esteemed 
by  bis  royal  master,  and  enjoyed,  what  was  no  less  ho** 
nourable,.  the  friendship  and  confidence  of  Linnseus.  He 
had  numerous  pupils,  by  whom  he  was  omch  beloved,  and 
died  in  possession  of  universal  esteem  in  1777,  in  the 

'  Ree8»s  Cyclopaedra.— Nichols's  Bowyer.— Works  of  th«  Learned,"  ubi  supt»^ 
and  also  vol,  for  1741. 

•Diet.  Hat:  '  .;•'.'-         .n 

206  J  u  s  s  1  fc  t;. 

iMTenty^ntntb  year'  of  his  age.  His  only  publicsitions  werd^ 
an  edilion  of  Toori^ort  on  the  plants  which  groir  neat 
Pari^  1725,  2  Tob«  12ino  ;  and  ^*  Uattii  de  Fhumanit^,  ou^ 
CoDseiU  d'un  bon  citoyen  a  sa  nation,'*  octavo,  printed 
after  bis  death.  Although  a  first-rate  botanist,  he  tvas  de- 
terred by  excess  of  modesty  from  giving  his  ideas  to  this 
worlds  His  nephew,  the  present  A.  L.  de  Jussieu,  has 
given  us  a  plan  of  the  method,  according  to  which  be  ar- 
ranged the  garden  of  Trianon  in  1759,  and  which,  in  fact, 
laid  the  foundation  of  his  own  celebrated  work,  published 
in  1789.  The  Jussiasa,  of  Linnaeus,  was  so  named  by  that 
eminent,  botanist  in  honour  of  these  two  brothers.  There 
was  a  third  brother,  however,  the  youngest,  who  was  born 
in  1704,  and  in  1735  went  to  Peru,  in  the  capacity  of  a 
botanist,  with  the  academicians  sent  there  to  measure  a 
degree.  After  continuing  in  that  country  thirty-sis:  years, 
he  returned  to  France  in  very  bad  health,  and  almost  in  a 
state  of  childhood,  and  died  in  1779.  Some  account  of 
bis  travels  and  discoveries  may  be  seen  in  Memoirs  of  the 
French  Academy  ;  and  it  was  at  one  time  thought  that  bis 
fiephew  was  preparing  an  account  for  publicatiou,  but  we 
know  not  that  it  has  yet  appelkred.' 

JUSTEL  (Christopher),  counsellor  and  secretary  to 
the  French  king,  was  born  at  Paris,  1580.  Having  excel- 
lent parts,  and  a  strong  bent  to  letters,  he  made  a  great 
progress ;  and,  as  soon  as  he  left  the  college,  applying 
himself  to  the  study  of  the  councils  and  ecclesiastical  his- 
tory, he  publisheci  the  <^  Code  of  Canons  of  the  Church 
universal,  and  the  Councils  of  Africa,  with  notes."  He 
held  a  literary  correspondence  with  the  most  learned  men 
of  bis  time,  as  Usher,  Salmasius,  Blondel,  sir  Henry 
Spelmad,  and  others,  till  his  death,  which  happened  at 
Paris  in  1649.  He  had  the  <^haracter  of  knowing  noore  of 
the  middle  ages  than  any  of  his  time.  Besides  the  code 
already  mentioned,  he  published,  in  1645,  **  The  Genea- 
logical History  of  the  House  of  Auvergne  ;'*  and  several 
eijlections  of  Greek  and  Latin  canons,  from  MSS.  which 
formed  the  ^<  Bibliotbeca  juris  canonici  veteris,"  published 
at  Paris  in  1668,  in  2  vols,  folio,  by  William  Voel  and  our 
autboi^s  soil,  the  subject  of  the  next  article.' 

JUSTEL  (H£NRY),  was  born  at  Paris  in  1620,  and  suc^ 
ceeded  his  father  as  secretary  and  counsellor  to  tiie  king. 

^  bict  Hist,r-<-Haller  Bibl.  Bot.-ȣlQge  des  AcademicitftaSf  tof.  II* 
f  Moi«ri«"-^axii  Oaomast<-^U8her's  Life  and  Letters. 

J  U  S  T  E  L.  »(W 

He  WES  a  man  of  distinguished  learning  faimsislfi  and  ati 
encourager  of  it  in  others,  employing  his  interest  at  court 
in  their  favour.  His  house  was  the  usual  resort  of  men  of 
letters,  among  whom  we  find  Mr.  Locke  and  Dr.  Hickes; 
which  shews  that  it  was  open  to  men  of  all  complexions 
and  principles.  Mr.  Justel  had  always  professed  a  partis 
cular  respect  for  the  English  nation,  and  cultivated  aa 
acquaintance  with  many  great  men  there.  He  foresaw  the 
revocation  of  the  edict  of  Nantz,  several  years  before  it 
happened,  as  we  are  informed  by  Dr.  Hickes.  This  divine> 
who,  upon  his  travels  abroad,  made  a  considerable  stay  at 
Paris,  set  apart  one  day  in  the  week  for  visiting  Mr.  Jnstek 
In  one  of  these  visits,  after  some  discourse  about  the  pro-^ 
testant  churches,  observed  by  Dr.  Hickes  to  be  in  many 
places  demolished,  notwithstanding  the  edict  of  Nantss^ 
*'  Alas,  sir,"  says  Mr.  Juste],  *^  as  I  am  wont  to  talk  iit 
confidence  with  you,  so  I  will  tell  you  a  secret,  that  almost 
none  of  us  knows  besides  myself :  our  extirpation  is  de^ 
creed ;  we  must  all  be  banished  our  country,  or  turn  pa-*> 
pists.  I  tell  it  yoo  because  I  intend  to  come  into  England^ 
where  I  have  many  friends  ;  and  that,  when  I  come  to  see 
you  among  the  rest,  you  may  remember  that  I  told  it  you.*' 
*^  Upon  this,"  says  Dr.  Hickes,  <^  I  asked  him  how  long  it 
would  be  before  this  sad  persecution  would  be  put  into 
execution  ?  He  answered,  within  four  or  five  years  at  most; 
and  remember,  says  he  again,  that  I  foretold  the  time.— ^ 
After  he  had  been  some  time  in  London  he  made  a  visit  to 
the  doctor  at  his  house  on  Tower-hill ;  where,  presently 
after  the  common  forms  of  congratulating  one  another  (it 
was  about  the  time  that  the  bill  of  exclusion  was  thrown 
out  of  the  House  of  Lords),  he  said,  Sir,  don't  you  remem** 
bar  what  I  told  you  of  the  persecution  we-  have  since  suf« 
fered,  and  of  the  time  when  it  would  begin  ?  and  you  now 
see  all  has  accordingly  come  to  pass." 

He  sent  by  Dr.  Hickes  the  original  MS.  in  Greek  of  the 
'^  Canones  ecclesi®  universalis,"  published  by  his  father, 
and  other  valuable  MSS.  to  be  presented  to  the  university 
of  Oxford :  upon  the  receipt  of  which  benefaction,  that 
learned  body  cotiferred  on  him,  by  diploma,  the  degree 
of  LL.  D.June  23,  1675.  He  left  Paris  in  16&1,  upon 
the' persecution  of  the  protestants;  and,  coming  tp'Loh<* 
don,  was,  some  time  after,  made  keeper  of  the  king's  li« 
brary  at  St.  James's,  to  which  is  annexed  a  salary  of  200/. 
per  annum.    He  held  this  place  till  his  deaths  Sept.  1693> 

20S  J  U  S  T  E  L. 

and  was  then. succeeded  by  Dr.  Richard  Bendc^.  He 
bad  a  very,  extensive  library,  particularly  rich  in  MS9. 
which  were  always  at  the  service  of  bis  learned  contem*- 
poraries,.  many  of  whom  acknowledged  their  obligations  to, 
bim.  He  was  obliged,  however,  to  dispose  of  this  library 
before  he  left  France*  There  is  a  portrait  of  him  and 
bis  arms  in  the  Gent.  Mag,  1788,  taken  from  a  private 
print.  ^ 

JUSTIN,  an  ancient  Latin  historian,  is  known  by  his 
abridgment  of  the  large  work  of  Trogus  Pompeius,  which 
some  think  has  occasioned  the  loss  of  the  original ;  but  it 
is  much  more  probable  that  the  neglect  of  the  original  oc- 
casioned the  abridgment,  as  commonly  happens  in  the 
decline  of  letters.  Who  Justin  was,  and  when  he  lived,  is 
altogether  uncertain ;  but  he  is  generally  referred  to  the 
yea,r  150,  in  the  reign  of  Antoninus  Pius.  The  abridge 
ment  comprises  a  history  of  the  world  from  Ninus  to  Au- 
gustus Caesar;  and  is  written  with  great  purity  and  elegance; 
excepting  here  and  there  a  word  which  savours  of  encroach- 
ing barbarism.  It  has  long  been  employed  as  a  school 
book,  and  is  held  in  great  estimation  by  foreign  critics. 
La  Motbe  le  Vayer  thinks  ^^  his  manner  of  writing  so  ex*- 
cellent  as  to  be  worthy  the  age  of  Augustus  rather  than  that 
of  the  Antonines."  Justin  has  been  illustrated  by  the  best 
annotators,  particularly  Grsevius ;  and  there  are  numerous 
editions,  of  which  the  preference  is  given  to  those  of  Gne- 
vius;  of  Hearne,  1705,  8vo;  of  Gronovius,  1719,  and 
1760  ;  of  Fischer,  1757,  &c.  * 

JUSTjlN  (surnaihed  the  Martyr),  one  of  the  earliest 
writers  of  the  Christian  church,  was  born  at  Neapolis,  the 
ancient  Sichem  of  Palestine,  in  the  province  of  Samaria. 
His  father  Priscius,  being  a  Gentile  Greek,  brought  him 
up  in  his  own  religion,  and  had  him  educated  in  all  the 
Grecian  learning  and  philosophy.  To  complete  his  studies 
be  travelled  to  Egypt,  the  usual  tour  on  this  occasion,  as 
being  the  seat  of  the  more  mysterious  and  recondite  lite« 
rature  at  this  time :  he  was  shewn,  as  he  tells  you,  at 
Alexandria,  the  remains  of  those  cells  where  the  seventy 
translators  of  the  Bible  performed  what  is  called  the  Sep- 
tuagint  version.  He  had,  from  his  first  application  to  pht- 
,  losophy,  disliked  the  stoic  and  peripatetic  i  and  chose  the 

.  >  Chmufepie. — Biog.  Brit.  Supplement — Saxii  Onomait 

«  Fabric.  £ibl.  Ut,-^Dibdm*s  Classics.— SaxU  Onomast^^VMsiiit  de  H^dt. 

JUSTIN.  20^ 

^tet  of  PlatOi  With  whose  ideas  be  was  enainQured,  and  of 
which  he  resolved  to  make  himself  master.  He  viras  pro* 
aacutiog  this  design  in  contanphitidn  and  solitary  walks 
by  the  sea^side,  as  he  informs  ns  in  his  **  Dialogue  with 
Tcyjfrfio,'^  when. tbere.met  hini<3fie  day  a  grave  and  ancient 
person  of  a  venerable  aspect,  who,  tailing,  into  discourse 
upon  the.subjectdf  his  thoughts,  .turned  the  conversation, 
by  degrees,  from  the  fancied  excellence  of  Platonism  to 
the  superior  perfection  of  Christianity;  and  performed  his 
part  so  well,  as  to  raise  an  ardent  curiosity  in  our  Platonist 
U>  inquire  into  the  merits  of  that  religion,  the  result  of 
which  was  his  cou version,  which  h&ppened  about  the  16  th 
year  of  Trajan's  reign,  A.  C.  1  d2. 

Several  of  his  old  friends  among  tibe  heathens  were  not 
1^  little  troubled  at  the  loss  of  so  eminent  a  person:  for 
dieir  sattaiafction,  therefore,  he  drew  up  an  account  of  his 
CQoducti  with  the  reasons  of  it,  in  order  to  bring  them  into 
the  itame  sentiments;  Still,  however,  from  an  affection  to 
the  studies  of  bis  youth,  he  retained  the  ancient  dress ; 
preaching  and  defending  the  Christian  religibn  under  his 
old  pbilosojphic  fffxh,  the  pallium,  or  cloak  of  the  Grecian 
philosophers.  About  the  beginning  of  Antoninus  Pius's 
reign  he  went  to  Rome,  and  there  strenuously  endea- 
voured to  defend  and  promote  the  Christian  c4ut«;  in 
which  spirit  finding  the  heretic  Marcion  very  busy  in  pro- 
pagating his  pernicious  principles,  he  resolved  partscutarly 
to  oppose  him.  This  heretic  was  the  son  of  a  bishop  ^bom 
io  Pontus,  and,  for  deflowering  a  virgin,  had  been  excom- 
niunicated.  Upon  this  he  fled  to  Rome,  where  he  broached 
his  errors;  the  chief  of  which  was,  '<  That  there ure two 
Gods,  one  the  creator  of  the  world,  whom  he  supposed  tp 
be  J:he  God  of  the  Old  Testament,  and  the  author  of  evil ; 
the  other  a.  more  sovereign  knd  supreme  being,  crealoirof 
more  excellent  thipgs,  the  father  of  Chdst,  whom  he  sent 
into  the  world  to  dissolve  the  law  and  the  prophets,  and  to 
destroy  the  works  of  the  oiher  deity,  whom  he  styled  the* 
God  of  the  Jews.'*  Justin  encountered  this  heretic  both' 
in  word  and  writing, .  and  composed  a  book  against  bis 
principles,  which  be  also  published.  In  the  same  spirit^^ 
when-  the  Christians  came  to  be  more. severely  dealt  wtth> 
traduced,  defamed,  and  persecuted,  by  virtue  of  the  stand- 
ing Jaws  of  the  empire,  Justin  drew  up  his  lirst  Apiilogy  * 
about.the  .y«ar  i40,  and  presented  it  to  the  emperor  Ai^- 
ninus  Pins,  with  a  copy  of  his  predecessor  Adritin^s  rescript. 

Vol.  XIX.  P 

210  J  US  T  I  N. 

commanding  that  the  Christians  should  not  be  needlessly 
Bn<:(  unjustly  vexed.  This  address  was  not  without  its  suc^^ 
cesa:  the  emperor,  being  in  his  own  nature  of  a  generoot 
dispositioni  was*  moved  to  give  orders  that  the  Cbristiaos 
should  be  treated  more  gently,  and  more  regularly  pro- 
ceeded  against. 

Not  long  afterwards,  Justin  made  a  visit  into  the  East ; 
.and|  among  other  parts,  went  to  Ephesus.     Here  he  fell 
into  the  company  and  acquaintance  of  Trypho,  a  Jew^of 
great  note,  with  whom  he  engaged  it)  a  dispute  that  iiel<t 
for  two  days :  the  substance  of  which  he  afterwards  wrote 
in  a  piece  entitled  his  **  Dialogue  with  Trypho.'*     By  the 
conclusion  we  learn  he  was  then  ready  to  set  sail  to  Epbesus^ 
He  returned  at  last  to  Rome,  where  he  had  frequent  con- 
ferences with  one  Crescens,  a  philosopher  of  some  repute 
in  that  crty ;  a  man  who  had  endeavoured  to  traduce  thel 
CbrisrUans,  and  repreisent  their  religion  under  the  most  in-< 
fiamous  character.    Justin  now  presented  his  second  Apo* 
^gy  to;  Marcfis  Antoninus  Philosophus,  the  successor  of  > 
Piusy  aud  a  determined  enemy  to  the  Christians.    The  im- 
mediate' occasion  of  this,  second  Apology,  as  he  himself 
inforhDs  the  emperor,  was  this  r  A  woman  at  Rome  bad,, 
together  with  her  husband,  lived  in  all  manner  of  wantoiv- 
ness^  and,. from  a  vicious  course  of  life,  had  been  converted 
to  Gluistiapity ;  and.  being  reclaimed  herself,  very  naturally^ 
sought  .also  to  reclaim  her  husband,  but  at  length,  findings]itite  obstinate,  she  procured  a  bill  of  divorce.     The^ 
manvjien raged  at  this,  accused  her  to  the  emperor  of  being> 
a  Christitin.    She,  however,  putting  in  a  petition  for  leavo' 
to  answer  it,  he  relinquished  that  prosecution;  and,  falling 
upon  her  converter,  one  Ptolomeus,  procured  his  impri-^ 
sohment  and  condemnation.     On  that  occasion,  Lucius,  a> 
Christian,,  being  present,  presumed  to  represent  how  hard 
it. was  that  an  innocent  and  virtuous  man,  charged  with  ro 
crime,  should  be  adjudged  to  die  merely  for  bearing  the > 
name  of  a  Christian :  a  proceeding  that  must  certainly  be  a 
reflection  upon  the  government.    These  words  were  no 
sooner  spoken  than  he,  together  with  a  third  person,  were 
sentenced  to  the  same  Yate.    The  severity  of  these  pro». 
ceedings  awakened  Justin^s  solicitude  and  care  for  the  rest 
of  his  brethren ;  and  he  immediately  drew  up  his  second* 
^pt>logy,  in  which,  among  other  things,  he  made  heavy 
eomplaints  of  the  malice  and  envy  of  his  antagonist  Cres- 
cens.   The  philosopher^  irritated  at  this  charge,  procured 

JUSTIN.  311 

htitt  tb  be  apprehended,  witb  six  of  his  companions,  and* 
bnnight  before  the  prtefect  6f  the  ciiy.  After  their  ex 
ttinination,  this  sentence  was'  ptoi>ounced|  '  that  *^  Thej 
who  refuse  to  sacrifice  to  the  gods,  and  to  obey  the  im- 
perial' edicts,  be  first  scourged,  and  then  .beheaded,  ac* 
cording  to .  the  laws :"  which  was  put  in  execution  upon 
Justin  and  the  rest.  *  This  happened,  according  to  Baro- 
nitis,  A.'C.  165,  not  long  after  Justin  had  presented  bis 
second  Apology;  which  is  said^^  therefore,  in  the  language 
Of  *those  times,  to  have  procured  him  the  crown  of  mar« 

'  He  was  the  first  Christian,  after  the  days  of  the  apostles, 
who  a^ded  to  an  unquestionable  zeal  and  love  of  the  gos- 
pel, the  character  of  a  man  of  learning  and  philosophy, 
both  which  were  employed  in  propagating  and  defending 
bis  principles.  He  stands  at  the  head  of  the  Christian 
Platohiidts,  or  those  who  endeavoured  to  reconcile  the  Pla- 
tonic principles  with  the  dictates  of  Christianity ;  and  the 
consequence  of  this  attempt  Was  his  holding  some  opinions 
not  altogejther  agreeable  to  the  genius  of  the  gospel.  There; 
are  several  valuable  editionk  of  his  works,  the  first  of  ivhich 
was  that  of  Rob.  Stephens,  Paris,  1551,  fol.  and  the  best, 
are  those  of  Maran,  printed  at  Paris,  1742,  fol.  and  of 
Oberthur,  at  Wurtzbqrg,  1777,  '3  vols.  8vo.  There  is  an 
edition  of  his  second  Apology  by  Hutchinson,  Oxon.  1703, 
8iro;  of  his  Dialogue  with  Trypho,  by  Jebb,  London, 
1719,  8vo;  of  his  Apologies,  by  Ashton,  Cambridge,  1768, ' 
8vo;  of  his  first  Apology,  by  Grabe,  Oxon,  1700;  and  of 
both  Apologies,  and  his  Dialogue,  by  Thirlby,  London, 
1708,  fol.' 

JUSTINIAN,  the  first  Roman  emperor  of  his  name,  and 
more  celebrated  for  his  code  of  laws,  was  nephew  of  Justin  . 
I.-  and  succeeded  his  uncle  in  the  Imperial  throne  Aug. 
1,527.  Hebegan  bis  reiguwith  the  character  of  a  most 
religious  prince,  publishing  very  severe  laws  against  he- 
retics, and  repairing  ruined  churches;  in  this  spirit,  he 
actually  declared  himself  protector  of  the  church.  While 
he  was  thus  re-establishing  Christianity  at  home,  be  car^ 
ried  bis  arms  against  the  enemies  of  the  empire  abroad, 
witb  so  much  success,-  that  he  reinstated  it  in  its  ancient 
glory.  He  was  very  happy  in  having  the  best  general  of 
the  age,  Belisarius,  who  conquered  the  Persians  for  him  * 

I  Cav«.<«LMdMr'«  Worluk— Brucker.-'Saxu  Oaomst, 

V  9 


ip  52S,  542^  mA  jf43 ;  BX^itk  533  extermin&ted  the  Yandids, 
and  took  their  king  Gillimer.  prisoner  He  also  recov^ed 
Africa  to  the  empire  by.  ai^ew  conquest;  vniiquiybed  the 
Goths  in  Italy ;  and,  l^tly,  defeated  the  Moors^and  tbe  3a« 
maritans.  But,  in  the  midst  of  these  glorious  successes 
the  emperor  was  endangered  by  a  pot^ent  faction  at  i^me* 
Hypalius,  Pompeius,  and  Probus,  nephews  of  the 
emperor  Anastasius,  the  immediate  predecessor,  of  Justin, 
combining  togiether,  raised  a  powerful  insurrectidn,  in 
order  to  dethrone  Justinian.  '  The  conspirator^  fovmed 
two  parties,  one  called  the  Varti,  and  the  other  Veneti> 
and  at  length  became  so  strong,  th$t  the  eitoperor,  in  de» 
spair  of  being  able  to  resist  them,  began  to  think  qf  quitting 
the  palace;  and  had  certainly  submitted  to  that  disgrace 
had  mot  the  empress  Theodosia,  his  consort^  veiled  at  his 
betraying  so  much  tameness,  reproached  him  with,  bia  pu«" 
sillanimity,  and  induced  him  to  fortify  himself  againet  the 
rebelis,  while  Belbarius  and  Mundus  defendedihim  so  well, ' 
that  the  conspiracy  was  broken,  and  the  ringleaders  ca- 
pitally punished^  J 

The  empirie  being  jnow  in.  the  fall  enjoyment  of  profound 
peacb  and  tranquillity^  Justinito  made  the  (best  use  ^fit, 
oy  cpllecjdng  the^  imjnenae  variety  and  njumberof  4ihe  Ro* 
man  laws  into  one  body.  X^^^t^i^^^^^dj  he  sdeoted  ten  of 
t^te  most  abte  lawyers  in  thb .  enipire }  .who,  revi$ing.  tile 
Gregoriak),.TbeodQ$ian,.  imd  Henhogeoian codes,  compiled 
out  of  th^  ohe  body,  calIed»"The  Code,"  to.wbiththe 
emperor  gave :  his  own  name^  Ttys.  mlty  h& ceiUed:  the  sta-^ 
tute  law,!  ^s  consisting  pf^tiie  r^scriptk  of  the  emperors: 
but  the  compilation  of  the  other  part  was  a  mtutb.  more 
difficult  task.  It  was'  made  up  of  the  di^iailan^  of  the 
judges  aiid  other,  magistrates,  together  with  tb^  tothori* 
t^tive  opinions,  of  the  .^ost  eminent  lawyer^ ;  all  which  lay 
scattered,  without ;  any  order,  in  above  2000  ivolnmes. 
The^e,  however,,  after  the  labour  of  ton  y^t»$  chiefly  by  < 
Tribpnian^  an  eminent  iawyer,  were  redticed  toithe  nmki^ 
her  of  50 ;  and  the  whole  design  was  eompleted  in  the  year 
4i33,  and  tbe  Jiameof  ^^Digests,**  OT'^^Pahdects,!'*  given  toiH 
Besides  these,  for  the  userchiefly  of  young  stiidents  ia  die 
law,  Justinian  ordered  four  books  of  <<  &stitutes*'  to  be 
drawn  up,  by  Tribonian,  Dorotheus^  and  Theophilus,  con* 
taining  an  abstract  or  abridgement  of  the  text  of  all  the 
laws :  and,  lastly,  the  laws  of  modern  date,,  posterior  to 
that  of  the  former,  were  thrown  into  one  volume  in  the 
year  541,  called  the  "Novell®,'*  or  «  New  Code*" 


This  most  important  transaction  in  die  state  has  rendered 
Jastinian's  name  immortal.  Hb  conduct  in  ecclesiastical 
affairs  was  rash  and.  inconsiderate.  On  one  occasion, 
when  TheodotuS)  king  of  Italy,  bad  obliged  pope  Agape* 
tiis  to  go  to  Constantinople^  in  order  to  submit  and  make 
peace  with  the  emperor,  Justinian  received  him  very  gra«> 
ciously,  but  enjoined  him  to  communicate  with  Anthenius^ 
patriarch  of  Constantinople.  That  patriarch  being. deemed 
a  heretic  at  Rome,  the  pontiff  refused  to  obey  the  com* 
jmand ;  and,  when  the  emperor  threatened  to  punish  his 
disobedience  with  banishment,  he  answered,  without  any 
emotion,-'^  I  thought  I  was  cotae  before  a  Christian  prince^ 
but  I  find  a  Diocletian."  The  result  was,  that  the  hardi^^ 
ness  and  resolution  of  the  pope  brought  the  emperor  to  a 
submission.  Accordingly  Anihenius  was  deprived,  and  an 
orthodox  prelate  put  into  his  place. 

After  this,  Justinian,  resolving  to  take  cognizance  of 

the  difference  between  the  three  chapters,  published  a  re* 

script  for  that  purpose,  in  form  of  a  constitution,  which 

created  g^eat  disturbances  in  the  empire    He  also  exerted 

bis  authority  against  the  attempts  of  the  popes  Sylverius 

and  Vigilius,  both  before  and  after  the  celebration  of  the 

fifthgeneral  council  held  in  the  year  553.  Towards  the  latter 

end  of  hifflife,  he  fell  into  an  erroneous  opinion  concern* 

ing  Christ's  body ;  which  he  maintained  bad  never  been 

corruptible,  nor  subject  to  the  natural  infirmities  of  a  hu* 

man  body.     He  carried  it  lso  far  as  to  prepare  an  edict 

against  those  who  maintained  the  contrary  opinion,  and  in* 

tended  to  publish  it;    but  was  prevented  by  his  deaths 

which  happened  suddenly,  in  565,  at  the  age  of  83,  and 

softer  a  reign  of  39  years.     It  veas  this  emperor  who  abo*^ 

Wished  the  consulate.  He  built  a  great  number  of  churches, 

and  particularly  the  famous  Sancta*  Sophia,  at  Constanti* 

nople,  esteemed  a  master-piece  of  architecture.    But  the 

increasing  jealousies,  and  the  heavy  burdens  which^usti- 

nian  imposed  upon  his  subjects,  had,  some  time  before 

his  death,  destroyed  all  attachment  to  his  person  ;  and  be 

who,  iii  many  respects,  deserved  the  title  of  the  last  Ro-< 

man  emperor,  left  the  ^tajge  unlamented  and  unhonoured^ 

The  editions  of  his  ^  Code,"  <<  Institntions,"  &c«  are  too 

many  to  be  enumerated,  but  the  best  of  them  occur  in  aU' 

jaoost  every  catalogue.  ^ 

*  Ufiiverml  History.-^-Oibbon's  History.— Cave.— Mosheim's,  but  ptrticu- 
larly  MilnePt,  Churab  UUtKff.'wheT^  his  character,  as  «  Cbristian emperor,  it 
%ell  deliotsted. 

514  JUST  I  Nil  A  N  I. 

JUSTINIANI  (St  Lawrbnce),  the  first  patriaixsh  of 
Venice,  was  descended  of  a  noble  family,  and  born  there, 
13SU  He  took  the  monk^s  habit  in  the  monastery  of  Su 
George,  in  Alga,  before  he  was  a  deacon ;  and  in  1424 
%6came  general  of  that  congregation,  to  whom  he  gave  an 
excellent  set  of  rules,  which  were  afterwards  observed,  and 
made  him  esteemed  as  one  of  their  founders.  Pope  Euge- 
nius  IV.  gave  him  the  bishopric  of  Venice,  of  which  he 
was  the  first  patriarch,  from  1451.  This  prelate  died 
Jan.  8,  1455,  and  was  canonized  in  1690  by  Alexai> 
der  VIII.  He  left  several  works  of  piety,  which  were 
printed  together  at  Brescia,  1506,  2  vols,  folio;  and  again 
at  Venice,  1755,  folio ;  to  which  is  prefixed  his  life,  by  his 

'  JUSTINIANI  (Bervard),  nephew  of  the  above,  was 
born  at  Venice  in  1408.  He  pursued  his  first  studies  un» 
der  Guarini  of  Verona,  and  continued  them  at  Padua,  where 
he  took  his  doctor^s  degree.  Notwithstanding  he  put  on 
the  senator's  robe  at  the  age  of  nineteen,  yet  he  still  pro* 
secuted.  his  studies  under  Francis  Philelphi  and  George  4e 
Trebisonde,  whom  he  took  into  his  bouse,  and  retained 
there,  till  pope  Calixtus  II L  sent  for  him  to  Rome,  tod 
e'mployed  him  in  several  commissions.  Upon  his  retiiril  t6 
Venice,  he  was  sent  ambassador  to.  Lewis  XL  of  Fran^ie, 
who  made  him  a  knight  in  1461.  He  went  afterwards  seve* 
ral  times  ambassador  to  Rome  from  the  republic ;  and,  in 
1467,  was  made  commandant  of  Padua.  He  afterwards 
became  a  member  of  the  council  of  ten,  and  bore  the  dig« 
nity  of  Sage  GriSind  no  less  than  twenty  times.  In  1474,  be 
was  elected  procurator  of  St.  Mark,  a  post  next  to  thai;  of 
doge.     He  died  in  1489. 

His  speeches  on  different  occasions  have  been  printed, 
with  his  letters,  and  **  History  of  Venice,"  Venice,  1492, 
folio.  I'his  history,  which  has  been  admired  as  tlie  first 
regular  attempt  of  the  kind,  and  which  comes  down,  to 
809,  may  be  frequently  fouud  without  the  other  pieces, 
which  have  been  suppressed.  He  also  left  **  Vita  B.  Laiir 
reiitii  Justiniani,"  1475,  4to.  His  life  in  Latin  by  Aotooio 
Stella  was  printed  at  Venice,  1533,  8vo.  Of  the  same 
family,  which  is  still  honourably  distinguished  in  Italy^' 
was  the  marquis  Vincent  Justioiani,  who  employed  Blom- 
maert,  Millan,  and  other?,  to  engrave  his  gallery,  Rooief 

^  Moreri.— MoiheiV.-rSsxii  Oiiomut. 

J  U  S  T  I  N  I  A  N  I.      .  fi5 

I642f  2  Tols.  fol.  OT  this  splendid  work  some  impressions, 
much  inferior  to  the  old  ones,  were  taken  since  1750. 
Another  branch  of  the  same  family  was  the  abb€r  Bernardo 
Justiniani,  who  wrote  the  *^  Origin  of  the  Military  Ordefs/' 
Veniee,  1692,  2  vols.  fol.  in  Italian,  from  whence  the  ^^  His* 
toiy  of  the  Military  Orders,^'  Amsterdam,  1721,  4  vols.  8vo, 
has  been  extracted;  to  which  is  added,  ^^The  History  of 
the  Religious  Orders,^'  Amsterdam,  1716,  4  vols.  8vo. ' 

JUSTINIANI  (AuGUSTiN),  bishop  of  Nebo  or  Nebbio, 
one  of  the  most  learned  men  of  his  time,  was  descended 
from  a  branch  of  the  same  noble  family  with  the  former ; 
and  born  at  Genoa,  in  1470.  After  having  resided  some 
time  at  Valencia,  in  Spain,  he  entered  into  the  order  of 
St  Dominic,  at  Paris,  in  1488;  when  he  took  the  name 
of  Augustin  in  the  room  of  Pantaleon,  which  be  received 
at  his  baptism.  Soon  after  he  distingaished  himself  by  his 
learning,  and  knowledge  in  the  languages,  which  be  ac- 
quired in  a  Tery  short  time  ;  so  that  Leo  X.  named  him  to 
the  bishopric  of  Nebo,  in  the  island  of  Corsica,  in  which 
capacity  he  assisted  in  the  fifth  council  of  Lateran,  ^ber^ 
lie  opposed  some  articles  of  the  concordat  between  Framce 
•nd  the  court  of  Rome.  The  revenue  of  his  diocese 
being  small,  he  petitioned  the  pope* for  a  better;  but  Fran- 
cis I.  who  was  a  patron  of  learned  men,  drew  him  to  France^ 
by  making  him  bis  almoner,  with  a  good  pension  ;  and  he 
was  also  regius  professor  of  Hebrew  for  five  years  at  Paris^ 
Returning  to  Genoa  in  1522,  be'found  every  thing  in  con* 
fiiaion,  by  the  sedition  of  the  Adornes ;  on  which  he  went 
to  visit  his  diocese,  and  discharged  all  the  duties  of  a  good 
prelate,  till  1531.  In  a  voyage  from  Genoa  to  Nebo,  be 
perished,  together  with  the  vessel,  in  which  he  yras  em- 
barked, 1536.  By  bis  last  will,  he  left  his  library  to  the 
republic  of  Genoa. 

He  composed  some  pieces,  the  most  considerable  of  which 
is,  ^'  Psalterium  HebrsBum,  GrsBcum,  Arabicum,  &  ChaL- 
dttUBij  cum  tribtts  Latinis  interpretationibus  &  glossis."  This 
was  the  first  psalter  of  the  kind  which  had  appeared  in 
print,  and  he  intended  it  as  a  prelude  to  a  similar  edition 
of  the  whole  Bible,  but  he  lived  only  to  execute  this  part, 
which  appeared  at  Genoa  in  1 5 16.  Tiraboschi,  forgetting 
tilt  Complutensian  polyglott,  calls  this  the  first  at- 
tempt of  the  kind.     It  is  not  a  work  of  very  rare  occur- 

I  Gbaufepie.^-Nictron,  toI.  VII.— -Ginsneni  Hist.  Utt.  d'Jtalie. 


renoC)  .there  being  SQOO  cofMes  prioted^  arid  50  upet 
vellum,  which,  however,  bear  a  high  price.  There  CBmm 
out  also  *^  Annales-  de  Republica  Genoensi,'*  at  Geoo^ 
in  1537;  but  this  was  posthumous,  and  imperfect*  There 
is  likewise  ascribed  to  him  a  translation  of  Maunoiiidk 
^'  Moreh  Nevochim.'*  He  was  the  editor  of  ^VPorcheti 
Victoria  ad  versus  impios  Hebrseos,*'  Paris,  1520,  folJ' 

JUVENAL  (Decius  JuKiua),  the  Roman  satirist,  was 
bom  about  the  beginning  of  the  emperor  CiaudiUsfs. reign, 
at  Aquinum,  a  town  in  Campaiiia,  stiic^  ^famous,  for  ikft 
birth-place  of  Thomas  (thence  styled)  Aqtinas.  Juveiial!s 
father  was  probably  a  fr^ed  man,  who,  being  rich,  gave 
him  a  liberal  education ;  and,  agreeably  to  the  taste  of  the 
times,  bred  him  up  to  eloquence.  In  this  he  madtj  a 
great  progress,  first  under  Fronto  the  grammarian^  and 
then,  as  is  generally,  conjectured,  pnder^uintiUa.n ;  after 
which  he  attended  the  bar,  where  he  made  a  distii^guished 
figure  for  many  years,  as  we  learn  from  some  of  ^Martial^s 
epigrams.  In  this  profession  he  had  improved  his  fortune 
and  interest  at  Rome,  before  he  turned  his  thoughts  to 
poetry;  the  very  style  of .  which,  iu  his  satires,  speaks  a 
long  habit  of  declamation :  '^  subactum  redolent  declama* 
torem,"  say  the  critics.  He  is  supposed  to  Iiave  been 
above  forty  years  of  age,  when  he  recited  his  first  essay  to 
a  small  audienc^  of  his  friends  ;  but,  being  encouraged  by 
their  applause,  he  ventured  a  publication,,  in  which  Parisy 
a  player,  and  Poroitian^s  favourite,  was  satirized;  this 
minion  complained  to  the  emperor,  who  sent  the  poet  iniio 
banishment,  under  pretence  of  giving  him  the  oomaiaBd 
of  a  cohort,  in  the  army  quartered  at  Pentapohs,  a-  city 
upon  tlie  firontiers  of  Egypt  and  Lyhia.  After  Domitian's 
death)  he  returned  to  Rome^  ^ored  of  his.  propensity  to 
attack  the  characters  of  those  iu  power  nuder  arbitrary 
princes,  and^  indalge  in  personal  reflections  upon  living 
characters.  His  13th  satire,  addressed  to  Calvinu$,  was 
written  U.  C.  871,  in  the  Sd  year  of  Adrian,  whenJuveoal 
was  abovejseventy  years  old  I  and  as  it  is  agreed  that  he 
attained  to  his  eightieth  year,,  be  tnust  have  died  about 
the  lltbyear  of  Adrian. 

In  his  person  he  was  of  a  large  stature,  which  made  some 
think  him  of  GFallic  extraction.    We  meet  with  nethiog 

*  Tiraboschi.— Geo.  Dibt.— M«reri.— ^ict.  Hist, 

J  U  V  E:iN;A  L.  ^17 

concerning  kis  ifaoralrfloJ  Svay /bf  lifit.*;  but^  by  die  whfAe 
teoor.of  his  wfitibgK^  fac;  seems iobsyfe  beeii  anian  of  acutie 
olyser^ailton,  and  a  friend  to  liberty  and  virtue,  but  at. the 
same  time  miiy,  hejuttly  charged  tyitfa  a  iideiitious  boldness 
in  hia  expressions,  vin  point  of  classicai*  merit,  he  is  the 
last  of  the  Roman  poeis,  and  after  faini'  Ilomati  poetry  ra- 
pidly degenerated.  '  The  mo8t.?alnable  edition  of  this  poet, 
without  Persius,  is  that  of  Ropefti,'  [Printed  at  Leipsic,  in 
1 80 1 ,  2  vols.  8 vo.  But  most  generally  Juvenal  and  Persiin 
are  printed  together^  of  which  there  are  many  valuable 
editions,  particularly  the  Variorums,  the  Delphin,  those  by 
Henninius,  Hawkey,  Sandby,  &c;' 

JUV.ENCUS  {Caws  Vectius.  Acwjiunus),  one  of  the 
first  Christian  poets,  was  born  of  an  illustrious  family  in 
Spain,  and  lived,  according  to  Jerom,  in  the  timla  ofCen- 
stantine,  about  the  year  330.  He  wrote  th^  **  Life  of 
Christy"  in  Latin  verse,  in  four  books,  following  the*  four 
evangelists  faithfully,  and*  almost  word  by  word  ;  but  his 
poetry  is  in  a  bad  style,  and  his  Latin  not  pure.  This 
work,  which  is  entitled  '^  Historian  Evangelicse,  lib.  iv.*'  may 
be  found  in  the  library  of  the  Fathers,  the  ^/  Latin  Poets^' 
of  Venice,  1 502,  4to,  and  the  **  Corpus  Poetarum.**  The 
best  edition  of  it  separately  is  that  of  Rome,  1792,  4to.* 

'  JUXQN  (William),  a  loyal  and  worthy-English  prelate* 
the  son  of  Richard  Juxon  of  Chichester  in  Sussex,  was  boka 
in  1582,  and  educated,  upon  the  foundation,  at  Merchant 
Taylors*  school,  whence  he  was  elected  a  fellow  of  St. 
John?s  eoUe^e,  Oxford,  in  1598.  Here,  as  his  intentions 
were  for  the  bar,  he  studied  civil  law,  and  took  the  degree 
of  bachelor  in  that  faculty,  July. 5,  160^,  having  before  en^ 
tered  himself  a  student  in  (}ray*si4nn.  But  for  sonie  reasons 
not  assigned  by  his  biographer,  he  entirely  changed  his 
mind,' and  after  having  gone  thi'ough  a  course  of  divinity 
studies,  took  orders,  and  in  the  latter  end  of  1609  was  pre«- 
sented  by  his  college,  which  stands  in  that  parish,  to  the 
viearage  of  St.  Gileses,  Oxford.  Here  he  was  much  ad- 
mired for  his  plain,  practical  style  of  preaching.  In  1614, 
^  we  are  told,  he  left  this  living,  pt'obably  on  being  presented 
to  the  rectory  of  Somerton  in  Oxfordshire,  in  the  east  wili^- 
dow  of  the  chancel  o^  which  church  are  his  arms ;  but  it  is 
equally  probable  that  he  might  hold  both.     It'  is  certain 

'  Crusiot's  Hitt  of  the  Roman  Poets.-*>Saxii  Oaomast — Dibdin's  Classics. 
<  Fabric.  Bibl.  Lat.  Med.— Morerl.— Diet.  Hitt-^Sasii  Ohomast. 

BIS  J  U  X  O  R 

Aat  his  connexion  with  Oxford  continued ;  and  wben^  m 
1 62 1 ,  Dr.  Laud  resigned  the  office  of  president  of  St.  John's 
college,  Mr.  Juxon  was  chosen  in  his  room,  chiefly  by  his 
influence.    In  December  of  the  same  year,  he  proceeded 
doctor  of  laws,  and  in  1626  and  1627  served  the  office  of 
▼ice* chancellor  of  the  university.    About  this  time  his  ma- 
jesty Charles  I.  appointed  him  one  of  his  chaplains  in  or- 
'dinary,  and  collated  him  to  the  deanery  of  Worcester, 
along  with  which  be  held  a  prebend  of  Chichester.    In  all 
these  promotions,   he  was  chiefly  indebted  to  Dr.  Laud, 
then  bishop  of  London,  who  had  a  high  regard  for  him^ 
and,  as  dean  of  the  king's  chapel,  recommended  him  to^be 
clerk  of  the  closet,  into  which  office  Dr.  Juxon  was  sworn 
July  10,  1632.      Laud's  object  in  this  last  promotion  is 
said  to  have  been,  that  ^*  be  might  have  one  that  he  might 
trust  near  his  majesty,  if  he  himself  grew  weak  or  infirm.'* 
By  the  same  interest  Dr.  Juxon  was  elected  bisbbp  of 
ilereford  in  1633,  and  was  made  dean  of  the  king's  chapel, 
but  before  consecration  was  removed  to  the  bishopric  of 
London,  in  room  of  Laud,  now  archbishop  of  Canterbury, 
and  was  also  sworn  of  the.  privy  council.     He  entered  on 
'bis  bishopric  Nov.  5  of  the  above  year,  and  although  his 
diocese  was  much  displeased  with  the  conduct  of  his  pre* 
decessor,  bishop  Juxon,  by  his  mild  temper  and  urbanity, 
obtained  the  respect  of  all  parties. 

It  was,  however,  his  misfortune,  that  the  archbisbop  car- 
ried his  esteem  for  him  too  far,  and  involved  him  in  a 
scheme  which  Laud  vainly  fancied  would  raise  the  power 
and  consequence  of  the  church.  This  was  no  other  than 
to  place  churchmen  in  high  political  stations  ;  'an4  hy  way 
of  experiment,  he  prevailed  on  the  king  to  appoint  bishop 
Juxon  to  the  office  of  lord  high  treasurer,  to  which  he  was 
accordingly  promoted  in  1635.  This  office  no  churchman 
had  held  since  the  time  of  Henry  VII.  and  although  that 
was  not  such  a  very  distant  period,  as  not  to  afford  some- 
thing like  a  precedent  to  the  promotion,  yet  the  sentiments 
4>f:the  nation  were  now  totally  changed,  and  the  noble  fa- 
milies, from  which  si)ch  an  officer  was  expected  to  have 
•been  chosen,  were  not  more  astonished  than  displeased  to 
see  the  staff  put  iirto  the  hands  of  a  clergyman  scarcely 
known  out  of  the  verge  of  his  college  until  called  to  the 
bishopric  of  London,  which  he  had  not  filled  two  years. 
Notwithstanding  this,  it  is  allowed  on  all  bands  that  Dr. 
Juxon  conducted  himself  in  svicb  a  manner,  as  to  give  no 

J  u  X  O.N.  eif 

f^Senee  to  any  parky ;  while,  in  the  omoag^ndeot  of  official 
coocecnsy  be  was  so  prudent  and  ceoonoifticalt  as  cpD8ider<r 
«bly  jto  benefit  the  exobeqner*  Tbere  oaundt,  indeed,  be 
a  greater  proof  of  bis  good  cond^ic^  than  4^i$i  that  wbQQ 
^the  republican  party  ransacked  ev^y  office  for  causes  of 
inpctacbinenty  sequestration,  and  deatb^  tbey  found  no- 
thing to  object  to  bisbpp  Juxon.  He  was  not,  .bQwever, 
made  for  the  tia]ies ;  and  when  he  saw  the  storm  approach* 
i»g  which  was:  to  overset  the  whole  edifice  of  church  und 
^ute,  be  resigned  his  office.  May  17,  1641,  just  after  the 
(execution  of  the  earl  pf  Stjrafl^rd,  in  consequence  of  the 
king's  passing  the  bill  of  attainder,  contrary. to  Juxon's  ex«' 
presis  asMl  earnest  .advice. 

, .  On  his  resignation,  he  retired  to  his  palace  at  Fulbani, 
^bere  be  continued  for  some  time,  not  only,  undif^torbed, 
but  sometimes  visited  by  the  greatest  persons  of  the  oppo- 
site party,  although  he  remained  firm  in  his  loyalty  to  the 
king,  f^ho  consdlted  biqai  upon  many  occasions* .  Sir  Philipr 
Warwick,  .being  employ^  on  one  of  those  occasions,  de- 
sired he  might  bring  the  bishop  himself  to  his  majesty,  for 
fear  of  a. mistake  in  the  message,  or  lest  the  bishop  should 
not  speak  freely  to  him.  To  which  the  "king  replied,  ^^Go 
as  I  bid  you  ;  if  he  will  speak  freely  to  any  body,  be  will 
speak  freely  to  you. .  This  I  will  say  of  him  ;  I  nev«r  got 
his  opinion  freely  in  my  life,  but,  when  I  had  it,  I  was  ever 
the  better  for  it."  Bishop  Juxon  also  attended  upon  his 
majesty  at  the  treaty  in  the  Isle  of  Wight  in  1648,  by  the 
consent  of  the  parliament ;  and  by  the  king's  particular 
desire,  waited  upon  him  at  Cotton-house  in  Westminster 
on  Jan.  21  following,  the  day  after  the  commencement  of 
his  trial.  During  the  whole  of  this  trial,  he  attended  ithe 
king,  who. declared  that  he  was  the  greatest  support  apd 
comfort  to  him  on  that  occasion.  He  followed  his^.royal 
master  also  to  the  scaffold,  and  when  he  was  preparing 
himself  for  the  block, '  Juxon  said  to  him,  *^  There  is,  sir, 
but  one  stage  more,  whicb,  though  turbulent  aud  trouble- 
some, is  yet  a  very  short  one.  Consider,  it  will  soon  ca^ 
you  a  great  way  ;  it  will  carry  yoi^  from  earth  to  heaven  ; 
and  there  you  shall  find,  to  your  great  joy,  the  prize  to 
which  you  hasten,  a  crown  of  glory.*' — ^VI  go,",  said  the 
king,  ^  froQi  a  corruptible  to  an  incorruptible  crown,  wheire 
no  disturbance  can  be."  '^  You  are  exchanged,"  replied 
the  bishop,  **  from  a  temporal  to  an  eternal  crown ;  a  good 


It  was  rettMM-hy  the  ragiddieflf^  Ibiii;  the  kiog^  the 
moBiefit  befoti^>lMf  sti^hed'  (»it  hifti  ueek  to  the  execa^^ 
lioDeri  si»id  to  Jiixdii^  with  -ft'-vety  eatue^  accettt,  the 
Buigle  w6rd''R£M^lfBfift.  Great  mysteries  were  ccwae* 
queotly  supp6titA\o-  be  c(meea^ed  liiider  that  es^ptessioii  i 
md  the  gtoerals  vebetnently  msisted  with  the  prelate,  that 
he  ftheuld  iofbrm*  Aem  of  Mie  king*s  meatxing.  Juitbn  toUd 
tbem^'thit'thekittg  having  (vequentlycfattrged  him  to  in* 
etilcaite  <dii  his  ^n  the  foi^ii^iiess  of  hk  murderers,  had 
taheii  this  bjpportiinityy  in  the  last  moment  of  his  li/e,  when 
hilp  comaaattdi,  b^snijjjyposed,  would  be  regarded  as  sacked 
and  invicAabte,  to"  reiterate  that  desire ;  aiid  that  his  mild 
spirit  thus  terminated  its  present  course^  by  an  act  of  be* 
nevolenfc^  towards  his  greatest  eiiemies. — Dr.  Juxon  was 
also  one  of  those 'who  aceompanied  the  kiog^s  body  to 
Windsor,  but  was  tiot  permitted  to  read  the  funeral  service^ 

Seine  ttoifths  after  this,  when  the  commonwealth  was 
estabKsfaed,  he  was  deprived  of  his  bishopric,  and  retired 
to  his  private  estate,  the'  manor  of  Little  Compton,  in 
Gloucestershire,  where  he^  passed  his  time  free  from  mo«i 
,  testation,  and  in  the  occasional  enjoyment  of  field  sports^ 
to  which  he  was  rather  more  addicted  than  beciame  his  rank 
in  -the  church.     At  the  restoration  he  was  nominated  arch^ 
bishop  of  Cafiterbnry,  m  Sept.  1660,  and  at  the  colrona* 
tion- placed  the  crown  on  the  head  of  Charles  II.     H^wasr^ 
man  of  a  liberal  and  princely  spirit.     During  the  short  pe^ 
riod  that  -  he  enjoyed  the  archbishopric,  he  expended  ift 
btiilding  and  repairing   Lambeth  and  CrOydon  palaces^ 
nearly  15,000i?. ;  and  augmented  the  vicarages,  the  great 
tithes  of  which  Were  approplriated  to  his  see,  to  the  amount 
of  1  lOS/.    In  the-deeline  of  life  he  was  much  afflicted  with 
the  stone,  of  which  he  at  length'  died  June  4,  1663,  in  hit 
^ghty^first  year,  and  was  interred  with  the  greatest  so- 
lemnity in  the  chapel  of  St  John's  college,  Oxford,  n€fa¥ 
the  remains  of  archbishop  Laud.    To  this  college  he  had 
ever  been  a  friend^  and  was  at  last  a  munificent  benefac* 
tor^  >  bequeathing  7000/.  t6  be  laid  out  in  the  increase  of 
fellowships.     His  other  charitable  bequests  amounted  td 
5000/.     Hid  contempors»ries  unite  in  praising  his  piety^ 
learning,  charity,  moderation  of  temper,  and  steady  loyalty* 
As  a  divine  he  has  left  little  by  which  we  can  appropriate 
his  roeritsi     There  is  but  one  setmon  of  his  el^taifi't;  eti^ 
titled'*^  The  Stibjeets'  sorrow;  or  Lamentations  upon  theL 
death  of  Britain's  Josiah,  king  Charles,'*  1649,  4t(),  an^ 

J  U  X  O  N,  Ml 

*<  Some  eoDsi^cmtioDB  upon  the  Act  ci.  ^^niforjpa^ty:  s  inrith 
nn  ejcpedient  for  the.BtrtirffLCtion  of  tbe  'devgy  wtthlD  the 
IHroirinGe  of  Cantorbury.  By  a  Servant  of  the  God  of 
peacoi"  Load.  l^H,  4to.  It  is  also  said  that  he  was  the 
siuthor  of  ^*  A  Catalogue  of  the  most  vendiUe  Veeka  m 
Enghndy^  a  well-known  4tO|  printed  in  1€UI9,  aad  signed 
W.  Lpndon^  in  the  dedication ;  but  whoever  pemses  thai 
dedicatioh  wil(  perceiire  it  cannot  be  from  the  peniof  091? 


JLbBOT  .(0&<  B£KJAMIN),  an  ingenious  and  learned 
writer^  and  a  judicious  and  useful  preacher,  son  of  the  wer. 
Mr.  Thomas  Ibbot,  vicar  of  SwaS  bani> .  and  rector  of 
Beachamwell,  901  Norfolk,  was  born  at  Qeacban»weU  in 
1B$Q.  He  wa^  admitted  of  Glare-ball,  Cambridgei,  July. 
23,  ledS,,  under  the  tuition  of  the  rev.  Mr.  Laughtoa^.a. 
gentleman  justly  celebrated  for  his  eminent  attaihmcj^ta  in 
pbil^aophy  and  mathematics,  to  whom  the  very  l^eamed. 
pr^  Samuel  Clarke  generously  acknowledge.d  himself  to  be 
much  indebted  for  many  of  the  notes  apd  illustralioas 
inserted  in  his  Latin  version,  of  ^^  Rohault*s  Philc^ophy.'* 
Mr.  Ibbot  bayipg  taken  the  degree  of  B,  A.  1699,.  i^moved 
tpt  Corpus^Christi  Jn  1700,  and  was  made  a  scholar  of 
that  house.  He  commenced  M*  A.  in  1 703,  and  waa  elected 
ii^to  a  Norfolk  fellowship,  in  1706^  but  resigned  it  next 
year,  having  then  happily  obtained  the  patronage  of  arch- 
iHsbop  Tenispn*  That  excellent  primate  first  took  him 
into  his  family  ip  the .  capacity  of  his  librarian, .  and  soon 
after  appointed  him  his  chaplain. 

1  Biogt  Brit.-— Le  Neve's  Lires  of  the  Archbishops.— 'Atb.  Ox.  toI,  II.— 
Home's  Hi8toFy.--Sir  Philip  Warwick's  Menoifs.— J^aad's  life  and  Diary.-- 
Clarendciii's  History. 

Mt^  ^  I  B  B  O  t . 

Ill  1708  the  archbishop  collated  Ibbot  W  tb^  treasurer* 
ihip  of  the  cathedral  churc4i  of  Wells.     He  also  presented 
him  to  the  rectoiy  of  the '  united  parishes  of  8t  Vedast^ 
alias  Foster's^  and  St.  Michael  leOne^ne.    George  I.-  ap- 
pointed him  one  of  his  chaplains  in  ordinaiym  17 1^';*  dnd 
when  his  majesty  visited  Cambridge,  in  Oct.  1717,  Mr. 
Ibbot  was  by  royal  mandate  created  D.  D.     In  17 IS  and 
1714,  by  the  appointment  of  the  archbisbop,  then  the  sole 
surviving  trustee  of  the  hon.  Robert  Boyle,   our  author, 
preached  the  course  of  sermons  for  the  lecture  founded 
by  him,  and  desired  in  his  last  will,  that  they  should  be 
printed.     They  bear  evident  marks  of  the  solidity  of  bis 
judgment,  and  are  well  adapted  to  his  professed  design  of 
obviating  by  just  reasoning,  the  insidious  suggestions  and 
abusive  censures  of  Collins,  in  bis  **  Discourse  of  Free- 
thinking.**    In  these  sermons  the  true  notion  of  the  exer- 
cise of  private  judgment,  or  free-thinking  in  matters  of 
religion,  is  fairly  and  fully  stated,  the  principal  objections 
against  it  are  answered,  and  the  modem  art  of  free-think- 
ing, as  treated  by  Collins,  is  judiciously  refuted.     Some 
time  after,  he  was  appointed  assistant-preacher  to  Dr.  Sa- 
muel Clarke,  and  rector  of  St.  Paurs,  Shadwell.     Upoti 
his  being  installed  a  prebendary  in  the  collegiate  chureh 
of  St  Peter,  Westminster,  in  1724,  he  retired  to  Cam- 
behvell,  for  the  recovery  of  his  health,  which  had  been 
impaired  by  the  fatigue  of  constant  preaching  to  very  nu- 
merous congregations,    at  a  considerable  distance  from 
each  othef.     Here  he  died  April  5,  1 725,  in  the  forty-fifth 
year  of  his  age,  and  was  buried  in  Westminster- abbey. 
His  sermons  at  Boyle*s  lecture,  were  published  in  1727, 
8vo,  and  "  Thirty  Discourses  on  Practical  Subjects**  wcri 
selected  from  bis  manuscripts  by  his  friend  Dr.  Clarke, 
and  published  for  the  benefit  of  his  widow,  2  voh.  8vo,  for 
which   she  was  favoured  with  a  large  subscriptian.     In 
17 J 9,  Dr.  Ibbot  published  a  translation 'of  Piiflehdorff's 
treatise  **  De  habitu  religionis  Christians  ad  vitam  eivi- 
lem,'*  or  of  the  relation  between  church  and  state,  and  how 
far  Christian  and  civil  life  affect  each  other;  with  a  preface 
giving  some  account  of  the  book,  and  its  use  with  regard 
to  the  controversies  in  agitation  at  that  time,  particularly ' 
the  Bangorian.      In   1775  were  published,   "  Thirty -six 
discourses  on  Practical  Subjects,**  2  vols.  8vo.     This  is  a 
re-publication  of  the  thirty  discourses   selected  by  Dr.. 
Clarke,  with  the  addition  of  six  occasional  discourses,  and 

I  B  B  O  T.  22S 

a  life  of  the  author,  by  Dr.  flexiiian.  There  are  soiae 
verses  of  Dr.  Ibbot^s,  in  Dodsley's  CoUection»  vol.  V.  en- 
titled <<  A  fit  of  the  Spleen,"  in  imitation  of  l^akspeave.^ 

IGNATIUS  {sarnamed  Thbophorus),  one  of  the  apos- 
tolical fathers  of  the  church,  was  born  in  Syria,*  educated 
under  the  apostle  and  evangelist  St.  John,  intimately  ac« 
quainted  with  some  other  of  the  apostles,  especially  St 
Peter  and  St.  Paul;  and  being  fully  instrueted  in  the  doc^ 
tnnes  of  Christianity,  was^  for  his  eminent  parts  and  piety, 
ordained  by  St.  John  ;  and  confirmed  about  the  year  67, 
bishop  of  Antioch  by  these  two  apostles,  who  first  planted 
Christianity  in  that  city,  where  the  disciples  were  first 
called  Christians.  In  this  important  seat  he  continued  to 
sit  upwards  of  forty  years,  both  an  honour  and  safeguard 
to  the  Christian  religion ;  in  the  midst  of  very  stormy  and 
tempestuous  times,  undaunted  himself^  and  unmoved  with 
the  prospect  of  suffering  a  cruel  death.  So  much  seems 
to  be  certain  in  general,  though  we  have  no  account  of 
any  particulars  of  his  life  till  the  year  107,  when  Trajait' 
the  emperor,  elated  with  his  victory  over  the  Scythian^ 
and  Daci,  came  to  Autipch  to  prepare  for  a  war  against 
the  Partbians  and  Armenians.  He  entered  the  city  with< 
the  pomp  and  solemnities  of  a  triumph;  and»  as  he  had 
already  commenced  a  persecution  against  the  Christians  in 
other  parts  of  the  empire,  he  now  resolved  to  carry  it  on* 
Here.  However,  as  he  was  naturally  mild  and  humane,' 
though  he  ordered  the  laws  to  be  put  in  force  against  them, 
if  convicted,  yet  he  forbad  any  extraordinary  means  to  be* 
used  for  discovering  or  informing  against  them. 

Ii\  this  state  of  affairs,  Ignatius  voluntarily  presented 
bijD^lf  to  the  emperor ;  and  it  is  said,  ihere  passed  along 
conversation  between  them,  in  which  the  emperor  express- 
ing, a  surprise  how  he  dared  to  transgress  the  laws,  the 
bishop  took  the  opportunity  to  assert  his  own  innocence, 
and  the  power  which  God  had  given  Christians  over  evil 
spirits ;  declaring  that  ^'  the  gods  of  the  Gentiles  were  no- 
better  than  daemons,  there  being  but  one  supreme  Deity, 
who  made  the  world,  and  his  only  begotten  son  Jesus 
Christ,  who,  though  crucified  under  Pilate,  had  yet  de« 
fitroyed  him  that  had  the  power  of  sin,  that  is,  the  devil, 
and  would  ruin  the  whole  power  and  empire  of  the  dsemons, 
and  tread  it  under  the  feet  of  those  who  carried  God  in 
their  hearts.'*     For  this  bold  avowal  of  his  principles,  com- 

*  Life  as  above.— Masters's  Hist,  of  C.  C.  C.C. 


blMd  with.A  ^efimce  of.hQaih9iUftin>  be  was  casfc  iota 
pwpQ,  .»ad  patience  pa»&ed  upon  hii»,  that  be  .sboald  he 
fCi^nedb0U0d  by.9picliers:to  Rouq^,  aud  there  tbrown  as  a 
prey  to  wUd  beast;^.  It  may:  seem  strange  tbat  tbey  should 
seod  W:  old  man. by  land,  at  a  great  expenoe^  attended 
with  soldierSi:  from  Syria  to  Home,  instead,  of  casting  him 
tpthelions  at  Antioeb;  hut  it  is,  said,  that  Tnyan  did  this 
0n  purpose  tojx^  example  of  bim^  as  of  a  ringleader 
of  the  sect,  and .  to  deter  the  Christians  from  preaching 
fuid  spreading  their  religion ;.  and  for  tiM^same  reason  he 
sent  him:  to  be  executed*  at  Rome,  where  there  were  many 
Cbristianf^  and  which,  as  it  was  .the  capital  of  the  world, 
90  was  id  theheadrqiiarters  of.all  religious  sects.  After  all, 
thi^  part  of  his  semsence  was  a  particular  cruelty,  and  above 
what  the  laws'  required,  and:  consequently  such  as  might 
not  be  expected' from.  Trajan.  But,  in  our  inartyr'scase, 
he  miglit  not  improbably  be  persuaded  to.  act  contrary  to  his 
Mtorai  diApeflitUH)  :by  those  about  him,  who  began  to  per-* 
ceiv»  thftjt  Chcbtiafiiiy,  if  it  prevaiieid,  would  prove  the 
tmB  of  their  oreligioo.  Ignatius  was  so  far  froin. being  dis-^ 
miyed^  thai  hc;.heartily  rejoiced.  <al  the  falal  decree*  '^  I 
lihiiok  thee,'  d  Lord^?*^^ys.he,  f^  that  thou^  hast  conde- 
scietided  to  bbnour.nie.wiiih  thy  love^  and  hast  thi^oght  me 
worthy,:  with  thy.  apostle  St  Patil^.  to  be  iron- 
chains.'*  With >  these  mords  lie,  cheerfully  embraced  hi» 
cl)ains  ;  I aikd.  having  frequeetly. prayed  for  iiis  church,  and 
rmommeaded  it; to.  the; divine  oare^and  provideooc^  he  de«« 
livered  up  himself  into  the  hands  of  hia  keepers.  These 
were  ten  soldiers,,  by  whom  be  was  first  conducted  to  Se* 
leuoia,  a  po«t  lof  Syria,  at  about  sixteen  miles  distaDcet  the 
place  where  Paul  and  Barnabas  set  sail  for  Cyprus*  ^  Ar» 
riving  at  Smyrna,  in  Ionia,  Ignatius  went  to  visit  Poly- 
carp, /bishop  of  that -place,  and  was  himself  visited  by  tbtt 
clergy  of  the  Asiatic  churches  round  the  country.  In  re* 
turn  for.  thabt  kindness,  he  wrote  letters  to  several  ichurchesy 
as  the  Ephesians,  Magnesians,  Trallians,  besidea.  the  Ro- 
maOs,  for  their  instruction  and  establisbmeot  in  the  faith ; 
one  of  ^hese-  was  addressed  to  tlie  Christians  at  RoMe,  to 
acquaint  them, with  his  present  state  and  passionate  desire 
not  to  be  hindered  in  tbat  course  of  martyrdom  which  he 
was  now  hastening  to  accomplish. 

His  guard,  a  little  impatient  at  their  stay,  set  sail  with 
him  for  Troas,,  a  noted  city  of  the  lesser  Pbrygta,  pot  far 
from  the  ruins  of  old  Troy ;  where^  at  his  arrival,  he  was 

I  Q  N  A  T  1  U  9.  Wf 

mwk  ffe£reM^  wjttli  thf^  mfj  be  r^ei?ed  of  tke  p«rPi9<^»p 
4Mm  ce»9^ng  in  the  cHurcJbi  of  Antioph.     fiither  9>ko  9f9V9r 
r9il  ohurqbes  Aeot  iti^  vi^s^eiiigeri to p^jtb^iir  resfn^ctf  10 
tiioi,  9^i  b^9€i9  l;po  i^  4i§p9tpb|3ci  ^wo  epi»deM^  one  to  th0 
cb»rch  of  PbiUdeJpbi»>  aod  ibeoAber  t^  tfaat  of  Smyrn«k; 
Md  tog^bcvr  mtib  db^  ^Bti  as  Eu^ebiui  relates,  be  wrotf 
ffiy^tMy  <o  Polyc^p,  iecw^i|Be,udiag  to  hit^  (b^  cut  Uki 
^pePMof)  of  tbe  ^^rcj^  of  Antjocb.    AU  Ai§  wbile  ki^ 
)(eeper9  Mated  bim  very  orpeHy  and  barbanouily.    Qe  comi- 
plains  of  it  bifO«elf ;  **  From  Syria  even  to  Roine^''  %fyB  4#^ 
^^  both  ^y  sen  ayid  bjnd,  I  figbt  with  bem»  i  nig^  ftud  dl^f 
I  im  obtained  to  jtbe  lec^4ir4s|  wbich  ia  my  milil^^ry  gmrd» 
wbo,  tb^  kinder  Y  «in  i^  tj;;^  «re  tbe  more  qruei  wi 
#er«etOfliie."    And  yet  it  ja  evident^  i;bVtt|i^  wSkpH 
him  tp  be  visited  by  Cbristians,  and  to  give  4iep  iomru^r 
tiiMiPs  ^  and  writ^  epistles  49  several  cUies  throu|^  whicb  be 
p^aed»    Stut  hi$  owa  ^ccouBt  of  tbe  m^itter  ^^f^fiin^  tbtn 
,  appsifienlt  dilfioulty ;  the  wor4i  implying,  li^at  M^  r^ffieof 
made  money  of  him  this  ^y,  beiog  hf^soipely  reivardeid 
for  tjtiiji  perAifiaion  by  tbe  Cbristians  wbo  re^opfted  to  bim, 
eikhoqgh  their  savage  tee^per$  induced  tlieffi'to  use  hw  tbt 
ivof9e  tor  it.    Froiod  Tro«L9  they  sailed  t^  Neepoli9>  e  majeir 
t|ii»e  $owd9  io  Macedonia,  i^hfnce  to  Philippic  a  j^oiata 
fs^ony,  iiiFbere  itbey  irer#  e.iMertaioed  wit;h  rii  ii|i«ginabli9 
jjEKidDeaa  wd  ex>wrtesy,  «Qd  conducted  forw^ds  on  tbeif 
JQorney,  patsvag  oo  foot  ^br^w^gb  Macedonia  end  £piru«9 
till  libey  came  to  EpMwrun^  a  city  of  DaloDMJm  where 
agaiA  tfiki^^g  idiipping,  ^ey  sailed  through  the  AdrJAtip^ 
»ed  arcived  at  KhegioiBi  a  :port  town  iia  Italy ;  directittg 
Ibeir  cooroe  ibenoe  through  ^  Tyrri^^eniao  sea  to  Puteoli^ 
v^epce  Ignatiea  4«Aired  to  ifvoceed  by  land,  ambitMMis  tg 
trace  ^e  saais  way  by  whi^h  ^^.  Paul  went  to  Rome ;  but 
this  wish  was  not  complied  wilb«     In  a^oiit  {twenty-four 
boiiffS,  howeveer,  a  bri^k  mod  owvey^od  tbeia  to  Ostta  at 
the  .moMAfa  of  the  Tiber,  aboat  «itte0|i  miles  from  Rome* 

Whe  €hriolkxMi  at  Rome,  d^^Ly  e^cpteetiog  hjs  arrival,  had 
come  out  :to  meet  and  eateruin  biiii»  and  accordingily  rei« 
eeived  him  arith  aa  /e%ual  mixture  of  joy  and  aoRKiw.:  but 
Hftea  same  of  tbem  i^imated,  that  possibly  tbe  popolaoi 
mgbt  be  dissoaded  irom  desiring  his  death,  bo  expressed 
a  pious  indignation,  iaUieatAQg  them  to  oast  no  obstaciea  in 
bif(  way,  nor  do  aivy  thing  (ha^  anight  hinder  him»  Aow  be 
w^4iaBtening  to  his  crown.    Tbela^rval  beiore  his  marf 

Vol.  XIX.  Q 


tyrdom  was  spent  in  prayers  for  the  peice  and  prosperity 
of  the  church.  That  bis  pantsbnient  might  be  the  more 
pompous  and  public,  one  of  their  solemn  festivals,  the  Sa« 
turnalia,  was  chosen  for  bis  execution ;  when  it  was  their 
custom  to  entertain  the  people  with  the  conflicts  of  gladia* 
tors,  and  the  bunting  and  fighting  with  wild  beasts,  Ac* 
cordingly,  Dec.  20,  in  the  year  107^  or  as  some  think  in 
116,  he  was  brought  out  into  the  amphitheatre;  and  the 
lions,  being  let  loose  upon  bim,  quickly  dispatched  their 
meal,  leaving  nothing  but  a  few  of  the  hardest  of  bis  bones. 
These  remains  were  gathered  up  by  two  deacons  who  bad 
been  the  companions  of  his  journey,  transported  to  Anti* 
och,  and  interred  in  the  cemetery,  without  the  gate,  but 
afterwards,  by  command  of  the  emperor  Theodosius,  were 
removed  to  the  Tycheon,  a  temple  within  the  city,  now 
consecrated  to  the  memory  of  Ignatius.  Thus  far  all  his* 
torians  concur ;  but  the  pretended  translation  of  these  re- 
lics to  Rome,  and  other  places,  must  be  classed  among 
the  fables  of  the  early  Romanists. 

His  epistles  are  very  interesting  remains  of.  ecclesiastical 
antiquity  on  many  accounts.  He  stands  at  the  bead  of 
those  Antenicene  fiiihers,  who  have  occasionally  delivered 
their  opinions  >  in  defence  of  the  true  divinity  of  Christ, 
whom  he  calls  the  Son  of  God,  and  his  eternal  word.  He 
is  also  reckoned  the  great  champioa  of  the  episcopal  order, 
a^  distinct  and  superior  to  that  of  priest  and  deacon.  He 
is  constantly  produced  as  an  instance  of  the  continuation 
of  supernatural  gilfts,  after  the  time  of  the  apostles,  parti- 
cularly that  of  divine  revelation,  but  the  miracles  imputed  to 
him  are  of  very  doubtful  authority.  The  most  important 
use  of  bis  writings  respects  the  authenticity  of  the  Holy 
Scriptures,  to  which  be  frequently  alludes,  in  the  very  ex- 
pressions which  are  extant. 

There  arje  silso  some  spurious  writings  attributed  to  Igna- 
tius, which  are  accurately  .examined  by  Dupin  and  others. 
Of  the.  genuine  seven  epistles,  the  best  editions  are,  that 
of  AtnsterdaiP)  1 697,  fol.  with  remarks  by  archbishop  Usher 
aiid  Pearson ;  apd  that  by  M.  Cotelier,  in  his  <*  Patrea 
Apostolic!,**  Greek  and  Latin.  These  seven  epistles  are 
addressed  to  the  Smymeans,  St  Polycarp,  the  Ephesians, 
Aiagnesians,  Pbiladelphians,  Tiallians,  and  Romans.  They 
are  also  excellently  translated,  and  make  part  of  archbishop 
Wake*s^<  Genuine  Epistles  of  the  Apostolical  Fathers,^* 

I  ia  R  E.  2ii 

1737,  8vo/  fburih  edit  where  there  ift  a  y^luaUe  iotrodoc* 
toiry  chapter  on  the  history  and  writings  of  Ignatius.* 

IHRE  (John),  professor  of  rhetoric  and  politics  in  the 
university  of  Upsal,  was  bom  in  March  1707,  and  on  ac* 
count  of  the  early  death  of  his  fadier,  chiefly  educated 
under  his  grandfather,  then  archbishop  of  UpsaL  In  1730 
he  set  out  on  his  travels  to  improve  hioiself  by  the  com- 
pany and  conversation  of  learned  men.  In  173 3. he  re* 
turned  to  Upsal,  where  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the 
academy  of  sciences.  In  1737  he  was  made  public  profes- 
sor, of  poetry,  and  in  1748  he  was  appointed  by  the  king 
professor  of  rhetoric  and  politics ;  an  office,  the  duties  of 
which  he  discharged  for  forty  years  with  great  reputation. 
In  175^  king  Adolphus  Frederic  raised  him  to  the  rank  of 
a  counsellor  of  the  chancery ;  two  years  after  to  that  of 
patrician;  and  in  1759  conferred  on  him  the  order  of  the 
polar  star.  He  died  in  1780.  In  1756  he  undertook  a 
Sueco- Gothic  Lexicon,  and  began  to  arrange  the  materials 
which  he  had  been  preparing  for  the  purpose.  In  1766 
he  published  a  '*  Lexicon  Dialectorum,*'  in  which  Jie  ex- 
plained and  illustrated  obsolete  words,  still  used  in  the 
provinces  ;  and  in  1769  his  <^  Glossarium  Sueco- Gothicum^' 
was  published  in  2  vols,  folio.  He  was  the  author  also. of 
an  explanation  of  the  old  catalogue  of  the  Sueco-Gothic 
kings,  to  which  are  added  the  old  West-Gothic  Laws.  In 
his  dissertations  **  De  Runorum  Antiquitate,  Patria,  Ori- 
gine,  et  Occasu,^*  he  asserts  that  the  Runic  writing  was 
formerly  used  in  the'greiuer  part  of  Europe,  was  intro«* 
duced  into  Sweden  about  the  sixth  centurv,  and  became 
entirejy  extinct  in  the  beginning  of  the  fifteenth.  He  wks 
possessed  of  a  sound  judgment  and  a  retentive  memory; 
and  so  clearly  were  his  ideas  arranged,  that  he  had  nev^ 
any  need  to  correct  wliat  he  bad  composed*' 

ILIVE  (Jacob),  was  a  printer,  and  a  son  of  a  printer; 
but  he  applied  himself  to  letter-cutting  in  1730,  and  car** 
ried  OB  a  foundery  and  a  printing-house  together.  He  waf 
an  expeditions  compositor,  and  was  said  to  know  the  letteri 
by  the  touch;  but  being  not  perfectly  sound  in  mind,  pro«» 
duced- some  strange  works.  In  1751  be  published  a  pre* 
tended  translation  of  ^^  The  Book  of  Jasber  ;'^  said  to  have 
been  made  by  one  Alcuin  of  Britain*    The  account  given 

1  LKc  bj   Cave.— JortinN  Remarks  on  Beclesisstical    History.  ^-MHstifS.. 
Church  History. — Dr.  Horsley's  Letters  to  Pn€ttley---"Li[fdner't  Wwltt. 
t  Diet.  Hist— Rms's  Cyclopcdia.--Saxu  0«|^ft« 

Q  2 

2li  I  L I  y  £• 

of  tlie  tMisMkftk  is  Midi  g\mng  absurdities ;  bul  di«  pub- 
lication^  in  i«ct»  was  secretly  wrkten  by  him,  and  pnnlei  * 
off  by  night.    H«  pubKshed^  in  17 S3,   an  Of»tiois  in- 
teflded  to  prove  tbe  ptoftsility  of  worlds,  and  asserting  tfm 
thvi  earth  is  hell)  that  the  souls  of  men  are  apostate  angek, 
and  ihat  the  fire  to  punish  those  oonfined  to  this  worM  «a 
the  day  of  jndgMent  wiU  be  inimateriaL    This  was  written 
in  1799,  and  spoken  afterwards  at  Joiners- hail,  puvsmust 
td  the  will  of  his  mother  \vho  bad  held  the  same  extniar<- 
dinars  opinions*     In  this  strange  performance  Mae  antbor 
unteiis  his  deistical  principles,  and  takes  wo  small  liberty 
with  ^M  sacred  ScrtptureS|  especially  the  character  of 
Mbseit.    Emboldened  by  this  first  advaitare^  he  deter- 
iWied  to  become  the  pnblio  teacher  of  infidelity,  or,  as  be 
oalls  it,  <*  The  religien  of  natnre**'     For  this  purpose,  he 
llired  the  nse  of  Carpenters'-ball,  wfae^e,  for  some  cow- 
sMetable  tiifte)  he  delivered  his  oraitions,  which  consiswd 
cbiefly  of  scraps  fi'Otti  Tindal,  and  ^dber  similar  wriiefB. 
In  the  course  of  the  same  year,  MtSy  appeared  si  second 
pamphlet  called  ''  A  Dialogue  between  a  Doctor  of  tbe 
Church  of  England  and  Mr.  Jacob  Hire,  upon  the  snhjwct 
of  the  oration."    This  strange  oration  is  highly  praised  in 
Holweirs  ^trd  part  of  ^  Interesting  Events  relatsng  to 
bengal.'*    For  publishing '<  Modest  Remarks  on  ilie  laie 
bishop  filierh^k*s  Sermon^,"  Mive  wasconfined  in  CHerimn* 
-weU-bridewell  ftom  Jurne  15,  1756,  till  June  W,  1756^ 
'  during  which  perrod  he  publtshed  ^  Reaions  offered  for 
the  Reformatioti  of  the  House  of  Correction  in  ClerkesH 
#eM,"  &c.  1757,  and  projected  several  other  reforffnng 
treatises,  enumerated  in  Genghis  <^  Britiidi  Topoem^p^y^- ^ 
iiehet^  is  ulso  a  memorandum,  communicated  by  Mr.  fiow- 
-  yer,  of  IMve's  attempt  to  restore  the  company  dl  Stationers 
to  their  primitive  constitution.    He  diedin  1763.  ^ 

ILLTRICUS  (MATtBiAB  f  LacK;%  or  FaAiiKX>VHta)4f.but 
trho  Latinized  his  JMtme  into  Fiaccus  iLLYRrdns^  beeause 
it  fVaiive  of  Albona  6t  Albana  in  Illyria^  was  bom  MavdhrS, 
A^BfX>.  He  was  instructed  in  grammar  and  tbe  ctassias  kf 
Egnaiiids  at  Venice,  and  ga^^  the  preference  to  'divmitryr'as 
a  professhsn^  Not  being  able,  however,  to  maintain  ilie 
i^xpenaes  ^of  nnii'erMty  eduoation,  he  intended  4k>  tlnMr 
'  |ttit»eif  into  a  nioaasiefy,  but  happening  to  ^considt  urtsb  a 
r^relatton  of  bis  mother's,  who  was  provincial  of  the  Cor4e- 

V'^^>cho]s'8Bb«7a4r~^ib(m^«HaU4)f  Dissenting  ^.     . 

ILtYmiOUS.  tt9 

Imrtj  mnd  wtio  bad  begun  le  tee  tbfongb  tbd  .«rroii  f f 
jMipety/  this  pecaoii  prevailed  witb  Fksius  to  ]«y  aaide  jdl 
tiftoughts  ^  tbe  monastic  lifei  and  gainta  Genaany,  wbe«e 
Jtisknowledgeof  Greek  and  Hebramr  wQuld  procure 'bim. a 
Maintenance  until  be  bad  oompieted  Ua  tbeeli^pkal  atodifs. 
f  laciot  accordingly  took  this  adFice^  went  to  fi^  in 
ii30y  and)  after  a  few  aftontbs  8tay>  jvettt  to  Tnbingeay 
«rbere  he  remained  until  I541|  and  then  remoYed  to  Wit- 
tenbei^^y  to  complete  bia  studies  under  Luther  and  Me* 
ianctbon^  tbe  latter  of  wbom  found  bim  aome  employmettt 
in  the  unifBerpiQr,  and  was  tbe  means  of  veUeving  bis  mind 
.  from  anxious  doubts  respecting  some  ef  the  fundamealal 
fMrincipIes  of  the  neformed  religion,  reapeoting  the  nature 
of  MU)  tbe  wrath  of  God,  and  predestination. 

He  was  thus  employed  when  .all  the  scbckola  of  Saafiog^ 
were  dispersed  by  tbe  war^  on  which,  Flacius  went  to 
Srufiswick,  where  he  adjuired  great  reputation  by  bis 
iectores.  In  1547  be  returned  to  his  former  employment 
^at  Wittenberg,  and  here  £r&t  began  bis  dil&rences  with 
^is  bvetbren  on  tbe  subject  of  tbe  Jnterim^  that  famous 
iedict  of  Charles  V.  which  was  to  be  observed  witb  tbe 
nrtielesof  religion  then  in  dispute,  uutil  they  should  be 
iletermiaed  by  a  council,  and  therefore  was  called  wtmpi». 
^But  as  it  retained  most  of  the  doetrioes  and  Qereaooaies  ef 
^tfa^  Romanists,  though  4»cpreased  for  the  most  part  in  the 
4oAest  words,  or  in  scriptural  phrases^  or  in  tetms  of  ate* 
died  ambiguity,  excepting  that  of  marriage^  which  was 
allowed  to  priests,  and  communion,  which  was  adminifterea 
to  tbe  iaity  under  both  kinds,  laoet  of  tbe  -Protestants  re« 
jected  k,  and  none  with  more  warmth  than  Flacius*  This 
involved  him  also  with  Melaocthon,  against  whom  he  wrote 
with  so  much  intemperanee,  that  the  latter  called  bim 
<^  £ehid<>a  Illyrica,"  tbe  lilyrian  viper.  Flacius,  however, 
dMU;  he  might  be  at  liberty  to  oppose  popery  in  bis  own 
waj^,  retired,  in  1 549,  to  Magdeburg,  which  town  was  at 
tbet  time  proscribed  by  tbe  empes^r.  Here  he  published 
several  books,  and  began  that  ecclesiastical,  history  which 
we  have  mentioned  in  the  article  Judex,  called  the  ^^Gea- 
turiea  of  Magdeburg,^*  of  which  he  bed  tbe  chief  direction. 
Of  this  work  the  first  four  centuries,  and  part  of  tbe  fifths 
9k0ie  composed  at  lilfaigdeburg.  /  Tbe  Bf^waa  finisbedat 
Jena.  Tbe  sixth  was  written  in  the  place  to  which  the 
authors  bad  retired  on  account  of  tbe  persecution  of  their 
two  coadjutors,  Gallus  and  Faber.    The  s^^ventb  was  com- 

SSO  I  L  L  T  R  I  C  U  S. 

poted  in  ihe  country  of  MecUenburgh,  and  the  remaining 
in  the  city  of  Wismar,  in  the  same  conntry.  Tbk  first  three 
centuries  were  published  in  1559,  though  dated  in  1560, 
according  to  the  booksellers*  custom,  with  a  dedication  in 
queen  Elizabeth,  earnestly  exhorting  her  to  establish  the^ 
pure,  uncorrupt  religion,  and  particularly  the  doctrine  of 
Ae  corporal  presance  in  the  sacrament  The  best  edition 
of  this  work  is  that  of  Basil,  1624,  3  vols,  folio.  This  is 
the  most  considerable  of  FUcius*s  works,  and  employed 
him  during  the  whole  of  his  life,  at  such  times  as  be  could 
spare  fieom  his  public  employments  and  controversies,  which 
last  he  carried  on  with  too  much  violence. 

In  1557  he  accepted  the  offer  made  to  him,  of  the 
Hebrew  and  divinity  professorship  in  the.  new  university  of 
Jena,  where  he  had  read  lectures  for  five  years,  and  where 
he  engaged  in  a  dispute  with  his  colleague,  Strigelius,  on 
the  nature  of  original  sin,  which  Sirigelius  held  to  be 
aecidmUal  of  the  soul,  and  Flacius  maintained  that  it  was 
of  the  souPs  substance  and  essence.  This  dispute  was 
held  before  the  duke  of  Saxony  at  Weimar,  and  carried 
on  to  thirteen  meetings,  the  acts  of  which  were  published^ 
with  a  prefece  by  Mussus,  one  of  Fiacius's  foUovent. 
His  opinion  on  this  subject,  however.,  was  so  unpalatable 
that  he  was  obliged  to  leave  Jena  and  go  to  Ratiabon,  where 
he  published,  some  more  works,  and  was  in  such  reputation 
among  the  adherents  to  the  Augsburgb  confossion,  that,  in 
1567,  he  was  called  into  Brabant,,  to  establish  churobes 
there  according  to  that  rule  of  faith ;  but  these  new 
churches  were  soon  dispersed  by  the  persecution  arisen  in 
that  country,  which  obliged  him  to  fly  to  AntiHerp  and 
Strasburg,  and  finally  to  Francfort  Here*  he  maintained 
bis  opinion  on  original  sin  with  such  rigid  adherence  as  to 
be  charged  with  Manicheism  on  this  point,  which  greatly 
injured  his  reputation,  and  deprived  hio)  of  maoyof  iiis 
followers.  He  died  in  this  city,  March  11»  1575*  He  is 
said  to  have  been  a  man  of  extensive  learning,  but  of  ^a 
controversial  ^turn,  which  frequently  embroiled  him  with 
his  brethren  ;  but  on  the  other  hand  he  must  be  allowed  to 
have  been  a  powerful  agent  in  promoting  the  Reformatioii* 
His  works  were  numerous.  Teissier,  in  his  ^<  Eloges  des 
hommes  savans,**  has  given  the  titles  of  seventy-eigfat 
treatises,  the  greater  part  of  which  are  also  enumerated  by 
Niceron*  *  The  principal  are  his  ^<  Clavi$  Scriptura,*'  2 
vols,  fol*  of  which  there  have  been  seven  editions,  the  last 

I  L  L  Y  R  I  C  V  S.  2»1 

'tt  Leipsic  in  1695;  no  toconsiderable  test  cfits  mectt 
To  tfau  may  be  added  his  ^^  Catalogue  testiam  veritatis^V 
pf  which  there  hatve  been  several  editions  in  4to  and  {bl, ; 
and  an  edition  of  the  ^*  Ancient  Latin  Mass/'  Strasburg^ 
15579  8vo.  He  thought  this  work  would  assist  the  common 
cause ;  but  the  Lutherans^  perceiving  the  contrary^  did  ail 
they  could  to  suppress  it,  which  is  the  reason  of  its  scarce* 
ness ;  nor  has  the  republication  in  P.  le  Cointe's  <*  Annals/* 
and  in  cardinal  Bona's  '<  Liturgies/'  reduced  the  very  high 
price.  In  the  edition  of  Sulpicias  Severus,  published  by  him 
at  Basil,  )556,  8vo,  there  is  an  <^  Appendix  to  the  Latin 
Mi^,*'  which  may  be  added  to  it.  There  is  another  very 
irare  work  of  his,  entitled  ^*  Varia  doctorum  piorumque 
Tironim  de  corrupto  ecclesisB  statu,  Poemata,"  Basil,  1557*^ 
IMHOFF  (John,  or,  according  to  Saxius»  James- VViu 
xiam),  a  very  famous  genealogist,  born  of  a  noble  family 
at  Nuremberg,  in  1651,  was  a  lawyer  in  that  city,  and  one 
of  its  senators.  He  was  considered  as  hfiving-  a  profound 
knowledge  of  the  interests  of  princes,  the  revolutions  of 
states,  and  the  history  of  the  principal  families  in  Europe. 
He  died  in  1728.  His  works  were,  1.  ^' Geneaiogise  ex* 
cellentium  in  Gallia  famjliarum,*'  Norimb.  1687,  folio. 
2.  ^^  Genealogis  familiarum  BellomanerisB,'' &c.  Norimb. 
l&SSy  folio.  3.  *^  Historia  Genealogica  Regum  Magna 
Britanniao,*'  Norimb.  1690,  folio.    4.  ^*  Notitia  procerum 

5.  R.  imperii,"  Tubingen,  1693,  folio.  5.  *^  Historia 
Itklias  et  Hispanic  genealogica,"   Norimb.    1701,  folio. 

6.  '*  Corpus  Historian  geneabgicfe  Itaiise  et  Hispanise," 
Norimb.  1702,  foHo.  7.  ^*  Recherches  Historiques  et  Ge* 
oealogiques  des  Grands  d'Espagne,"   Amst.  1708,  folio. 

8.  **  Stemma  regium   Lusitaoicum,"    Amst.   1708,  folio. 

9.  '<  Geoealogise  20  illustrium  in  Hispanic  familiarum/* 
Leipsic,  1720,  folio.' 

IMPERIALI  (Joseph  RENikTUs),  a  famous  cardinal,  was 
born  April  26^  1651,  of  an  illustrious  family  at  Genoa. 
He  was  appointed  general  of  the  mint,  then  treasurer  o£ 
the  apostolical  chamber,  afterwards  cardinal,  February  13,. 
1690.  The  popes  employed  him  in  the  most  important 
affairs,  and  he  was/  within  one  vote  of  being  elected 
pope  in  the  conclave  1730.  His  probity,  talents,  and  love, 
of  learning,   made  him  universally  esteemed.     He  diext' 

«  Melchior  Adam.  —  NicerM»  vol.  XXIV.  ^  Gen.  Diet.  —  Clemeot  BiUj 
Curieus^.-^Moreri.  J  Diet  Hifft» — Suui  ODonfasticQO, 

2S2  tU^kliiALi. 

thslt  bis  dobli^  library  Atndi  he  maed^  public,  6f  ^hicb  a 
catalogue  y^ai  pHnted  ^t  Rome  in  1711,  fol.  by  Josttii 
Fotitamni.  Tliis  Itbmr^  was  Idttg  onci  of  the  orn^tntots  of 

iNCHOFtR  (MfiLCHrdlt),  a  learned  German,  Was  boini 
fh  15*4  at  Vienna.  He  entered  the  Jesuits*  society  at 
itome  \60ij  tLtiA  taugbt  philosophy,  matbemaKtics,  and 
Ibeology,  at  Mussina,  where  be  published  a  Latin  treatise 
in  1629,  fbl.  which  made  much  noise,  and  shows  no  Itttl^ 
fctedulity.  It  was  reprinted  at  Viterbo,  1632,  fol.  In  this 
l^ork  he  sajrs  that  the  pretended  ^*  Letter  ftioth  the  Blessed 
Virgin  Mary  te  the  people  of  Messina"  is  gendine ;  aud 
hb  was  therefore  Ofbiiged  to  go  to  Rome  and  clear  himself 
frt>iti  the  accusation  brought  against  him  in  consequence  of 
ttlis  wt)rk ;  but  it  ended  in  his  being  only  compelled  t6 
change  the  title  of  his  book,  and  to  make  some  small 
iterations  in  it.  He  spent  several  years  at  Rome,  and  died 
it  Milauy  September  28,  1648,  leaving  a  **  Treatise  on  the 
Motion  of  the  Earth  and  Sun,"  1633,  4to;  «  De  sacra 
LiEitinitate,'*'1635,  4to;  "Historia  trium  Magoruto,"  1639, 
4td ;  **  Annalinm  Ecplesiasticorum  Regni  Hungarise,** 
torn.  i.  fol.  This  is  a  valuable  work,  but  has  not  been 
finished.  He  wrote  also  the  funeral  oration  of  Nicholas 
Rithard,  a  Dominican,  ma$$ter  of  the  Sacred  Palace,  4to ; 
^d  a  satire  against  the  government  df  the  JcJsnits,  entitled 
**Mc»narchik  Solipsdrum,*^  is  also  kttrH>oted  to  him,  but 
was  more  probably  written  by  JuHus  Ciemeitt  St*otti,  an 
ex-J^suit.  On  its  first  appearance  it  was  Ascribed  to  Sci- 
Opius,  but  that  opinion  is  now  given  up. '  It  was,  how'ever^ 
<fedicated  to  L<^o  AUatitis,  and  was  reprinted  stt  Venice, 
1652,  with  Irr^fhofer'ls  name.  Bourgeois,  in  his  actount 
of  the  book  an  "  Frequent  Communion,*'  pageW,  enters 
into  a  large  detail  respecting  Indhofer,  and  the  *♦  Mdnar- 
ehia  Solipsorum,'*  and  as  he  was  ^t  Rome  when  the  work 
first  came  out,  ^nd  was  acqudhted  with  tnchofer,  to  whota 
he  ascribefs  it,  his  testimony  mu^  be  allowed  to  bav^  con- 
siderable weight.* 

INGKLO  (NaYhai^iel,  D.  0.),  a  divlhe  of  tte  seven- 
teentu  d^ntury,  was  a  fellow  of  Ehtahnel  college,  Cam- 
bridge, and  admitted  fellow  of  Qne^n^s  tdlege  by  the 

1  t)ict  Hht. 
9  Qen.  DlGt---Niceroii^  vol,  JEXXV.«— Cbanfepie^^^Saxii  QnomaBtibbD. 

,  I  >I  O  E  L  O.  Sis 

|lilihiiila6tafy  ¥ililonH  by  wlMMe  ini«rest  likewisi  he  pro- 
boMy  became  a  felled  df  Eton  in  1^50.  He  vfB9  re*ad- 
mutfed  to  the  tofne  in  IMC.  He  {lubliitied  three  Sertnoas 
ilk  I659ftml  I6t?,  a&d  inr^e  a  relitfiows  yottance  in  foliof, 
«fitlt)ed  •«  Bentivolio  and  Uvanta^*'  Lend.  imo.  He  died 
in  Aiiguftt  16»3,  and  hit  eptnapb  in  in  Ctao  ceHege  chapel, 
^bere  he  was  %imed.  In  Apvit  ]739t  were  published 
<'  Ninefteen  Letters  from  Hettry  Hamttend^  9«  D.  t^  Mr. 
Feter  Stacrny titaght  atfd  Dr.  NathaoM  logeky*^  laany  of 
them  on  very  ctiiwm  sttbjectSw' 

'  INGENHOUZ  {3omf)t  an  etoinent  physidati  and 
^hemiM)  was  born  at  Rreda  in  i1^.  In  1767  he 
eane  to  England  with  a  view  ^  obtaining  infohtiattoft  on 
the  Suttonian  method  of  inodolatten  for  the  amall-pox^  and 
In  the  foliowiog  yeat*  be  went^  on  the  reoomihexrdauoii  of 
the  late  str  John  Pringle,  to  Vienna^  to  inoculate  the 
archdnchess  Theresa-Elisabeth,  ofiiy  daughter  of  Josefrfi 
II.  and  the  archdukes  Ferdinand  and  Maximilian^  brothers 
of  the  empefor.  For  these  services  be  obtained  rewards 
^ttd  h^onoufs :  be  Was  made  body^by«ieian  and  coumi^or 
Of  st^.te  to  tkeif  imperial  majesties,  with  a  pension  of  €00l. 
pet  annum.  In  the  tdlowing  spring  he  went  to  Italy,  and 
inoculated  ttre  f^^nd  duke  of  Toscany.  After  this  he 
yetumed  to  Engiatid,  to  which  be  was  much  atta^^bed,  where 
he  spent  hrs  time  in  9ctentific  pursuits.  He  published  a 
Very  valuable  work,  entitled  **  Experimeots  on  Vegetables^ 
discovering  their  great  power  of  purifying  the  common  ait 
in  sunshine,  but  injuring  it  in  the  shade  or  night."  This 
^Worfc  was  first  poblished  in  1779,  and  was  translated  into 
the  Ffench  and  German  languages,  and  highly  esteemed 
by  all  the  etpeninental  philosopftiers  of  that  period.  He 
Ascertained,  that  not  only  from  the  green  matter  found  on 
stagnant  waters,  bm  likewise  from  the  leaves  of  f  egecabies, 
from  the  gTeen  branches  and  shoots,  even  from  t^  entire 
Vegetable,  when  placed  under  water  and  eitposed  to  the 
solar  light,  oxygen  gas,  in  a  state  genernlly  of  gtieatputity^, 
is  elf^lVed ;  and  as  che  result  of  bis  nnmerous  experiments 
be  adopted  the  conclusion,  that  oxyjgen  is  elaborated  in 
the  leaves  and  other  organs  of  vegetables,  by  a  vi^  action 
e'kclted  and  sustahxed  by  the  9olar  Kght  The  doctor, 
through  ibe  whole  of  life,  was  fond  of,  exhibiting  amon^ 
kit  fliends,  partteularly  young  persons,  experiments  dT 

*  nsrwoovi  junnni  siOBsniBS* 

234  I  N  G  E  N  H  O  U  Z. 

this  kind,  which  required  acaroely  ed;  i^pafmlttSy  except*' 
ing  a  bell  glass  and  a  phial  or  two;  aod  with  the  oxygW 
gas  which  he  obtained  from  cabbage-leaves  or  other  vegij»t» 
tables,  be  would  exhibit  the  combustion  of  tron-wire,  which 
is  a  striking  and  very  brilliant  experiment.  Dr.  Ingenhoos 
was  author  of  many  papers  inserted  in  the  Traoaactioos  of 
the  Royal  Society,  of  which  body  he  w^a  an  active  and 
useful  member.  Of  these  papers  we  may  notice  the  foU 
lowing:  Experiments  on  the  Torpedo.  Methods  of  •iiieae» 
suring  the  diminution  of  bulk  taking  place  on  the  mixtare 
of  nitrous  with  common  air.  Experiments  on  the  Electro* 
phorus.  New  Methods  of  auspendiug  Magnetic  Needles. 
Considerations  on  the  influence  of  the  Vegetable  Kingr 
dom  on  the  Animal  Creation.  He  died  in  i799»  highly 
esteemed  for  the  simplicity  of  his  manners,  and  foif^  the 
discoveries  which  he  had  made  in  the  several  departments 
of  expc^rimental  philosophy.' 

INGHIRAMI  (T0M4SO  FedHa),  an  eminent  Italian 
scholar,  was  bom  in  1470.  He  descended  from  a  noble 
family  of  Volterra,  where^  in  the  commotions  which  took 
place  in  1472,  his  father  lost  his  life,  and  the  auryiving 
members  of  the  family,  among  whom  was  ^Tqmaso,  then 
only  two  years  of  age,  sought  a  shelter  in  Flocence.  Being 
there  received  under  the  immediate  protection  of  Lorenza 
de  Medici,  and  having  closely  attended  to  his  studies,  he 
was  induced,  by  Lorenzo's  adviqe,  to  pay  a  visit,  to  Rome 
in  his  thirteenth  year,  where  he  made  such  rapid  progress 
in  his  acquirements,  as  to  obtain  an  early  celebrity.  He 
obtained  the  name  of  F£DRA,  or  Ph^bdra,  by  a  singular 
instance  of  talents  and  promptitude.  Having  undertaken, 
with  some  of  his  learned  friends,  to  perform  Seneca's 
'^  Hyppolytus,"  in  which  he  acted  the  part  of  Phaedra,  and 
a  part  of  the  machinery  having  by  accident  been  broken, 
which  interrupted  the  performance,  he  alone  entertained 
the  audience  wfiilst  the  injury  was  repaired,  by  the  recital 
of  extemporary  Latin  verse ;  on  which  account  be  was 
saluted,  amidst  ttie  applauses  of  his  hearers,  by  the  name 
of  Phasdra,  which  he  afterward^  retained  apd  used  as  hia 

Soon  after  the  accession  of  Alexander  VI.  he  was  nomi-*. 
nated  by  that  pontiff  a  canon  of  St  Peter's,  and  dignified 
w^h  the  rank  of  a  prelate.    In  1495  he  was  sent  as  papal 

*  • 

9  Rees^s  Cyfi]opff{Ua«-«-Morraj'9  Cbead«try.<— NioMs't  Bowyer,  vol.  VIII« 

1  NO  H  IRA  ML  235 

fRflBtdirifitD  the  Milanese^  to  treat  with  the  einperor-elec^ 
(Maxicnilian,  on  which  embassy  be  obtained  not  only  the 
cpprobauoB  of  the  pope^  but  also  the  favour  of  the  em- 
{leror^  who  soon  after  the  return  of  Inghhttmi  to  Roroe^ 
transmitted  to  him  from  Im^ruck  an  imperial  diploma,  by 
which,  after  enuinerating  his  various  accomplishments,  and 
particularly  his  excellence  in  poetry  and  Latin  literature^ 
he  created  him  count  palatine  and  'poet4aureat|  and  cod*^ 
cedhMl  to  him  the  privilege  of  adding!  the  Austrian  eagle  to 
his  family  arms.  Nor  was  he  less  favoured  by  Julius  IL 
w4io^. besides  appointing  him  librarian  of  the  Vatican,  con» 
feirved  im  Urn  the  io^portant  office  of  pontifical  secretary, 
which  he  forwards  quitted  for  that  of  secretary  to  the 
ddttege  of  clirdinais.  Leo  X.  also  enriched  him  with  many 
ecclesiastical  preferments,  and  continued  him  in  his  office 
.of  librarian  until  his  death,  which  was  occasioned  by  an 
accident  in  the  streets  of  Rome,  Sept.  6,  1516,  when  he  had 
not  yet  completed  the  forty- sixth  year  of  his  age.  To 
.this  unfortunate  event  it  is  probably  owing,  that  so  few  of 
his  writings  have  reached  the  present  times.  From  the 
li^timony  of  his  contemporaries,  it  is  well  known  that  he 
was  tbe  author  of  many  books.  Among  these  are  enume- 
rated a  defence  of  Cicero ;  a  compendium  of  the  history 
of  Rome ;  a  Commentary  on  the  poetitizs  of  Horace ;  and 
remarks  on  the  comedies^of  Plautus;  but  these  works  were 
left  at  bis  death  in  an  unfinished  state,  and  have  since  been 
dispersed  or  lost.  It  has  been  supposed  that  he  was  the 
author  of  this  additions  to  tbe  **  Aulularia"  of  Plautus, 
printed  at  Paris,  1 5 1 3* 

INGLIS  (Hester),  a  lady  celebrated  for  her  skill  in 
calligraphy,  in  qucfen  Elizabeth's  and  king  James's  time, 
appears  to  have  lived  single  until  the  age  of  forty,  when 
she  became  the  wife  of  one  Bartholomew  Keilo,  a  native 
of  Scotland,  by  whom  she  had  a  son,  Samuel  Kello,  who 
was  educated  at  Christ-church,  Oxford,  and  was  minister 
of  Speckshall  in  Suffolk.  His  son  was  sword-bearer  df 
Norwich,  and  died  in  1709.  All  we  know  besides  of  her 
IS,  that  she  was  a  correspondent  of  bishop  Hall,  when  he 
was  dean  of  Worcester  in  1617.  Various  specimei^s  of  her 
delicate  and  beautiful  writing  are  in  our  public  repositories^ 
and  some  in  Edinburgh-castle.  In  the  library  of  Christ- 
c»liarcb|  Oxford^  are  the  Psalms  of  David,  written  in  French 

9SB  INGLIS.      . 

bj,  Mra;  IngKs,  who  preaeiited  Aen  m  pefitMi  to  %iMa» 
Elizabecb,  by  wfaom  they  were  given  io  the  iibrary.  Twb^ 
auuRUfcripts,  wnuen  by  httr,  wtre  «bo  preBerved  mlbtmid 
in  the  BocUeiwi  library :  one  of  them  u  entitled  *^^  Jb.e  sue 
Tingt  et  six  QnatrainB  de  Guy  de  Tonr,  tienr  4e  Pybieg, 
^•crkt  par  Esther  In^i,  poor  eon  dernier  adioQ^  at  tie 
|«wr  de  Juui|  1617/'  The  foUowitig  ad<kets  i%  in  the 
eecond  lea^  written  in  capital  iettert :  ^^  To  the  mgliK 
^rorshipful  my  very  singnlar  frtende^  Jowph  Hall^  doetnr  of 
4ivi»ity,  and  dean  df  Winehesfcer,  Eather  Inglia  wiahedi 
«IHocveaseof  true  bappinesa.  Jonii  xxi.  ICi7.*'  In  At 
third  leaf  it  pasted  the  bead  of  the  writer^  painted  upon  a 
oard*  The  other  manmcript  is  entitled  **  Lea  Prowrbet  de 
fialenion ;  escrites  en  div^vses  aortes  de  lettresi  par  Esther 
AngloiS)  en  Francoise.  A  Lidebonrge  en  Eooossey^*  1 59§. 
Svery  chapter  of  this  canons  perfornAnoe  is  written  in  a 
-different  hand,  as  is  also  the  dedication;  The  manwscript 
ocontatns  near  fosty  diflfofmt  eharacters  of  wtitiog..  The 
beginnings  and  endings  of  the  'Chapters  ane  adorned  with 
beantiful  bead  and  taiUptecesi  and  the  margin^  in  iantts^ 
ttkxn  of  tbe  aid  manuscripts,  coriously  deooraled  with  the 
pen.  The  book  is  dedicated  to  the  earl  of  Easec  On 
"one  of  the  ftrst  pag^  ane  bis  arms  neatly  dmwo,  wi^  ail 
^their  qoarterings.  In  tbe  flf«h  leaf,  drawn  with  n  pM,  ia 
the'  picture  of  Esther  loglis,  in  the  habit  of  At  timet : 
jier  right  Jmnd  holds  a.  pen,  tbe  Mil  rests  upon  an  open 
book,  on  one  of  tbe  leaves  of  which  is  written,  ^  De 
PEternel  le  bien,  do  moi  le  mal,  ou  rien»"  A  moste^book 
lies  open  before  her.  Under  the  picture  ia  a  liatin  epi- 
(granv  by  Andrew  MeWin,  and  on  the  f oMowing  'ptge  a 
itecond  by  the  Mme  author,  in  praise  ef  Mrs.  Inglis.  In 
the  royal  library,  D.  x?i.  are  *^  Esther  IngUs^s  fifty  Eas^ 
Uems,''  finely  drawn  and  written  :  *^  A  Lisleboorg  «n 
Eaeosse,  t*anne  1624."'  ' 

INGRAM  (lloBER^T),  a  worthy  English  divine,  was  bofn 
March  9,  i7ir6*7,  at  Beveriey  in  Yorkibire,  and  educated 
«t  Beveriey  school,  from  whence  he  was  sent  to  Corpus 
Christi  college,  Cambridge,  of  which  he  became  fellow, 
land  took  there  bis  degrees  in  arts,  B.  A.  in  1749,  and  M»  A. 
in  f  75$.  His  ftrst  preferment  was  the  perpetuiil  curacy  of 
'Bridberst,  in  Kent,  td  which  he  was  presented  in  1759,  by 
4>r.  Green,  bishop  of  Untoln,  '^ter  which  ho  gbiakiod 

1  Sallard's  Memoirc-^-SfasMy's  Origin  and  Progresi  of  Letters. 

INGRAM.  »1 

nmtceminiy  the  miiaU  vk«nge  of  Orstmi  in  Nottingkai 
aAnmy  and  the  nc9Lmge§  of  S¥oraikiglofi  and  fioxted,  in 
Btsex.  He  died  Attg.  9,  lB04y  loarring  bebtnd  him  a  high 
cfaafacter  for  simi^ltGi^  of  maviner^  grett  inte^rityy  and^ 
gonuine  beMroletioe.  He  bad  «  bigb  «onto  of  the  dtgoity 
ofid  iftiporlance  of  the  clerical  fiinctiouts  and  for  fi#iy  yearn 
of  hn  life  wan  itidefatigaMe  it)  faJ9  attention  to  professional 
d4iiies«  He  wAs  autbor  of  '*  A  View -of  the  great  eventa 
of  the  ftoventb  plague,  or  period,  when  tbe  mystery  of 
God  sbmll  Jl»e  finialwd.^  <^  Aeeounts  of  the  ten  tribev  of 
Israel  being,  in  Ameriea,  originally  publiabed  by  Manasseh 
Ben  Israel,*'  &c.  1790^  **  A  complete  and  uniform  ezpta^ 
Mtion  of  ^e  {^'opbeey  ef  the  sei^efi  vitis  of  wrath,  or 
foven  lait  plagaos  eootaioed  in  the  Revektioii  of  St.  Joha/^ 

INGRASSIAS  {John  PttiLfi»),  an  eminent  pbysteioft 
aiirf  modtoal  writor,  a  natire  of  Sicily,  was  born  in  1540. 
H^  f^d4ed  modkine  at  Fadiia,  where  he  «ook  Ae  5legreO 
of  dottor  wnBOdicioe  in  the  year  1 997^  witfa  singakr  ro- 
ptttaitioa;  insomwch  tihat  ho«oon  received  several  uwita^^ 
Itoni  no  |)l«ofesaonbip»  from  different  aefaools  hi  Italy.  fl€ 
aceepted  «he  c^ir  of  medicine  and  snmomf  at  Naples^ 
wMch  lie  ottoii)»ied  for  a  omnber  Of  years^  leoturiog  to  the 
iHost-e^owded  aodteaeea  ^Arawn  by  his  feme  from  «11  parts 
of'  tha6  eoontiy.  He  ^  ^^ossessed  peemliar  ^aMIicatioiia  lor 
theofite,  baving  willed  «  eonMwmnaite  Icnowledge  of  «ho 
wfttinj^  of  tiieanciewt  physieiana  with  gri  oat  practical  cdsift 
Oad  a  sound  judgwient,  M^iidi  ted  him  to  etffeinmte  yostlj 
the  merits  wA  defects  of  those  fitters  of  tbe  art.  A  sin- 
gular testiaveny  of  his  talents  and  Ofyremittiog  firttenttoti  to 
the  4fapfe%ementof  4mpnp!ls  was  given  by  the  latter,  wbo 
caused  liis  portrait  to  be  placed  in  tbe  achooh  of  Naplea 
'*with  ihe  Mining  inscfiptton  :  ''^Pbilippo  Ingraasi®  Sioolo, 
tjni  ^ram  mediciposB  artem  et  anatomen,  pobTici  enarnando, 
i^^poli  reertiitiit,  Discipifli  meaioriie  oa»«a  P.P.*'  At 
*lengili  be  qtntt^d  his  sitnation  at  Naples,  in  ofder^  retufti 
"to  4ms  'ryafire  vs^iiand,  where  be  settled  at  Palermo.  Heve 
olsd  he  received  many  marfcs  of  pnblic  ^stinction.  The 
drights  of  cittsensbip  were  'Conferred  upon  him ;  and,  in 
1S6S,  Philip  11.  icing  of  Spain,  appointed  him  first  pfa^* 
>€ian  fer  Siei^ty  and  t^  adjacent  isles.  By  viitae  of  the 
^jpowers  ottadicd  to  this  offiee  be  restored  order  in  fhe 

•I  Gtst.  Mi^  w>i.  jamv. 

2S8  I  N  G  R  A  S  S  I  A  6. 

medical  constitdtion  of  the  country,  by  pfev^oting  ^ 
persons,  unqualified  by  their  education  and  abilities,  from^ 
practising  there.  His  zeal  for  the  credit  of  his  profession  < 
rendered  him  rigid  and  severe  in  his  examination  of  can- 
didates;^  and.  he  exercised  bis  art  himself  in  the  most 
honourable  manner.  When  the  plague  raged  at  Paierfno 
in  1575,  he  adopted  such  excellent  regulations  as  to  put  a 
stop  to  the  calamity,  and  restore  the  city  to  health,  and 
was  hailed  by  all  the  citizens,  the  SiciUan  Hippocrates. 
The  magistrates  were  so  grateful  for  his  services,  that  they 
voted  him  a  reward  of  two  hundred  and  fifty  gold  crowna 
a  month ;  but  he  disinteresti^dly  declined  to  accept  any  more 
than  what  served  for  the  maintenance  and  decoration  of  the- 
cbapel  of  St.  Barbe,  which  he  had  built  in  the  cloister  of 
the  Dominican  convent  of  Palermo*  He  died,  greatly  rer^ 
gretted,  in  1580,  at  the  age  of  70  years. 

Ingrassias  cultivated  anatomy  with  great  assiduity,  and 
is  esteemed  on^  of  the  improvers  of  that  art,  especially  iff 
regard  to  the  structure  of  the  cranium,  and  the  organ  of 
hearing.  ^  He  discovered  the  small  boue  of  the  ear,  called 
the  stapeSf  which  has  been  claimed  as  the  discovery  of 
others,  but  is  admitted  even  by  Fallopius  to  have  been  his» 
He  described  minutely  the  cavity  of  the  /ympantim,  the 
fenestra  rotunda  and  ovaliSf  the  cochlea^  semicircular  canals, 
mastoid  cells,  &c. ;  and  Eby  thinks,  from  a  view  of  bis 
plates,  that  he  was  acquainted  with  the  muscle  of  the  iim/« 
teusy  the  discovery  of  which  is  ascribed  to  Eustacbius.  He 
is  said  also  to  have  discovered  the  seminal  vesicles.  He 
was  author  of  the  following  works:  1.  ^^  Jatropologia ;  Li* 
ber  quo  multa  adversus  Barbaras  Medicos  disputantur/' 
Venice,  1 544,  1558,  8vo.  2.  <<  Scholia  in  Jatropologiam,'* 
Naples,  1549, 8vo.  3.  *<  De  Tumoribus  praeter  naturam,*' 
ibid.  1 55S,  folio^  vol  I.  This  is  properly  a  commentary  on 
some  of  the  books  of  Avicenna*  4»  **  Ra^ionamento  fatto 
sopra  Pinfermita  epidemioa  dell'  anno  1558,'^  PalermcT, 
1560,  4to,  together  with  ^<  Trattato  di  due  mostri  nati  in 
Palermo  in  diversi  tempi.'*  5.  **  Constitutiones  et  Capi- 
tula,,  necnon  Jurisdictiones  Regii  Proto*Medicat(b  officii, 
cum  Pandectis  ejusdem  reformatis,''  Palermo,.  1564,  1657^ 
4to.  6.  ^  QusBstio  de  Purgatione  per  medicamentum,  at» 
qne  obiter  etiam  de  sanguinis  missione,  an  sext&  die  possit 
fieri,"  Veni(?e,  1568,  4to.  7.  *^  Galeni  Ars  Medica,"'  ibid. 
1573,  folio.  8.  **  De  frigidae  potu  post  medicamentum 
purgaus  Epistola,''  ibid.  1*^75,  4to,  reprinted  at  Milan, 

I  N  G  R  A  S  S  I  A  S.  239 

1586.  .  9.-^  Informatione  del  pestifero  e  contagioso  morbo, 
&€.*'  Patermo,  1576,  4to.  This  work  was  translated  into 
Latin  by  Joachim  CamerariiM,  and  pnblished  under  the 
title  of  <<  Metbodus  cnrandi  pestiferum  contagium,**  at 
Nurimbergy  1583.  10.  *<  In  Galeni  librum  de  ossibus 
doctissima  et  expertissima  Commentaria^"  a  posthumous 
publication,  printed  at  Messina,  in  1 603,  under  the  inspec* 
iion  of  bis  nephew,  Nicholas  Ingrassias.  This,  which  may 
he  deemed  the  principal  work  of  Ingrassias,  contains  the 
text  of  Galen,  in  Greek  and  Latin,  with  a  very  diffuse  and 
learned  commentary,  in  which  there  is  much  minute  and 
accurate  description,  particularly  of  the  parts  belonging 
to  the  organ  of  bearing.  The  figures  are  those  of  Vesalius. 
The  author  defends  Galen  as  fiir  as  he  is  able,  but  not 
against  the  truth  of  modern  discovery.^ 
.  INGUIMBERTI  (DoM fific,  Joseph,  Marie  d'),  an  ex- 
emplary and  learned  bishop  of  Carpentras,  at  which  place 
he  was  bom  in  1683,  was  first  a  Dominican,  and  in  that 
order  he  successfully  pursued  his  theological  studies ;  but, 
thinking  the  rule  of  the  Cistertiaos  more  strict  and  perfect, 
h^  afterwards  toA  the  habit  of  that  order.  His  merit, 
quickly  raised  htm  to  the  most  distinguished  oflBces  among 
his  brethren,  and  being  dispatched  on  some  business  to 
-Rome,  he  completely  ^ined  the  confidence  and  esteem  of 
Clement  XII.  By  that  prelate  he  was  named  archbishop 
of  Theodosia  m/Msr/ite^)  and  bishop  of  Carpentras  in  1733. 
In  this  situation  be  was  distinguished  by  all  the  virtues  that 
can  characterize  a  Christian  bbfaop ;  excellent  discernraenty 
and  knowledge^  united  with  the  ccAnpletest  charity  and  hu- 
tnility^  His^  life  was  that  ^f  a  simple  monk,  and  his  wealth 
V9tA  all  essployed  to  relieve  the  ^  poor,  or  serve  the  public. 
He  built  a  vast  and  magnificent  hospital,  and  established 
the-mest  extensive  library  those  provinces  bad  ever  seen, 
which  he  gave  fi[>r  public  use.  He  died  in  ]757|  of  an 
apopteetic  attack,  in  his  seventy*fifth  year.  This  excel-» 
lent  man  was  not  unknown  in  the  literary  world,  having 
published  some  original  works,  and  some  editions  of  other 
authors.  The  principal  of  these  productions  are,  1.  '*  Ge* 
nuinus  character  reverendi  admodjim  in  Christo  Patrts  D. 
Armandi  Johannis  ButilHerii  Ranccei,'*  Rome,  1718;  4to« 
2.  An  Italian  translation  of  a  book  entitled  '*  Tbeologie 
RdUgieuse,'!  being  a  treatise  on  the  duties  of  a  monastic 

^  Chaafepie«— Tiniboicki.-»IUet*t  Cydopiidia, 

>40  1  NG  U>1  M  B  5  RTI. 

»  Freocb  irwtUfy  bjr  £uber  Pidipfi  oath^  ii»|s^UiMity  of 
tb«  pape,  IVwe,  1732,  folicu  4.  An  ^dixim  of  tbf9  W<9fJ» 
of  BanbobiMw  of  the  Martyrs,  with  bis  Uf£^  1^  ^ol^.  foMgw 
5.  ^  La  Vie  sepac^ei'*  ADP^b^r  tre^ise  on  mpna«Up  tif#t  Hi 
9  vols.  1727,  4to,' 

INGULPHUS,  tkhoK  pf  CroyUn^  m4  fMiOior  of  %\^ 
bistDfy  of  that  abhojTf  w«s  born  in  IxKidofi  ab^put  1030. 
H^  rec^v^  tbe  first  p^rt  pf  bU  •edod^ioo  at  Wfe«tiiH«Bt«5 
and  wbon  b«  visited  Us  fatbqr,  wb9  b^Q^ged  to  tb^  cpjart; 
of  EdwdTid  the  Can£f ssiCMr^  be  w«is  sp  fortMut^  ^  t9  f^W^ 
the  attoi3^oji  of  qwen  Edgitha,  wbo  took  a  jgikmvLm  m  •tbff 
progrfi89  of  bis  edi^^t^^o^  smmI  in  disputing  witb  Um  A9 
Ipgic^  sind  Aeldppi  disnsisfipd  bjm  witbojut  sqid9  preiaQtw  ^ 
mark  of  her  approbatioo^  From  WestipiM^lvateir  be  wmit  il^ 
Oxford,  'wher^  be  applied  to  ^  atudy  pf  tb^  AristoteUan 
pbilosopby,  i^  wbioh  be  iMde  gr^eaiter  pxofkm^y  Af^ 
inaoy  of  bis  ppnttoipoiariefs  iaja4i  m  be  ^yii»  **  frlothei^ 
himsetf  down  to  the  beel  in  ^  first  and  aepood  irhetorief>f 
TuHy.'*  When  be  was  aboij^t  .tiReniy-ooe  y^^rs  iof  age*  Jm 
was  introduced  to  WiUianii  .didue  of  Norm^dy  {w^Q  mit^ 
the  oourtof  £agl^d  ijn  i05l},  and  made  bimsetf  90  i^f^ 
a^le  to  tbait  priaee,  that  be  appointed  bm  his  aaoiBeMir^ 
«od  x^anried  bios  n^  him  iotp  bis  own  4oo9inioai.  In  ^ 
little  time  he  becaiAe  the  prime  layoiirite  of  bis  pn^inoei 
and  the  dispenser  of  all  preferments;  hm^  b^  bimseLf  ooft«p 
fesaes  that  be  did  not  behave  in  tbif  atatiop  with  sufficicA^ 
modesty  .and  prndenee^  and  'that  be  incnrjre4  the  eovy  wd 
hatred  of  the  ooortiers^  to  avoid  v^h^b  be  obtained  feiMre 
from  the  -duke  to  go  on  apiljgrimi^e  to  the  Holy  ]Lan<L  lii 
the  coarse  of  this  jooi»ey^  bis  .at^endaet  pUgi^ois  at  one 
time  amount  to  aeveo  thpnamd,  bnt  either  frpm  faemg 
^tackpd  anfi  killed  :by  ^  Ao^-nr  ^w  disaster^  Aweo^fr 
finly  of  ^bis  goodly  (oompany  av^ere  lable  to  retoriB  hornet  Md 
those  iialf-^tarvedf  wd  idmoat  4i^kedL  Ingn^h  now  m^ 
solved  to  forsake  tthe  (wodd*  »nd  Wame  Oi  iDPnk  in  (thu 
abbey  of  FontanoUe  in.  Nprmimdy^  of  wi^icb  hie  was  in  » 
few  years  made  ipdor.  Whim  this  (i^d  master  William  ^ 
Normandy  um9  pfapmmg  &r  bi0  )mefi¥>mbl»  e^peditiiMi 
into  Ef^and,  in  1066^  Iiigulpbns  n»s  ;«ent  by  bia  Abho^ 
with  one  (hundred  marksin  mpney»  end  imeiwe  yojmg  ^meiv 
ymbly  mpunted  Oind  x^wpletelgr  iwrmed^  m  ^  present  jboii 

N  G  C  L  P  It  U  S.  241 

t     »>» 

trieir  f^lfbf^^  in  conf equenqe  of  thiS|  WQliam  raised*  him 
a|terw^rd8  4p,lh;^  government  of  the  rich  ^hey  of  Croy-« 
lai^fl  in  MncoWsbire^.in  107|5.  .Here  Jogulphufi spent  the 
last^  t)iirty-toiir  years  of  bis  life,  governing  that  society 
wjtj^  ^reat  prudence^  and  protecting  their  possessions  from 
thcj  rapacit^^pf  the,  neighbouring  barom^  by  the  favour  o£ 
&i3,royai|ma3tei:;^and  bei|e.*he  died  Dec.  1,  1109.  Ha 
wi:ot^,  i^ut;  ioa  hooiely  Latin  style,  a.very^  curious  and 
palpable  Hj^tQry  of  Croyland  abhey  from  its  foundation,  in 
the!  year  66i  to  lOdl.  It  was  printed  by  sir  H.  Savilley 
l^oodon,^ .  1  ^96^  and  is. aipoog  G^e'a  **  Scriptores.'*  .There 
is^al^o  an*  edition,  of  ^rapcfprt. in  1601,.  and  one  of  Oxford^ 
r*684^whicl;ij)ast  is  tbpugbt  the  moat  comple|;e.^ 
.  II^LA^I>,(Ji9|i)N)r  authpr  ofi  the/^  Illustrations  of. Ho* 
gar^h,**  was  boi;;  tlie Trench  farm^  near  Wem,.in Shrop- 
t|j[i]cej  in  a  bouse  which  had.  been  rendered  somewhat  re- 
mar^lile,  by  having,  been  th^e  birtb-^place  and  country  re^* 
fidi^nce.  9f,  Wycberley.t^e  poet,  and  whose  widow  is  said 
tf , have  adopted  Mr.  Ireland,  when  a  child;  but  thisilady 

2 jog  without  a ,  w^ll,  left  h^iQ  unprovided  for.  He  wai 
^scended  bV.  the  mother's  side  from  two  eminent. dissenu 
mg  clergymen  ;  his  mother. being  the  daughter  of  the  rev. 
Tbai^^8.|HoIland,.  a^d '  great-grand-daughter  of  the  rev. 
I^hilip.  Hi^nry,  la  bis.youth  be  discovered, a  strong  predi* 
lect^ioq  t^the  arts^  and/ such  literature  as  la  immediately 
coht^e^ted  with  them,  but  ^  his  pfirentis  were  unable  to< 
g].v^  him  a  r^ular  educa,tioD,  and  as  he  had  a  turn  for 
laechanics,  he  was  brought  up  to  the  business  of  a  watch^- 
njakf^r.  Although  he  carried  on  this  for  some  time  with 
gpod  connexions,  it  was  not  upon  the  whole  successful, 
and  during  a  considerable  part  of  his  life,  be  subsisted  by 
tnafficking  in  pictures,  prints,  &c.  for  which  he  had  a  qor- 
rect  .taste,  and  in  which  he  was  probably  assisted  by  the' 
artistsr  and  print-sellers.  He  amassed  a  e;ood  collection  of 
Mortimer's  and  Hogarth's  works,  and  lived  on  intimate 
tetms  with  many  daea  of  eminence  in  the  literary  world, 
aiid  particularly  with  the  ar^tists  Mortimer  and  Gainsbo*^ 
roiighy  and  Henderson  the  actor,  whose  ^'Memoirs"  he  pub- 
lished in  1786..  Thlifr  actor  had  lived  in  Mr.  Ireland's  house 
for  spme  ti^ie  after  coming  to  I^rondon,  but  their  inttaiacy. 
bad  for  some  reason  abated,  and  at  the  period  of  Hender* 

1  Pits — ^TanDer.*-.Heonr't  Hint,  of  Qrea*  BriUtn,  vol.  VI.  p.  120.— Qoufb's 
British  Topography.    . 

Vol.  XIX,  E 

242  IRELAND. 

son^s  death  was,  if  we  are  rrghtly  informedy  quite  dissolved. 
His  Life  of  Henderson  is  said  to  have  been  his  first  publica-  . 
tron^  and  certainly  was  not  very  successful,  nor  very  inte- 
resting.    He  was  more  fortunate  afterwards  in  being  em- 
ployed  by  the  Messrs.  Boydell  in   the  *^  Illustrations  of 
Hogarth,'*  3  vols.  8vo,  a  work  in  which  he  displays  a  cor- 
rect knowledge  of  the  arts,  and  a  vein  of  humourous  re-  , 
mark  and  anecdote  not  ill  suited  to  the  subjects  he  had  to- 
illustrate.     As  Mr.  Ireland  was  a  man  of  integrity,  he  often 
felt  himself  very  much  hurt  as  being  mistaken  for  Samuel 
Ireland^  the  proprietor  of  the  Shakspeare  forged  manu- 
scripts, who  had  also  publi^ed  a  volume  of  scraps  and 
anecdotes  relating  to   Hogarth.     Our  author,  therefore, . 
thought  proper  to  disclaim,  in  the  preface  to  his  third  vo- 
lume, all  connexion  and  relationship  with  his  namesake. 
For  several  years  Mr.  Ireland  had  been  aiRicted  with  a  com- 
plication of  disorders,  which  had  rendered  society  irksome 
to  hiin,  and  occasioned  him  to  remove  to  the  neighbour*^ 
hood  of  Birmingham,  where  he  died  in  November  I  SOS.  ^ 
He  was  ai  man  of  pleasant  and  inoffensive  manners,  and 
fuH  of  literary  anecdote,    which  he   liberally  dispensed  i 
ar6und,  whether  in  a  coffee* house  among  strangers,  oral  , 
the  social  table  among  his  friends.^ 

IRELAND  (Samuel),  mentioned  in  the  preceding  arti- 
cle, and  we  trust  more  unfortunate  than  accessary  in  the 
possession  of  the  forged  MSS.  of  Shakspeare,  was  origi-  . 
nally  a  mechanic  in  Spitalfields,  but  taking  advantage  of 
the  taste  of  the  age  for  literary  curiosities,  commenced  a 
speculator  in  scarce  books,  prints,  and  drawings.     He  had* 
some  skill  in  drawing  and  engraving,  and  endeavoured  to. 
turn  it  to  account,  by  combining  it  with  description,  under   , 
the  name  of  **  Travels.'*     With  this  view  he  published  in 
1790,  "  A  Picturesque  tour  through  Holland,  Brabant,  and 
part  of  France,  made  in  the  autumn  of  1789,'*  2  vols.  8vo, 
illustrated  with  aqua-tinta  and   other  prints.     This  sue-  . 
ceeded  well,  although  his  descriptions  were  common-place, 
and  his  information  seldom  new.     Encouraged,  however, 
by  the  sale  of  the  Work,  he  produced  in  1792,  "Pictu- 
rescjue  Views  on  the  river  Thames,"  2  vols.  8vo,  and  in  1793 
**  Picturesque  Views  on  the  river  Medway,"  in  1  vol.     In    , 
1794  he  published  his  •*  Graphic  Illustrations  of  Hogarth,*'    . 
coosistkig  of  anecdotes  of  that  epiinent  artist,  and  engraved 

»    '  .  t.  AUuBnteum,  vol.  V.-«-Gent«  Mag.  ToU  LXXVni. 

I  R  E  L  A  N  D.  243 

copies  of  many  of  his  lesser  and  fugitive  works,  such  as 
shop-cards,  'tickets,  &c.     In  1796,  he  was  an  accomplice 
in  that  fraud  which  eventually  proved  fatal  to  his  character, 
and  conifbi^t.     This  was  the  production  of  a  large  quantity', 
of  manuscripts,  pretended  to  be  in  the  hand-writing  of 
Shalcspeare/  and  consisting  of  p6ems,  letters,  and  one  en- 
tire pUy.     These  were  exhibited  at  his  house  in  Norfolk- 
street  for  the  inspection  of  the  public,  and  for  some  time ' 
divided  their  opinions.     Connoisseurs,  however,  in  ancient 
writings,  and  particularly  in  the  genius  and  history  of 
Shakspeare,  soon  detected  the  fraud,  which,  although  it 
did  foir  a  time  impose  on  some  gentlemen  in  the  literary ' 
world,  was  executed  in  the  most  slovenly  and  clumsy  man- ' 
ner.    A  more  full  account  of  this  imposition,  and  the 
controversies  to  which  it  gave  rise,  may  be  seen  in  our 
authorities:   it  is  scarcely  worth  reviving  in   this  work. 
After  complete  detection,  it  appeared  that  Mr.  Ireland  had 
been  himself  the  dupe  of  a  near  and  worthless  relation  ;  but  - 
his  obstinacy  in  maintaining  the  authenticity  of  these  pa- 
pers long  after  he  ought  to  have  given  them  up,  injured 
his  charact;er,  and  it  is  thought  hastened  his  death,  whick 
look  place  in  July  1800.     We  have  to  add  to  his  works 
"  Picturesque  Views  of  the  Severn  and  Warwickshire  Avon,*' 
and  a  **  History  of  the  Inns  of  Court,^'  the  latter  a  posthu- 
mous work.    The  MSS.  of  Sbakspeare  were  published 
under  the  title  oiP  **  Miscellaneous  papers  and  legal  instru- 
ments, under  the  hand  and  seal  of  William  Sbakspeare, 
including  the  tragedy  of  King  Lear,  &c.''  at  the  price  of 
four  guineas  to  subscribers.     What  was  yet  more  absurd,  - 
a  play  pretended  to  be  Sbakspeare^ s,  entitled  ^^  Vortigern,'*  - 
wak  actually  performed  on  Drury-laue  theatre,  but  hooted 
from  the  stage  the  first  night.* 

IRENjEUS  (Saint),,  bishop  of  ^  Lyons  in  France,  was 
undoubtedly,  by  birth  a  Greek,  and,  not  improbably,  bofn  ' 
at  or  near  the  city  of  Smyrna.  He  was  trained  in  the 
studies  of  philosophy  and  human  learning :  in  the  doctriues 
of  Christianity,  two  disciples  of  St.  John  the  apostle^  Pa* 
pias  and  Polycarp,  were  his  masters.  The  latter  he  is  ' 
said.  tQ  have  accompanied  in  his  journey,  about  the  Paschal 
controversy,  to  Rome;  where^  by  his  and  Anicetus's  per- 
suasion, he  was  prevailed  upon  to  go  to  France ;  great - 

;  '    ^    \   '  ,     '■  "'■• 

«  Cent.  Ma».  1796-7.— Month.  Review,  N.  S.  yol.XU.  XX,  }LX\h  XXVU,* 
XXXV.— 'Maloae's  Inquiry.— Chalmers**  Apology  f»f  ike  Believert;  &c.  4c. 

R   2 

^    I 

^^  I  R  1  N  «  U;  S: 

lyfQjjb^^  of  Qroekfli  residing  in  some  pdrliiof  that  ktngdo|R^ 
efp^c^ially  %bQut  M«ra^IlAB»  .9nd  the  chiirck  diefH  befpn-* 
n^fi  ^  b^  4i^tiirbed  bjr  sfiveral  pernickiuB  hevesics.     In  hi« 
joiu^Myt  A^iving  atr  Ljooa^  he  oontinusdi  sesentl  yeMt 
t^ri^  %[^  tbf^  statipti  ^  ft  presbyteiv  under  the  oare  and 
gPKercHnapt  oj^  FQd^iRu%  the  bi^h^p  of  that  city^  ^ .  aad^ 
by^  Is^  behfL9iUHi«>  dt^tjagabhed  biaoaalf  ao:  mucb^  tbat^ 
ai^Q4^^  tbe.yef^r  177^  be  was  ohoaen.  to. draw  up  the  jade^ 
v^fi^p^  a^i4  ojinioii.  of  the  chii^rches  of  LyonsiandVieiim^ 
i;i;l)icb.  wer^  a^ft  toitbose  in.  Asia,  m  order  to  cooaipo^^  the 
d^^esrc^^fii  lately  raised  by  Montanus  and  hi&  foUoweiai 
vij^  pf ett^i^^Qd  tc^  tihe  propbede  spirit    In  the  samia  Mteiv 
tbfty  tpok  qcc^^iaa  aluo  to  gvm  an  aceount  of  the  persooifr*' 
ti^^   vi^qb  tbe&  mged  peculiarly  among  them,  under 
S^cvis  AAtoninusfc    The  opinioDs  of  the  coofessors-  in 
tbo^'tiones  ^re  always  neceived  with  esteemi  and^venera^ 
t^Qi),    Xhe;  s.aa%e  cburchea  therefore    sent  othpr  lettefi^^ 
ahqpttlHt^e.QOUtroversies  to  Eleutfaerius,  bishop  of  Rome^ 
Wbitcbw^i^  proibably  carried  by  Irenaaus,  who  undertpokf 
t^.  joM^i^eiyj  at  their  request.    Two  year»afteiv  in  the  year 
lj74ii.vppn  thi9  aiartyrdom.  of  Pothinus  at.  Lyonsy  iKeafleaa- 
sypiV^^d^ditQ  that  cbair^  in  a  troublesoiaeranid  tenlpestuou!^ 
tim^  w^b^A  the :  church  was  assaulited  by^  eoetmas^  flM)m 
vdtljypMtij  9M>d  betrayed,  by  hereticsi  feom  witbin;    Tbes^ 
cfr^iMDi^^c^requiced  both,  cours^and:  oonduol  in^tbd^ 
g^yf^wrs^  and^our  new  bishop  gave  conspicuous*  pfoof»  ^t^ 
hj$i<iHaJLi8cfttioos.inrboth  respects.     He  i6  said  tO'hare'  held' 
a^proYH^ci^l  synod,  at  L3!(on69  where,  by  tbetassista^ee-atidi' 
siUFfiagQ:  of:  tjiyielye  other  bishops,  he  condemned  the*hei^6M> 
sies.of .  H^ftroion^  Yalentinus,  and.BasilftleB^    H«  hlbd  f^ty 
s9|2^Uy,egv^u;itered  some  of  these)  ringleaders  amo«igtb€^; 
Gnostics^  and  read  the  books  of  othersi;  when,  at  the  re-^ 
qi^e^t  of  many  wJiq  impDi*tuned  him,<.  he  set  about  thedk- 
borate  wojrk  ^^.  against.  Heresies/'  pteutttofwhiefa  is  still  ^if-^- 
taqjt:  ufid^r  his  t  name*    It  was  composed  in-  the^  time*  of^- 
E^leMjtiieriilis.;.  upon  whose  decease,*  Viotor^  suecQ^ing  to 
tb^see  of  R«me^  headed  afresh  the  diipute  ajbout  tbe'tSfi^e  ' 
ofjc<2jiebratiQg  faster,,  and  endeavoured  impemouiiyto^op;^ 
ppsse  tb^  BlQiaan  ci^^ton^  upeuitbe'Asiatiosv    To-^b^ltto' 
.  scbisii^  ,$j(iu>^'were  called  ip  several  places;  a^Kl,  among^ ' 
therest|  Irenti^scoDvened.oaeiof  the  chtirehes  o^  t^kM^'- 
under  his  jurisdiction;    where,    having    determined   the 
matter^  he  wrote  a,  synodi6al  epjatle  to  pope  Victor,,  aod^ 
told  him,*  that  they  agreed  with  him  in  the  main  of  the 

■      f  ft  t  K  M  U  S.  245 

Mfitrbv^r^y,  b»t  withfti  advised  him  to  idL^t  b^&d  b6w  her 
excommunicated  who\6  thurch'es,  tot  obsi^rving  tb^  custo^ 
derived  down  to  thetti  fVom  tbeilr  ancestors.  H'e  bbserved^ 
thAt  there  was  Hs  little  agreisment  iii  the  mantief  6f  tb4 
preparatory  fast  before  Easter,  a^  ih  tb6  day  itself,  som§ 
tiiinking  they  were  to  ftst  but  one  day,  others  twd,  olbere 
more,  and  i^on^e  measuring  the  time  by  ^  Continued  fast  oi 
Ibrly  hours ;  and  that  thi3  variety  was  of  Ibng  standings 
and  had  cfrept  into  several  places,^  While  th^  gbverriofs  or 
the  church  took  less  care  about  these  differeiit  custom^  than 
ibout  maintaining  a  sincere  and  mutual  loVe  afid  peac^ 
f5ward»  one  another ;  putting  him  in  mifid  t6o  of  Anicetus 
Atod  Pefyeatp,  who,  though  they  cJould  not  agree  abou£ 
Aeifr  different  usages,  did  yet  mutually  embrace,  orderly 
receive  the  communion  together,  and  peaceably  pari 
trom  one  another.  Irena^s  wrote  aho,  to  the  same  effect^ 
Id  sevehd  other  bishops,  for  allaying  this  unhappy  dif- 

The  ehurcfr  fcad,  for  some  year^,  enjoyed  thote  calm 
a^d'  qufet-  days  from  without,  whi<!:h  had  been  abused  by 
animosities  and  contentiorns  iVom'  within,  when  the  emperor 
Severiis^  hithertt^  favourable,  began  ai  bitter  and  bloody 
ffCtseen^cHt  afg&insl^  the  Chrilstian^,  and  prosecuted  theih 
withr  giidat  severity  in  dl'  parts  of  the  empire.  He  hacf 
'  once  governed  the  provipcis  of  Lyons  himself;  and,  pro- 
Habtyv  then  takibg  peculiar  notice  of  Trenaefu^  and'  the 
flburishing  state  of  the  church  in  that  city,  niight  there-' 
ibre  give  more  particular  orders  foi*  proceeding  against 
tfaem  in  this  place:  The  persecution,  which  in  other  parts 
picked  out  some  few  to  make  examples  of,  was  here  more 
indiscriminate ;  and  Irenteus,  having  been  prepared  by 
several  torments,  was  beheaded.  It  is  not  easy  to  assign 
the  certain*  date'  of  his  martyrdom^  whether  it  was  when 
the  emperor  published  this  edict,  about  A.  C.  202';  or  in  bis 
expedition  to  Britain  A.  C.  208^  when  be  tbok  Lyohs^  in 
bis  way^ 

Ireneeus  wrote  several  bookit,  which  weire  all' lost,  except' 
biv  five  against  heresies ;  and  the  far  greatest  part,  of  the- 
original  Greek  is  wanting  in  these.  Th^y  have  been  many 
times  published,  particularly  by  J.  £rn'estus  (Jrabe,  at 
Oxfordj  1702,  fol.  and  there  is  prefixed  an  account' of  lire- 
nsBus,  from  which  this  is  taken.  TertuUian  oalU'him 
**  omnium,  doctrinaroat.  Guriostssira^ieh  etepHemtor^^^  zt'tBickt 

246  I  R  N  E  R  I  U  S. 

curious  searcher  into  all  kinds  of  doctrioe.     His  religioai 
opinions  were  nearly  those  of  Justin  Martyr. ' 

IRNERIUS,  called  also  WERNERUS,  or  GUARNEr 
RUS,  a  celebrated  German  lawyer^  was  born  at  Bologna^ 
about  the  middle  of  the  eleventh  century.  After  studying 
the  law  at  Constantinople,  he  ta.ught  it  at  Ravennai  where  a 
dispute  arising  between  him  and  his  colleagues  about  th« 
word  /<  al|**  he  sought  for  the  meaning  of  it  in  the  Roman 
law ;  and  thence  took  a  liking  to  it,  applied  to  the  study 
of  it,  and  at  last  taught  it  publicly  at  Bologna  in  1128. 
He  had  a  great  number  of  disciples,  became  the  father. of 
the  Glossators,  and  had  the  title  of  ^^  Lucerna  Juris.^'  Thut 
he  was  the  restorer  of  the  Roman  law,  which  had  beeo 
destroyed  by  the  invasion  of  the  barbarian^.  He  had  gieat 
credit  in  Italy  with  the  princess  Matilda;  and,  having  en-: 
gaged  the  emperor  Lotharius  to  order,  by  an  edict,  that 
Justinian^s  law  should  resume  its  ancient  authority  at  the 
bar,  and  that  the  code  and  digest  should  be  read  in  the 
schools,  he  was  the  first  who  exercised  that  profession  in  ! 
Italy :  his  method  was  to  reconcile  the  "  responsa  jurispru^ 
dentum^'  with  the  **  leges,*'  when  they  seemed  to  clash. 

It  is  also  said,  that  he  prevailed  with  Lotharius,  whose  . 
chancellor  he  was,  to  introduce  into  the  universities  the 
creation'  of  doctors,  and  that  he  drew  up  the  form  of 
that  ceremony ;  which  had  its  commencement  at  -Bo- 
logna, and  extended  soon  to,  all  other  universities,  and  . 
passed  from  the  faculty  of  law  to  that  of  divinity.  ^  The 
university  of  Paris  having  adopted  these  degrees,  they  were  . 
used  for  the  first  time,  in  the  person  of  Peter  Lopibard, 
master  of  the  sentences,  who,  was  created,  in  this  form, 
D.  D.  Irnerius  died  some  time  before  1150,  and  ivasin^ 
terred  at  Bologna,  the  law  school  of  which  was  afterwards 
rendered  very  famous  by  his  disciples,  and  the  Rooian  law^ 
was  thenceforth  taught  by  Italian  professors,  not  only  in^ 
Italy,  but  in  England  and  France.  One  Vacarius,  a  na- 
tive of  Lombardy,  was  invited  to  England  for  that  purpos^e 
about  the  middle  of  the  twelfth  century.  ^ 

ISAAC  (Karo),  a  rabbi,  was  one  of  those  Jews  who 
left  Spain  on  an  edict  of  Ferdinand  and  Isabella,  in  1492, 
which  obliged  the  Jews  to  quit  their  dominions  within  four 
months,  or  else  embrace  Christianity.     Karo  went  first  to 

'  1  Life  in  OraWs  edition.— -CaTe.-—Mo8heim  and  Milner's  Church  Histories. 
*  Gen*«-«Moreri,— Giofttenl  H»t.  Litt.  d'ttalie. 

I  S  A  A  p.  247 

Portugal ;  and,  travelling  thence  to  Jerusalem,  he  lost  his 
children  and  his  books  on  the  road.  He  lived  in  great  soli*- 
tude ;  and,  to  console  himself,  composed  a  book,  entitled 
"  Toledot  Jiskach,  the  Generations  of  Isaac.^'  It  is  a  com- 
mentary upon  the  Pentateuch,  partly  literal  and  partly 
cabbalisticai,  in  which  he  examines  the  sentiments  of  other 
commentators.  It  has  gone  through  several  editions :  the 
first  was  printed  at  Constantinople  in  1518;  afterwards 
ajt  Mantua,  and  Arpsterdam  in  1708.  Buxtorf  ascribes  to 
our  rabbi  a  ritual  entitled  ^'  Eben  Haheser,  the  Rock  of 
Support" ' 

18^US,  a  celebrated  Grecian  orator,  of  Chalcis,  in. 
Syria,  the  disciple  of  Lysias,  and  master  of  Demosthenes, 
was  born  probably  about  418  B.C.  He  taught  rhetoric 
with  reputation  at  Athens  ;  and  sixty-four  orations  are  at- 
tributed to  him,  but  he  composed  only  fifty,  and  we  have 
but  ten  of  them  remaining  in  the  **  Greek  Orators*'  of 
Stephens,  1575,  fol.  of  which  we  have  an  excellent  trans- 
lation by  sir  William  Jones,  in  1779,  4to.  Isaeus  took 
Lysias  for  his  model,  and  has  so  well  imitated  his  style 
and  elegance^  that  he  might  be  easily  confounded  with 
the  other  but  for  the  figures  of  speech,  which  Isseus  i$ 
the  first  orator  who  makes  frequent  use  of.  He  was  also 
the  first  who  applied  eloquence  to  political  subjects,  in 
which  his  pupil  Demosthenes  followed  him.  He  must  be 
distinguished  from  another  celebrated  orator  named  ISiEus, 
who  lived  at  Rome  in  the  time  of  the  younger  Pliny, 
about  the  year  97,  by  whom  he  is  highly  extolled.  A 
sketch  of  bis  life  is  drawn  by  Philostratus,  but  he  had  no- 
thing in  common  with  the  Athenian  orator,  except  the 
volubility  of  his  language,  and  his  name,  which  last  sir 
.William  Jones  thinks  might  be  assumed,  as  that  of  Ispcrates 
also  was  taken  by  one  of  the  later  sophists,  who  wrote  the 
instructions  to  Demonicus.  The  best  of  the  recent  edi- 
tions oi  IssBus  is  that  of  Reiske,  in  the  '<  Orat.  Graec*'' 
Leipsic,  1770 — 75,  8vo.* 

ISELIN  (James  Christopher),  in  Latin  Iselius,  a 
learned,  antiquary,  was  bom  at  Basil,  in  1681.  He  was 
9iade  professor  of  history  and  eloquence  at  Marpurg,  in 
170f;  but  was  recalled  to. Basil,  to  teach  history  and 
antiquity,  in  1707,  where  he  was  also  promoted  to  the 

•  Moreri.  - 
f  Fabric  Bibl.  Graec.— Preface  to  Jones's  Traiislation.-*Saxii  Onomaitiooa. 

248  *  I  S  E  L  I  N. 

dinnifcy-cbair  in  1 7 1 1 .  He  went  to  Paris  in  1 7 1 7,  intending 
to  visit  Holland  and  Enelaod ;  but,  being  nominated  rector 
of  the  university  of  BasB,  was  obliged  to  recnm  into  his 
oivn  country.  Shortly  after,  the  academy  of  inscriptiofcfs 
and  belles  lettres  at  Paris  made  hint  an  honorary  for^igh 
meotl^er,  in  the  room  of  M.  Cuper.  Iselin  was  also  libra- 
rian at  Basil,  where  he  died  in  1737.  He  publishfed'a 
gre^t  number  of  books,  of  which  the  principal  ate^  t.  ^<  De 
.j&allis  Rhenum  transeuntibus  Carmen  Herotcum.'^  2.  '*I)b 
Historicis  Latinis  melioris  acvi  dissertatio.*'  S.  Dbserta^ 
jtions  and  orations  upon  various  subjects.' 

ISIDORE  (Saint),  surnan^ed  Pelusiota  or  Damietta> 
from  his  retiring  into  a  solitude  nbar  the  town  which'  bears 
both  these  names,  was  the  most  celebrated  of  the  disciplei 
of  John  Cbrysostom,  and  flourished  in  the  fifth  cetituryi 
lie  professed  the  monastic  life  from  his  youth,  and  retired 
from  the  world  ;  but  appears  to  have  been  more  useful  €d 
the  church  a^d  to  society^  than  might  have  beeA  expected! 
from  a  jQpnk.  This  appears  by  hist  letters,  of  which^  $m'<^ 
das  < says,  ^he  wrote  no?  less  than  3000;  and  Nic^phorlls 
assures  us  that  he  composed  sevieral  works,  and  mentioni 
particularly  ten  chiliads  of  his  epistles.  Siytds  ^enensi^ 
4lso  adds,  that  he  saw  in  the  library  of  St.  Mark'  at  Venice,' 
a  MS.  containing  1 184  of  such  epistles,  whicb  are  not  no^ 
extant.  He  agrees  with  the  orthodox  in  the  leading  ddc'^ 
trines  of  the  gospel,  but  his  great  excellence  is  his  prac-'* 
tical  rules.  He  died  about  the  year  440.  We  have  re- 
xnaining  2012  of  his  letters,  in  five  books :  they  are  short ;f 
but  tbe^e  are  important  tUngs  in  them  about  maHiy  pas« 
sages  of  Scripture,  as  weN  as  theological  questions,  and 
points  concerniug  ecclesiastical  discipline ;  they  anre  Writ-' 
ten  in  good  Greek,  and  in  un  agreeable  florid  styl0.  Th^ 
best  edition  of  St.  Isidore's  works  is  that  of  Pa^s,  1638^. 
foiiojt  in  Greek  and  Latin.  In  1737,  Chriltt.  Aug.  Heu*^ 
maup  att^ked  the  authenticity  of  some  of  bis  epistles  ill  a 
tract  entitled  -*'  Epistolas  Isidoros  Pelusiotse  kstximam' 
partem  esse  qonfictas.''* 

..ISIDORE  (St*)  of  Seville,  was  born  at  Cartbagena,  in 
Spain,  the  sou  of  Severtan,  governor  of  that  city,  ahd  was^ 
educated  by  his  brother  Leander,  bishop  of  Seville,  whdth' 
he  succeedjed  in  the  year  601.     St.  Isidore  was  the  oracki 


1  Chaufepie.— Moreri.^-Saxii  ODomatticoD. 

t  Care,  toJ,  L— Lardner*a  WorHso-Mosheim  and  Milner'i  Cb,  Hiit 

ISIDORE.  2f 9 

«f  Spain  during  thirty-five  years,  ai^d  died  j^pi^il  4^  S36, 
learingtbe  following  works:  Twenty fcboks  of  *^prigjney* 

'"'   ,  {oU; 
le  his* 

^  _^ ,,,_,  ,^ , ,       ,^._„..tar^^3'* 

on  the  historical  books  of  the  Old  Testament;  a  treatise 
■*on  Ecclesiasticar  iVi-iters  ;**  "  a  Rule  for  the  Monastery 
of  Honori;"  a  *"*  Treatise  on.  Ecclesiastical  Oteces,*'"cQnr 
taming  many  very  important  passages  relating  to  Lccle- 
^iiisticdl  pisciplihe^  and*'  in  Vhich  he  mentions  seyen 
ttrkyiers  of  the  sacri^c^.  Theise  prayers  may*§tiir  qe  rouni 
p  the  Mbsarabic  mass,"which  is  the  ancient  Span isl^  liturgy^ 
and  of  which  this  saint  is  known  io  have  been  the  principal 
author.  The  edition  of  thf' Missal,  iWo,'fol.  a:nd  of  5\^ 
Btevikry,  1502,  fol!  printed  by  cardinal  i^imene^^  ordei^ 
ire^  very  scarce  ;  a  Treatise  on  this  Liturgy  was  printeijd,  ^i 

Speaks  of  the  monks  as  follows  :"  7  Th,e.  monks 
shall  ^teVy  ^ear  at  Pentecost  niake  a  c(eclar^(fioi|  tli^t  tl)ey 
keep  ndthine:  as  their  own.     A  monk  ousht  to  work  With 
Uis  nands,  accordmg  to  the  precept  of  qt.  Paul,  aucf  tjhf 
eicaUiple  of  the  patriarchs!'    Every  on^/ought  to  lyprk^  ijpf 
duly  for'  his 'Wn' maintenance,  but  for  that  of  the.  poQi) 
Thosd  who  are  m  health,  and  do  not;  wqrk^  sip  douh>ly,  tijjf 
idleness,  and  setting  a  l^ad  example, '  Those  who  chusQ 
to  read  without  working^  show  that  they  receive  no  benefit 
from*  what'  they  read,  which  commands  then^  to  work,'* 
This  Rdle  of  St.  Isidore  "prescribes  about  six  hours  work^ 
eVery  djaV,  and  three  hours  reading.     This  Isidore;  is  fre- 
quently ranked  among  musical  writers,     lt\  his  treatise  (^n 
the  divine  oiBces,  much  curious  information  occurs  con^ 
cerniug canto  fermo,  and  miisic  in  general;  but  particul^Vlv 
its  introduidtion  into  the  church,  the /institution  of  the  fou^ 
toneb  by  St.  Ambrose,  and  the  extension  of  that  puspbeir 
to  ^ght  by  St.  Gregory.  '  In  treating  of  secular  music^ 
be  has'  a  short  chapter  on  each  of  the  following  subjects : 
of  music,  and  its  name ;  of  its  invention;  its  definiiioq;. 
of  its   three  constituent  l>arts^    harmonics,    rhythm,  and 
metre';  of  musical  numbers;  of  the  three-fold  aivision3  oj^ 
music ;  1st,  Of  the  harnionical  division  o^  music  ;  2dly^ 
Of  the  organic  or  instrumental  division;    3dly,  Of  the 
rhythmical  division.    These  chapters  are  very  short,  ana 
contain  little  more  than  conijpressed  definitipus  oX  musical 

«50  I  S  I  D  O  R  E.   ^ 

terms.    In  eoumerating  the  seven  liberal  arts,  cap.  II.  hst* 
ranks  them  in  the  following  manner :  grammar,  rhetoric, 
logic;  arithmetic,  music,  geometry,  astronomy.'       , 

ISLA  (Joseph  Francis  D£  U),  was  a  Spanish  Jesuit 
who  on  tb<e^  suppression  of  his  order,  went  to  Italy,  and 
settled  at  Bologna,  where  he  died  in  .1783.  He  is  known 
chiefly  as  the  author  of  **  The  History  of  the  fanious 
preacher  friar  Gerund  de  Campazas;  otherwise  Gerund 
Zotes/'  This  work  was  written  with  a  view  to  correct  the 
abuses  of  the  Spanish  pulpit,  by  turning  bad  preaichert 
into  ridicule.  The  &rst  volume  of  the  original  Spanish 
^as  published  at  Madrid,  in  1758,  under  the  assumed 
name  of  Francisco  Lobon  de  Salazar,  minister  of  the  parish 
of  St.  Peter  in  Villagarcia.  It  %vas  not  only .  highly  ap- 
plauded by  many  of  the  learned  in  Spain,  to  whom  it  had 
been  communicated  in  manuscript;  but  even  the  inqui« 
sitors  encouraged  the  publication,  and  bore  testimony  in 
writing  to  its  laudable  design,  believing  that  it  would  in  a 

Srreat  measure  produce  a  reformation.  One  of  the  revisers 
or  the  inquisition  says,  *^  It  is  one  of  those  lucky  expe- 
dients which  indignation  and  hard  necessity  suggest,  when 
the  best  means  have  proved  ineffectual,  and  we  are  not  to 
find  fault  if  the  dose  of  caustic  and  corrosive  salts  be  soa|e<r 
what  too  strong,  as  cancers  are  not  to  be  cured  with  rose 
water.*'  Notwithstanding  this  approbation  of  the  inquisi- 
tion,' i^ome  orders,  particularly  the  Dominican  and  Men- 
dicant, represented  to  the  king  that  such  a  piece  of  mer- 
ciless criticism  would  too  much  diminish  the  respect  due 
to  the  clergy,  and  would  render  all  religious  orders  ridi- 
culous in  the  eyes  of  the  common  people,  &c.  These  ar- 
guments, repeatedly  urged  by  the  friars,  and  supported  by 
several  of  the  bishops,  obliged  the  council  of  Castile  to 
take  the  book  into  their  serious  consideration,  which  pro- 
duced a  suppression  of  it.  The  author  had  a  second  vo- 
lume ready ;  but,  finding  it  impossible  to  print  it  in  Spain, 
presented  the  copy  to  Mr.  Baretti,  by  whose  means  both 
volumes  were  printed  in  English  in  1771,  with  the  omis* 
sioti  of  some  tedious  and  irrelevant  parts.  In  Spain  this 
work  was  so  highly  approved,  that  the  authqr  was  hailed 
as  a  second  Cervantes,  whom  he  certainly  endeavours  to 
copy ;  but  it  would  be  too  liberal  to  allow  him  the  merit 
of  successful,  rivalship.     Friar  Gerund,  however,  is  cer« 

<  Cave,— J)aprii.— Mor«ri.— Bumey,  in  Rees*s  Cyclopedia. 

I 'S  I.  A.  '«t 

Aiinly  a  urork  of  grest^bumour^  and  mmt  have  appeared  to 
much  advantage  in  Spain,  where  the  subjects  of  the  satire 
are  more  cominon  and  obvious  than  in  this  eountry.  Here 
it  cannot  besapposed  to  yield  more  than  mere  amusement, 
unless  where  it  presents  us  with  the  customs  of  the  common 
and  middle  ranks  of  Spain,  and  those  are  said  to  be  faith-^ 
fully  depicted  J 

ISOCRATE6,  an  eminent  Greek  orator,  was  bom  at 
Athens,  in  the  86th  olympiad,  five  years  before  the  Pelo- 
ppunesian  war,  and  436  B«  C.  At  an  early  age  he  began 
to  study  philosophy  and  rhetoric  under  Gorgias,  Prodicus, 
and  Tiseas,  whose  doctrines  and  eloquence  about  this  pe- 
riod astonished  all  Greece.  It  is  affirmed  that  be  also  was  a 
disciple  of  the  celebrated  orator  Tberamenes,  whom  the  thirty 
tyrants  caused  to  be  put  to  death  because  he  favoured  the 
popular  cause.  He  passionately  loved  glory ;  and  the  de- 
sire of  distinguishing  himself,  and  of '  bearing  a  part  in  the 
public  administration^  animated  all  his"  proceedings.  In 
order  to  this  end,;  besides  possessing  information  and  a' 
tujrn  for  business,  it  was  necessary  to  excel  in  eloquence  ; 
but  nature  having  denied  him  both  voice  and  self-coihmand, 
he  directed  his  efforts  to  composition,  and  confined  him- 
self to  interesting  questions,  such  as  appeared  to  him  caU 
culated  to  render  his  country  bappy^  and  his  fellow-citi- 
zens virtuous.  His  talents  corresponded  wijth  the  gran- 
deur of  his  views.  Youth  flocked  from  all  parts  to  be  bis 
pupils,  and  to  form  themselves  on  his  lessons.  Some  of 
them  afterwards  became  orators,  some  great  statesmen,  '■ 
and  others  polished  and  profound  historians.  He  died 
loaded  with  glory  and  wealth,  at  the  age*  of  ninety  years, 
a  few  days  previous  to  tbe  battle  of  Chasronea,  B.  C.  338. 

In  the  orations  of  Isocrates,  says  tbe  abb^  Arnaud,  his  dic-  pure ;  and  no  obscure  or  obsolete  phrase  disfigures 
his  style ;  but  it  is  seldom  lively,  rapid,  and  vehement ;  it 
is  various  and  splendid,  but  hardly  ever  simple  and  natural'. 
Whatever  obstructs  a  smooth  pronunciation,  Isocrate^  re- 
jects; be  studies  above  all  to  measure  and  round  his  pe- 
riods, and  to  give  them  a  cadence  like  that  of  yerse.  Alt 
his  discourses  are  deligfatfiil  to  peruse,  and  well  adapted' 
for  panegyric,  but  are  unfit  for  the  turbulent  proceedings 
of  the  bar,  and  the  tumult  attending 'popular  harangue^. 
Yet  there  is  sometimes  too  much  aflPectation  in  his  arrange^ 

•  Piot.  Hilt.— Preface  to  the  TraBftntioD/ :  ^  ' 



loent ;  bi^  ^gwrns  iKff  either  to^  f^r^&tehed,  or  duoof dtnl, 
pf  ^^tri^vagapt,  ap  th^  to  becojoa^  cold  umi  fnaiimer€di 
^psidesj;  10  prd^f  t^ei  ^^^v  t^  tune  bis  stylft,  and  Bnxmm 
^9  periQ(i(9  w)(b  nicf  ty,  bfl  m«be9  u«e  af  inefficieot  wordi^ 
f^pd  unnecff s^rily  (ei)gtb<^.ii^  wxt  bia  diwoorsfis. 

Of  bis  Orations,  tbiity-one  r^faain  ;  and  among  tbe  va» 
rious  editions  published.  Dr.  Harwood  pronounoea  that  by 
^attie» .  Cambridge  1729-^17^  9  vols,  dvo,  to  be  the 

(TTIGIUS  (Thpmas)i  a  learned  professor  of  divinity  a| 
Leipsicii  was  son  of  Johp  Ittigia3>  professor  of  pbymc  in 
the  s9.Qie  i^piversity,  and  bonn  there  in  1644.     He  receivei 
the  %s^  part  of  his  ed^cation  at  Lfiipna ;  then  went  toRoi* 
^qc,  ^iid  l^s.tly  to  StEasbiirg9~t«i  perfect  bis  studies  ;■  aftev 
^hic)[i  be  Vfa9  {^dmiU^ed  a  {mfesaor  in  philosophy  at  LetpM 
sip,  and  pubiis^d  a  treatise  upon  bjaming  mountains.    Hen 
1;h,^n  becaip^  a  mioii^ter,  aud  exeroised  that  funolioii  in  va^ 
jpious  .churches  in  ^e  s|gp:ie  plaoe.    la  16lia  he  was  aiadci 
«rc^4^a90i|,  and  liceniUate  in  dLiFinitg^;  and,  in  1)691,  pro- 
iesi|ior  pxivapr^nia^y  in  the.  same  faeulty^  apd  ordiftaTy  pro** 
fj^ssor  t^e  ensi|ii)g  y/ear.    He  ikhrnid^  several  papers' 
publjished  ip  the  I^eipsic  Aqts :  besides  whida  we  have  o6 
hb^  <<  Di£lsertatio  d^  hja^resiai cb«Si  asvl  apqitolioii  c^  prox- 
ijBf^if^  ^' Appendi;;^  de.  hq^resiarchia;''   <^  Prolegomena  ad> 
Jo^ephi.  opera ;"  **  Bibliotbeca  pslsrum  apdstoUooruin  Grieh^ 
co-Latin^;''  'f  Qist^d^.aynodoruniinationaliiim  in  Galtiad^ 
reformf^tis  habit:^runi ;''  *^  Liber  de  bibliotbecis  et  cateais] 
patram;^'    '<. Exhortationes,  theologies;''    *^ Histories  ed- 
clesiasticsB  p^im^  et  secundi  seculi  selects  capita^''     Som^^ 
part  of  tbis  last,  did  not  appear  till  after  the  death  of  the* 
autbor,  ^hich.  bfippeqed  April.  7,  1710.' 

IV£S,orYV£$«  in  Latin  Ivo,  the.  celebrated  bishop  Of 
Cha;rtres^  was  born,  in  the  territory  of  Beauvais,  in  1035. 
He  was  ri^si^,  to  the  see  of  Ghartres  in  1092  or  i.098, 
under  tl}^  pontificate  of  Urban  XI.  ^^bo  had; deposed  Geo- 
frpy^^  Qqf.avi^or!fi^)pr^d<^cessor  in  the.  see,  for  vartons  brinies 
of  wbicb  he  w^Siaf^usc^.  Ives.panieularly  signalized' bis 
zea)  ag|M.i]|st,  i^hilip.L  who  had  put  away  bis  wife  Benhsj 
o^,  Qqil^d}  aqd  tabea  Bertrade  of  Montford,  the  wife  dF 
Fouimqi  d4^  B(e<|efti^  Qomnl:  of  Anjou^  This  r  divorce  was 
contrary;  tq,  tbf^ejC^lesiastkalilaw.;  and.  the-  affair  we«ild- 

'  Kabrie.  Bibl.  OnMXr-'Morcri*— Life  by  Arnand.— StxH  Ononaiticoii, 
•  M«reri.— NicaroB,  toI.  XX1X«— Lardner't  Workf»— Saiii  Onoma^ooo. 

I  V  E  6.  isi 

b^«  he^ti  kitkiitSii  With  hM  66xi%^({U€!titei  hid  not  thi 

pibif^d  kknseir  #ft<!>N^  m  iftf^  filAictionfs  of  'his  liihibtiy^ 
laadKe  ftefvettft  rdligibo^  fA^ti^cktioris,  HinA  died  tllS;  His 
(H|fp#e  ikras  int^Md  iA  tiMef  ehUi^ti  of  St.  Jbhti  in  l!be  Tidcl^ 
wbi<eh  lie^  had*  fotfndMI.'  P6p^  PiU^  V.  6y  a  bnli,  datedf 
D«c^.  id;  ¥570}  ^dhiiiM^d^flf«  ntoti^s  of  ttrd'  dohgi^^iibri 
of[  LsfeMn  to  ttVatit&^atf^tiyiV  6f  St.  f^l^.  We  hii^e, 
of  his  compiling,  '<  A  cbUfeiitibn  6t  Decreed  ;'*  ^<  Exiiep- 
tiOiie«^eocleMtt9ti^aM»i'  f egtila^uiii  ;*'  beddes' <«  22  SienUoti V' 
aii*a«*  Cbi^i^rif*  aftS^liitih  wdi*  66Hfe6ted  iti  1«7  by 
JofMl  ddptiMT  Sbiicl&t,  H'  oattbh  of  Cbattirtsi;  iti'  one'  toL 
moi  divided  iAt6'  panlii  Tii6  *<  I)ebirees*»'  W^e  jbrfiiftSfed  iti 
1^1  y  >fl!nd  th^i^  hdHi'  te^ii/  aHoth^t  dditioh  Arite.  A  eoHefc- 
tiott>oP  eauoiir  called'  tlie  «  P«nti6nM^;'*  df  «  PabAhtiiay^ 
andlsdme' otha^  pieces' pritiffed- in  tfa^  ^  Biftliotb^ca  ^a- 
HutAi'^  ai^e  dso  ascribed  to  dot  bishop:  ^ 

I VBS'  (Jofiif),  WI&'  the  oiiij' sort  of  oni^  of  tbe  ihbst  eini'-' 
n^ttt  nlleteh^hts  atYartnonchy  Where'' he  was'iibrh  in  1751. 
Il6 '  was  entferedf  of  Cains  cdll^ge,  Cambiidge;.  wh^re  he' 
did  riot*  lott^  ifeiidi ;  but,  returtim^  to  Yahttocfth,  becatafer' 
*^P"^ttte*  with^  tihWr  cetebr^ed  anttqtfirjr  TOonias  Martin' 
of  PalgitV^/  and  caught  from  hiin  that  taste  fbr  antiquities 
Whi^h  he  puiisued  dnfring  tbel  short  peri6d  of  his  life.'    He 
fwm*  elected  F;  81  A:  1771;  ahd  F.  R:  S.  1772 ;  aA'd;  by  fa!- 
vwr  of  the  ekrl  of  SufiblK;  in  him  di^'b6nour  of  Suffolk 
faferald  extraordinary  \^\bA  revired  ;  aA:t>ffice  a<!tended  With 
in^profitj  but  valuable  to'him  by  the  access  rt  gave  to  the' 
MS8i  muniments,  &c;  of  the  heralds  ctUegej  of  which  he ' 
theireby  became '  ah  honority  n^ember.     His'  fifr^ir'attempt^ 
ait  antiquarian  publication  was  by  propo^sils  (Without  bis,'* 
namej*  in  177i,  f6r  printing  ah' afccount^  of  Ldthingland^ 
^undi^-  in  SnfBlk*;  for  which  he  had  eri^ravted'  sevteral,* 
sfavaU  plates  of  arms- and-  moriumedts  w  the  churches  of ' 
Ftiaton,  Gorleston,  Loud,  LowestpfFe>  and  Somerliton;  frdfh ' 
hlff  own*  drawings.     His  next  essay  was  the  short  preface^ 
to  Mr.  Swindon's  "  History  and  Antiquities  ofdfeat  Yar-' 
mouth,  in  the  county  of  Norfolk,  1772,"  4to.     Mr.Swih* 
d^Qy  who  was  a  schoolmaster  in  Great  YamMiabf  "War  4" 
mpost  intimate  friend  of  Mr.  Ives;  who  not  onty  assisted^ 
hhn  with  his  purse,  and  warmly  patroqized  him  W^^'^ 
living,  but  superintsonded  the  book  for  tbe  eiddltniienCof 

1  MoMnfakY«M.^-Ov9e,  vol.  Ii;--3a«iil9iiMnk«itMift''te  Yt^si' 

»5*  IVES. 

the .  authoi's  widow^  and  delivered  it  tp  the  tubscribers  ^. . 
Ii:il77l&  he  caused  tobe  cut  nine  wooden  platea  of  old  Norfolk 
seals,  entitled  ^^  Sigilla  antiqua  Norfolciensia.     Impressit 
Johannes  Ives,  S.  A.  S."  and  a  copper*plate  portrait  of  Mr. 
Martin  holding  an  urn,  since  prefixed  to  Martinis  **  History 
of  Tbetford."     On  Aug.  16,  1773,  by  a  special  licence    ' 
from  the  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  he  was  married  at  )Lam-^: 
beth  church  to  Miss  Kett  (of  an  ancient  family  in  Norfolk), 
andaftervvardsresuled  at  X^nnoatlk 

In  imitation  of  Mr.  Walpole  (to  whom  the  first  number 
was  inscritieii),  Mr.  Ives  began  in  1773  to  publish  ^*  Select 
Papers*'  from  his  own  collection  ^  of  which  the  second  num- . 
ber  was  printed  in  1774,  and  a  third  in  1775.     Amonj;^ 
these  are  **  Remarks  upon  our  English  Coins,  from  the 
Normau  invasion,  down  to  the  end  of  the  reign  of  queeit- 
Elizabeth/'  by  atchbishop  Sharps  sir.W.  Dugdale's  <<  Di*. 
rections  for   the  Search  of  Records,  and  making  use  of  ■'■ 
them*  in  order  to  an  historical  Discourse  of  the  Antiquities 
of  Staffordshire  *,**  with  '^  Annals  of  Gonvile  and  Caius  col- 
lege, Cambridge  ;^'  the  ^^  Coronatioa  pf  Hendry  VIL  and 
of  queen  Elizabeth,''  &c.  &c.     In  1774  he  published,  in 
l2mo,  '*  Remarks  upon  the  Garianqnum  of  the  Roinans ;. 
the  sciteand  remains  fixed  and  described  ;*'  with  the  ichnor 
graphy  of  Garianonum,  two  plates,  by  B.  T.  Pouncey ; 
south  view  of  it,  Roman  antiquities  found  there,  map  of 
the  river  Yare,  from  the  original  in  the  corporation  chest 
at  Yarmouth,  and  an  inscription  on  the  mantletree  of  a. 
farm-house.     He  died  of  a  deep  consumption,  when  he 
had  just  entered  his  twenty-fifth  year,  June  9, 1776.    Con- 
sidered as  an  antiquary,  much  merit  is  due  to  Mr.  Ives, 
whose  valuable  collection  was  formed  in  less  than  five  years*  ^ 
His  library  was  sold  by  a.uction,  March  3 — 6,  1777,  in- 
cluding some  curious  MSS.  (chiefly  relating  to  Suffolk  and* 
Norfolk)  belonging  to  Peter  Le  Neve,  T.  Martin,  and 
Francis  Blomefield.     His  coins,  medals,  ancient  paintings, 
and  Antiquities,  were  sold  Feb.  13  and  14,  1777.    Two 
portraits  of  him  have  been  engraven.^ 

■  *  *  *  * 

*  •*  The  author,'*  says  Mr.  Ives,  and  application,  will  appear  in  the 

'*  doted  Ml  life  and  bit  work  tog«ih«r.  -  course  of  the  «ork.'*   Mr.  Swinden  Was 

Tha  iatt  sheet  wai  ia  the  press  at  the  buried  ii\  the  churob  of  Sc,  Nicholas  at 

time  of  his  decease.    To  me  he  com-  Yarmouth,  iii  the  north-aile,  where  a 

milted  the  publication  of  it.    A  short,  handsome  mural  monument  is  erected 

hot  uaiuterropted,  (neDdthip  subsisted  to  hia  memory.             ... 
between  us.     His  assiduity,  industry, 

)  Nichols's  Bosryer^— Qent  H99.  LVU  and  LXIiL^-NbttTi't  Collegt  of^rms. 
— Qrtufer*t  itttart*  by  Malcolm^  p.  201,  296,  &c. 

I  V  ET  A  U  X. 


IVETAUX  (Nicholas  Vanquelin,  seigneur  des),  a 
French  poet,  was  born  of  a  respectable  family  at  la  Fres- 
naye,  a  castle  near  Falaise.     He  discovered  early  a  taste 
for  poetry  and  the  belles  lettres,  and,  after  having  distin- 
guished himself  as  a  studentri^  Caen,  succeeded  his  father 
^  lieutenant-general  of  the  city ;  but  the  marechal  d^Es- 
tr^es  persuaded  him  to  resign  his  post  and  go  to  court, 
where  he  placed  him  with  M.  de  Vend6me,  son  of  the  ce- 
lebrated Gahrielle  d*£str£es.     It  was  for  this  young  prince 
that  des  Ivetaux  wrote  his  poem  of  '*  ^Institution  du 
Prince,"  in  which  he  gives  bis  pupil  very  sensible,  judi-* 
cious,'  and  even  religious  advice.    After  this  he  was  pre- 
ceptor to  the  dauphin,  afterwards  Louis  XIII;  but  his  li- 
centipus  way  of  life  displeased  the  queen,  and  occasioned 
him  to  be  excluded  from  the  court  a  year  after  Henry  IV. 
died,    A  pension  and   several  ben^fice.s  were,,  however, 
given  him  $  but  he  afterwards  re^igued  .bis  benefices,  on 
being  reproached  by  cardinal  Richelieu  for  hi^  Jibeninism*. 
Thus  free  from  all  restraint,  dqs   Ivetaux  retired  to  an 
elegant  house  in  the  fauxbourg  St.  Germain,  where  he. 
spent  the  rest  of  his  days  in  pleasure  apd  voluptuousness, 
living  in  the  Epicurean  style..    Fancying  that  the  pastpral 
li!fe  was  the  happiest,  he  dressed  himself  like:  a  shepherd^, 
and  led  imaginary  flocks  about  the  walks  of  his  garden,, 
riepeating  to  them  his  lays,,  accompanied  }py, ,  a  ^irl  in  the 
dress  of  a  shepherdess,  whom  be  had  picked  up  with  her- 
barpin  the  streets,  and   taken   for  his  mistress*^.   Their 
whole  ^employment  was  to  seek  refiuemf^ntsjn  pleasures, 
and  every  day  they  studied  how  to  render  thjem.more  ex* 
quisite.    Thus  des  Ivetaux  passed  his  latter  years ;, and  it- 
has'been  said  that  he  ordered  a  saraband  to  be  played  whi^u. 
he  was  dying,  to  sooth  his  departing  soul;  but  M^.Huet, 
on  the  contrary,  affirms,  that  he  repented  of  bis  .errors  at- 
the  point  of  death.     However  that  may  be,  he  died  in  his 
ninetieth  year,  at  Brian val,  near  Germigni,.  in  1^49.:   Be-> 
sides  the  poem  above  mentioned,  des  Ivetaux  left  stanzas, 
sonnets,  and  other  poetical  pieces,  in  the  t^X)^)ice9  de^^a 
Pofisie  Fran9oise,"  Paris,  1620,  8vo.  * 

»  Moreri.— DictrHist.  de  L'Atocat; 

'■'i     J.':  J 


•         * 

•f  U,    K  ,  ■■■  r. 

(    2^8    ) 


Ka8VL.    StetAVEl. 
KA'EnnPFElR  (EHOtiiBEitV].  in 

b6rn  Sept:  16;  \65\,  ai  t^goti 

fab  Atbier  was  ^  miniaier.     AftS-  s) 

md  BMking  s  (]uicW  progress,  not; 

gilb^s,  but  ^so  in  butory,  ^eog^ 

•nd instrumental,  be  wtjnt to  Dantzl 

atby,  and  gave  the  6nt  public  spf^ 

by  a- dissertation  "  De  Divis^oneM 

tbbn  went  tt>  TboVn,  indtben'de't 

cb^rr;  wh^re^>  for  tfare«  ydsta,   st 

fbreign  laasu^ea,  he'  took  the  d< 

tapby  ;  iita  then  wetit  to  ^ohingi 

h^  siajed  fbur^ea^'.    All  this  t 

very  intensely  to  pby'si^' atid  natiiti 

veiled  to  Stteden,  vrfiere  h'e  ibon  i 

thef  university  of  Upsal,  and  to  th 

gteat  enCourag^r'  of  learnins ;  In 

M^r6  made  bitii,  ufwti  cotidition  tb 

Bat 'be  cbbae  to  accept  the  etnployinent  of  secretary  of  the'i^ 

enibbssy,  which  the  court  of  Sweden' w^  tj^eh  sending  to^ 

ttJe  sopln  of  Persia ;  ahd  in  this  capacity'  he  set  9ut  f^oin 

Stockholm,  March  20,  1683.     He  went  throyeh  Aalan^^ 
.Finland,  and  Ingerniatiland,  to  Narva,  wher*  ne  met  Ta-^ 

briciui  the  ambassador,  with  whom  he  arrived  at  Moscovif,. 
■  thitf  7tb' ofJuiy;     The  negociations  at  the  Russian  court^l 

being  ended,  they  proceeded  oii  to  Persia ;' but  had,  like^ 

to  have  been  lost  in  theii"  passage  over  the  Caspian  s^a,.. 

by  all  unexpected  stbi'm  and  the  unslcilfulness   of  their  ^ 
:  pilots.     During  their  stay  in  G^ot'gia,'Kiempfer  went  id 

search  of  simples,  and  of  sU  the  curiosities  that  could  be 

met  with  in  those  parts.     He  visited  all  the  neighbourhood 

or  Siamacbi  i  and  to  these  labunons  and  learneaexcursioas 

we  owe  the  many  curious  and  accurate  accounts  he  has 

given  us  in  bia  "AmcBuiutea  Exotic^/'  published  atLem- 

gow,  in  1713. 

k:  A.  E  M  F  r  «  I&  ii9 

tbere  near  two  juttn ;  diflribg^  i41  Whick  timef  of  his  ibodfe 
in  the  capital  of  tbd  Pefsian  em{iire,-  Ksnipfeir  mndei  every 
possible  ftdiriuitagcl.  The  ambaniadof,  bdving  eftdM  hiii 
oegociatioiM  i^wftrdi  ibe  dole  of  1686,  pirated  to  rettttb 
ioto  Europe  ^  but  Keempfer  did  not  )udge  it  elipedietit  tb 
rttinn  with  bkn,  resolvif)g  to  gOfaitMr  ibUi  ihe  east,  iMA 
make  still  gr^a(«r  fteqciisitions  by  tratdlthg.  Wiih  thlii 
view  be  entered  )nti»  the  setribe  of  the  Jdntdk  E^t-India 
^ottipany^  ill  the  ^Qality  bf  ebiefnur^eOti  t6  the  ^et,  Which 
•«vaa  then  crui^ikig  hf  the  Per^mo  Gulpb,  btit  set  oot  fer 
Gamrot)  Nov.  l^^Si  He  sfayed  some  time  ih  Sijfas,  Wh^t 
be  visited  the  l^eiMios  ef  the  ancient  Persepolis,  and  the 
foyai  palaee  of  Darius,  ihrbose  statCeted  nnhr  i^e  stiR  itb 
isodeuialde  montuuem  Of  its  former  spletTdof  and  gtetft^ 
^  iieBs. .  As  soon  as  be  arrived  a<i  Gaiuroti  l»e  vfks  seized  v^ttk 
a  violent  fit  of  sickne^d,  wirich  wis  hear  carrying  him  6ilf ; 
bm,  hsqipTty  #eeove^ng,  he  spenlt  a  snniiher  in  the  neij^ 
.  bourfaood  of  It,  and  mode  a  gj^eat  ntttnber  of  cuiioas  dliser- 
vationB.  ~  He  did  nOt  leave  tltot  city  till  June  169^^  atld 
then  embarked  for  Batata  ^  whither,  aftef  touching  at 
many  Dutob  settlehients,  in  Arabia  FeKx,  on  iihe  coasts  of 
Malabar,  in  tlie  island  of  Ceylon,  tod  in  the  gulpti  o^  Betf- 
gal,  he  arrived  in  September.  This  dfy  hating  been  ^ 
/  particularly  described  by  other  Wi^iten^,  be  turned  hi» 
thoiighls  chiefly  to  the  natural  history  of  die  country  obotft 
it.  He  possessed  many  qnalificatfons  necessary  for  makitrj^ 
a  good  botanist  y  he  had  a  competeht  kho#led^e  of  h  ih 
ready,  a  body  inured  to  hardships,  a  great  itotk  of  indufi^* 
ttry,  and  an  e:tfcellent  hand  at  de^signiiig.  Itr  May  IddtT^ 
ht  set  otit  from  Batavia  tm  his  voyage  to  Japa^^  Hi  qtiaticy 
of  physvctan  te  the  etobassy,  which  the  Duteh  Eost-tn^cM 
-GOMpony  used  to  send  Once  a  year  <o  tire  Jopane^  etit- 
pero/s  eourt  ^  afid  he  spent  ti^o  yeantf  ih  thi^  couhtty,  Mak^ 
ing  all  the  while  most  diligent  reseafthe*  in'to  etery  thi/f^ 
feki«ing  «o  it.-  He  qnitted  Japonr  in  order  to*  return  t6 
Europe,  Nov.  1692,  and  Batavia,  Feb.  1^691  He  sta^^ed 
.^eor  a  monib  at  the  Cape  of  GOoduHope,  atldt  arrived  Itt 
lAlnscerdaWi  in  October. 

>  Ap#it  1  #94,  be  took  a  doetoir  of  physlc^s  de^ee  at  Ley^^ 
4eny  oa  Wbioh  occasioirrJie  cOnraiutitt^ed,  in*  his  thesis, 
same  ^^^ry  mguktr  obset^votibtn^  whieh  we  sfaali  pfesentt^ 
notice.  At  his  return  to  his  nath^  coiintvy  he  intended 
imniiediately  to  digest  his  papesa  and  memoirs  iflto  pyepihr 
Vol.  XIX.  S 

SS8  It  A  E  M  P  F  E  It 

order;  iiut,  being  appoanted  physician  to  bis  piriiuiJey  b^ 
fell  into  too  much. practice  to  pursue  that  design  with  the 
vigour  he  desired.  He  married  the  daughter  of  an  eminent 
merchant  at  Stolzeoau  in  1700.  The  long  course  of  tra*' 
vels,  the  fatigue  of  his  jirofession,  and  some  family-unea- 
siuessesy  arising  (as  it  is  said)  from  the  debis  be  had  cour 
tracted,  had  very  much  impaired  his  constitution  ;  so  that^ 
after  a  variety  of  ailments,  he  died  Nov.  2,  1716« 

His  inai^ural  dissertation,  before  noticed,  and  pub- 
lished at  Leyden  in  1694,  is  entitled  **  Decas  observation 
num  exoticarum."  Of  this  an  unique  copy  is  preserved  in 
Sir  James  Smithes  library.  The  subjects  on  which  it  treats 
are,  1,  the  agnus  Scythicus,  or  Borometz ;  2,  the  bitter- 
ness of  the  Caspian  sea;  3,  of  the  native  mumia»  or  bitu- 
men, of  Persia ;  4,  of  the  torpedo,  or  electrical  fish  of  the 
Persian  gulph  ;  5,  of  the  drug  called  dragon's  blood,  pro- 
duced by  the  ft'uit  of  a  palm ;  6,  of  the  dracanculus  of  the 
I'ersians,  a  sort  of  worm  proceeding  from  a  tumour  in  the 
skin;  7,  on  the  andrum,  ok  endemic  hydrocele  of  the 
Malabars;  8,  on  the  perical,  or  ulcer  of  the  feet, funong 
the  same  people ;  9,  on  the  cure  of  the  colic  amongst  the 
Japanese,  by  puncture  with  a  needle  ;  10,  on  the  rooxa,  or 
actual  cautery,  of  the  same  people  and  the  Chinese. 
These  subjects  are,  as  Haller  observes,  all  of  them  pro* 
bably  treated,  more  fully  in  his  <<  Amoenitates  Exoticse,.*' 
so  ofteh  quoted  by  Linnseus  for  its.  botany,  as  well  as  other 
authors  for  its  authentic  details,  relating  to  the  history  and 
manners  of  Persia^  and  other  parts  of  the  east.  His  History 
of  Japan  is  well  known  by  the  English  translation  in  folio^ 
and  is  extremely  valued  for  its  accuracy  and  fidelity.  It 
was  published  in  2  vols.  fol.  Lond.  1728.  Kicmpfer,  we 
have  remarked,  was  skilled  in  the  use  of  the  pencil ;  and 
some  botanical  drawings  of  his,  made  in  Japan,  are  pre- 
served in  the  British  museum.  Of  these  sir  Joseph  Banks^ 
in  1791,  liberally  presented  the  learned  world  with  59  folio 
engravings  at  his  own  expence.  Many  of  the  plants  are 
still  undetermined  by  systematic  botanists.' 

KAHLER  (WiQAND,  or  John),  a  learned  and  inde&ti- 
gable  German  writer,  and  Lutheran  divine,  was  born  Ja* 
nuai^  20,  1 649,  al  Wolmar,  in  the  landgraviate  of  Hesse* 
CasseL  He  was  professor  of  poetry,  mathematics,  and  di* 
vipity  at  Rinteln,  and  member  of  the  society  of  Gottingeo. 

•  -1  Nicefon.  toI.  XIX«-^eB.  Dict.--M6reTi.^Haneri  Bib).  B»t.*-R*e8's  Cy.^ 
dop«dia,— Life  prefixed  to  lus  Hiitory  of  Japaa. 

K  AH'L  EH.  259! 

11)1  died  M^y  17,  1729,  leaving  two  sods  and  four  daugh< 
ters.  A  great  number  of  his  ^<  Dissertations"  are  collected 
in  two  volumes,  printed  at  Rinteln,  1700^  and  1711,  under 
the  title  of  ^'  Dissertationes  Juveniles;"  the  principal  are^ 
'^  De  oceano  ej  usque  proprietatibus  et  vario  motu;  De 
Ubei:tate  Dei;  De  terra;  De  reflexione  luminis  gusque 
efFectu;  De  imputatione  peccati  alieni,  et  speciatimAda- 
mici*;  De  Poligamift,''  ^^c.*" 

KALDI  (GfiOHOK),  .a  learned  Jesuit,  was  born  in  Tir-« 
naw  in  Hungary,  about  1572,  was  received  into  the  Jesuits* 
order  at  Rome,  and  returning  to. his  own  country,  was 
oariisbed  into  Transylvania,  with  the  other  members  of  the 
society,  during  the  commotions  which,  at  that  time,  agi- 
uted  the  kingdom.  After  this  be  discharged  the. duty  o£ 
theological  professor  in  the  university  of  Olmutz,  and  filled 
some  other  iinpoirtanl  posts  in  different  places.  His  last 
retreat  was  to  a  college  which  he  built  at  Presburg,  where 
be  died  in  1634.  He  was  regarded  as  one  of  the  most 
eloquent  preachers  in  Hungary,  and  published  some  ser- 
mons, but  he  is  chiefly  celebrated  for  having  completed  a- 
translation  of  the  Bible  from  the  Vulgate  into  the  Hunga* 
rian  tongue,  which  was  printed  at  Vienna,  in  1626.' 

KAL£,  or  KALF  (Willum),  a  pain ier<of  still  life,  was 
born  at  Amsterdam  in  1630,  and  was  a  disciple  of  Hen« 
drick  Pot,  a  portrait  and  historical  painter ;  of  whom  he 
learned  the  practice  of  the  art,  but  from  whom  he  varied 
in  the  application  of  it ;  and  applied  his  talents,  which 
were  very  considerable,  in  a  close  imitation  of  objects  in 
still  life ;  which  he  composed  with  great  beauty  and  effect. 
In  the  gallery  of  the  Louvre  at  Paris,  are .  two  exquisite 
works  of  his,  in  which  he  is  said  to  unite  the  merits  of  Rem- 
brandt and  Teniers.  He  possessed  an  eye  informed  with  the 
power  of  Rembrandt's  arrangements  and  contrast  of  light 
and  shade,  and  a  hand,  that  managed  the  pencil  with,  the 
neatness  and  correctness  of  Teniers.    He  died  in  1693.' 


KALM  (Pbter),  a  very  celebrated  naturalist,  wa?  a  na- 
tive of  Finland,  and  was  born  in.  1715.  Having  imbibed 
a  taste  for  the  study  of  natural  history^  it  appears  .that  he 
pursued  his  inclination  with  much  zeal  and  iiidustry.  .His 
first  researches,  were  rewarded  by  itbe  discovery  of  many 
new  plants  in  Sweden,  of  which  he  gave  some  account  to 

1  Moreri.— Diet  HistI  «  Moreru  ' 

^  Pllkinj^toQ.— Diet.  Hist.--»R^es'8  Cyclopedia. 

■  fe  -       ^-         •  •  ■         ■.    .    . 

S   3 

26a  K  A  L  M 

tbt  b^taniosd  world  between  theyeafil  1742  ind  l?i6.  He 
#S8  particularly  aaitious  t6  etflore  the  Tirtde»  of  plants^ 
both  with  ir^spect  to  their  uses  in  medioine,  and  in  tlvft 
uteful  art8^  m  thd^t  (daoting  a^  agriisulture  occupied  ^m^ 
pd^tion  of  his  attention*  Hi&  repotation  as  a  naturalist  caused 
Mm  to  be  appointed  professor  at  Abo;  and  in  October  1741^^ 
be  set  out  upon  bis  travel^  ssuHng;  from  Ootteabwg^et 
America;  but,  on  account  of  a  violent  hurricane^  Was  obliged 
to  take  shelter  in  a  port  of  Norwa/,  whence  he  could  not 
depart  till  the  ensuing  Febraary,  when  he  proceeded  im* 
mediately  for  London.  From  hence  he  went  to  North 
Ainerica ;  and  having  spent  two  or  three  years  in  eicploring 
whatever  was  worthy  of  observation  in  that  country,  he 
lieturned  to  bis  professorship  at  Abo  in  1751.  The  ei^- 
pences  of  this  undertaking  appear  to  have  estceeded  wbftt 
Was  allowed  him  by  the  Academy  of  SeienceSi  si>  that  our 
author  was  obliged  to  live  nltber  penurionsly  upon  bis  re-* 
turn ;  yet  he  found  means  to^  cuhivate,  itt  a  small  garden 
ef  bis  own,  several  hundred  plants^  for  the  u^  of  the  vittU 
versity,  as  there  ww^  no  public  botankal  garden  at  Abo<  Hia 
diacovetieain  botany  very  materiatly  enriched  the  ^'Spetiies 
Plantarum^  of  bis  great  master,  and  the  Linni^ti  Herba-« 
yitim  abounds  with  specimens  hroiight  home  by  him,  dtstln-r 
guisbed  by  the  letter  K.  HalLer  enumerates  a  long  liilt  of 
tracts  published  by  Kalm ;  and  bis  inaugural  dissertation 

Sheared  in  the  '*  Amcenitates  Academicse'^  of  Linnseus. 
e  was  originally  intended  for  the  ecclesiastical  profession, 
but  was  drawn  aside  from  this  pursuit  by  attending  the 
kctures  of  Linneito  on  natural  history,  given  in  the  uni« 
vereity  of  UpsaL  Indeed,  it  was  through  tbxd  reeornmen*" 
datton  of  Linnteus  that  professor  Kalm  was  fi-xed  upon  to 
undertake  the  voyage  to  North  America,  and  the  account 
^f  bis  voyage  was  published  in  English  by  Forster  in  177!. 
lie  afterwards  made,  at  his  own  ekpence,  a  very  eitlensrve 
touV  into  Russia^  the  btstd^y  of  which  never  appeared  in 
print,  but  which  is  supposed  to  have  ftirhish^d  eonsidfer* 
able  iftMitter  for  the  work  of  a  Swedish  writer,  who  ptib- 
Kshed  a  book  of  travels  in  that  kingdom.  Kalm  was  at 
menliber  of  the  royal  Swedish  academy  of  science^,  and 
died  in  1779.  Bis  ci^llection  of  dried  plants,  made  itl 
bis  various  journeys,  aiDd  doubtless  valuable  for  the  pnr« 

Eoses  of  botanical  information,  is  said  to  remain  hi  thi$ 
ands  of  bis  family  in  a  scate  of  neglect.  ^ 

1  Stocror's  Life  of  X4Dn»U8,->|IaUer  Bibl.  Bot— Aees'i  Cyclojraedia. 

kant;  'ist 

a  « 

KANT  (Imbianvbl))  a  German  writer,  who  ha^  lateljr 
attained  extjraordiDary  fame  in  his  own  countiy  as  the  in^ 
vetitpr  of.  a  new  system  bf  philosophical  opinidns,  whiehy 
iMwevev,  Ace  not  Tery  likely  to  reach  posterity,  was  boni 
April  2£j  17249  in  the  suburbs  of  Konigsberg,  in  Pitis$ia^ 
Hjs  father,  John  George  Kant,  was  a  sadler,  born  at 
Memel,  but  originally  descended  from  a  Scotch  family, 
who  spelt  their  name  with  a  C;  but  the  pbilosopber,  the 
subject  of  this  article,  in  early  life  converted  the  C  into  a 
K^  as  being  more  conformable  to  German  orthography. 
Immamiel,  the  second  of  six  children,  wap  indeibted  to  his 
father  for  an  example  of  the  strictest  integrity  and  tile 
greatest  industry ;  biit  he  had  neither  time  nor  talent  to%€ 
his  instructor.  .  From  bis  mother,  :a  woman  of  9oudfd  sense 
and  ardent  piety,  he  imbibed  sentioients  of  warm  and  ani- 
mated devotion,  which  left  to  the  latest  periods  of  bis  life 
the  strongest  and  most  reverential  impressions  df  her  me« 
mory  on  his  mind.  He  received  his  first  inaitructions  id 
reading  and  writing  at  the  charity-school  in  his  parish ; 
but  soon  gave  such  indications  of  ability  and  ioctination  to 
learn,  as  induced  bis  uncle,  a  wealthy  shoe;- maker,  to  de- 
fray the  expence  of  bis  farther  education  and  studies. 
From  school  he  proceeded  to  the  college  of  Fridericianum. 
This  was  in  1740 ;  and  his  first  teacher  was  Martin  Kaut* 
zen,  to  whom  Kant  was  stro^igly  attached,  and  who  de- 
voted himself  with  no  less  zeal. to  the  instruction  of  his 
pupil,  and  contributed  very  gready  to  the  unfolding  of  his 
talents.  His  favourite  study  at  the  university  was  that  of 
mathematics,  and  the  branches  of  natural  philosophy  coh« 
nected  with  them*  On  the  completion  of  bis  studied,  he 
accepted  a  situation  as  tutor  in  a  olergyman*s  fairiily.  In 
this,  and  in  two  other  similar  situations,  he  was  not  able  to 
satisfy  his  mind  that  he  did  his  duty  so  well  as  be  ou^t ; 
he  was,  according  to  his  own  account,  too  much  occupied 
with  acquiring  knowledge  to  be  able  to  communicate  the 
rudiments  of  it  to  others.  Having,,  acted  as  a 
tutor  for  nine  years,  he  returned  to  Konigsberg,  and  main- 
tained himself  by  private  instruction.  In  1746,  when 
twenty-'two  years  of  age,  he  began  bis  literary  career  whh 
a  soulII  worJK,  entitled  '^Thoughts  on  the  estimation  of 
the  animal  powers,  with -strictures  on  the  proofs  advanced 
by  Leibnitz  and  other  mathematicians  on  this  point,**  &c. 
In  1754  he  acquired  great  reputation  by  a  prize  essay  op 
the  levolutieii  of  the  earth  lound  iit  axis ;  and  the  following 

262  '  KAN  T: 

year  was  admitted  to  his  degree  of  master  of  arts,  and  ^li^ 
tered  immediately  upon  the  task  of  lecturing,  which  he 
.performed  for  many  years  to  crowded  audiences,  and  pub- 
lished several  works,  the  titles  of  which  are  now  of  little 
importance,  compared  to  his  new  metaphysical  system, 
the  first  traces  of  which  are  to  be  found  in  his  inaugural 
dissertation,  written  in  1770,  when  he  was  appointed  to  a 
professor^s  chair  in  the  university  of  Konigsberg  ;  the  sub- 
ject was,  **  De  mundi  sensibilis  atque  intelligibilis  forma 
et  principiis."  Seated  now  in  the  chair  of  metaphysics,' 
his  subsequent  publications  were  almost  entirely  of  this 
nature.  He  pursued  this  study  with  unremitting  ardour, 
and  entered  into  all  the  depths  of  metaphysical  subtlety,- 
in  order,  as  we  are  told,  ^^  to  unfold  the  rational  powers 
of  man,  and  deduce  from  thence  his  moral  duties."  It 
was  not  till  178],  that  the  full  principles  of  his  system  iip- 
peared  in  his  ''  Review  of  pure  reason  ;^'  and  the  system  it 
contains  is  commonly  known  under  the  name  of  the  *^  Cji-. 
tical  Philosophy."  As  this  work  had  been  variously  mis- 
represented, he  published  a  second  part  in  1783,  rentitled 
**  Prolegomena  for  future  Metaphysics,  which  are  to  be 
considered  as  a  science."  '  In  1786  he  was  appointed  rec- 
tor of  the  university,  and  was  a  second  time  jcalled  I'o  the 
same  office,  in  17.88 ;  and  in  a  few  months  he  was  ad- 
vanced to  be  senior  of  the  philosop^hical  faculty.  About 
1798,  he  took  leave  of  the  public  as  an  autHoi^,  and'soon 
after  gave  up  all  his  official  situations.  During  bis  latter 
years,  his  faculties  were  visibly  decayed,  in  which  state 
be  died  Feb.  12,  1804.  The  character  of  Kant  is  said  to 
have  been  contemplated  with  universal  respect  and  admi^ 
ration,  and  during  his  Hfe  he  received  from  the  learned 
throughout  Germany,  marks  of  esteem  bordering  upon 
adoration..  How  far  he  deserved  all  this,  ^  is  very  question- 
able. His  language  is  equally  obscure,  and  his  reason^ 
ings  equally  subtle  with  those  of  the  commentators  of 
Aristotle  ip  the  fifteenth  century.  The  truth  of  this  asser- 
tion will  be  denied  by  none  who  have  endeavoured  to  make 
themselves  masters  of  the  works  of  Willich  and  Nitsch, 
two  of  his  pupils ;  and  the  source  of  this  obscurity  seems 
to  be  sufficiently  obvious.  Besides  employing  a  vast  num- 
ber of  words  of  his  own  invention,  derived  from  the. Greek 
language,  Kant  uses  expressions  which  have  long  been 
i^amiliar  to  metaphysicians,  in  a  sense  different  from  that 
jA  which  they  ^e  generally  received;  and  we  have  no 

KANT.  263 

doubt  that  the  difficulty  of  comprehenditig  hU  philosophy 
has  contributed,  far  more*  than  any  thing  really  valuable  in 
it,  to  bring  it  into  vogue,  and  raise  the^fame  of  the  au* 
thdr.     For  the  following  analysis  of  his  system  we  are  in- 
debted to  one  of  our  authorities^  and  we  might  perhaps , 
deserve  blame  for  the  length  of  the  article,  if  it  did  not. 
appear  necessary  that  some  record  should  remain  of  a  set 
of  opinions  that  once  threatened  to  usurp  the  place  of  ali 
true  philosophy  as  well  as  religion.  The  reader  who  studies 
for  the  practical  improvement  of  his  mind,  will  perceive^ 
at  once,    that  it  is  the  object  of  all  such   metaphysical^ 
projectors  to  render  the  world  independent  of  revealed 

Kant  divides  all  our  knowledge  into  that  which  is  '^  a 
priori,"  and  that  which  is  *^  a  posteriori."  Knowledge 
*'  a  priori"  is  conferred  upon  us  by  our  nature ;  and  know*, 
ledge  '^  a  posteriori"  is  derived  from  pur  .seosations,  or 
from  experience;  and  it  is  in  this  system  denominated^ 
^^  empyric."  Kant  does  not,  as  this  division  would  seem 
to  imply,  intend  to  revive  the  doctrine  of  innate  ideas, 
lie  considers  all  knowledge  as  acquired ;  he  maintaina  that 
experience  is  the  productrice  of  all  knowledge,  and  that 
wiUiottt  it  we  could  not  have  had  a  single  idea.  Our  ideas 
^Va  priori,"  he  says,  are  produced  with  experience,  hut 
not  by  it,  or  do  not  proceed  from  it.  They  exist  in,  .and 
are  forms  of  the  mind.  They  are  distinguished  from  other 
ideas  by  two  marks,  which  are  easily  discerned ;  they  are- 
universal  and  necessary ;  they  admit  of  no  exception,  and. 
their  converse  is  impossible.  Ideas  which  we  derive  from 
experience  have  no  such  characters.  We  can  imagine 
that  what  we  have  seen,  or  felt,  or  heard- once,  we  may 
see,  or  feel,  or  hear  again;  but  we  do  i not  perceive  any. 
impossibility  in  its  being  otherwise.*  Thus,  f if  I  see. a 
building  on  fire,  I  am  certain  of  this  individual  fact ;  but 
it  affords  no  general  knowledge.  But  if  I  take  twice  two 
small  balls,  and  learn  to  call  twice  two.  four,  I  shall  immer 
diately  be_convinced  that  any  two  bodies  whatever,  when 
added  to  any.  other  two  bodies,  will  constantly  make:  the 
sum  of  bodies  four.  Experience  affords  the  opportunity, 
of  acquiring  this  knowledge,  but  it  has  not  giveji  it  ;^f<»: 
how  could  experience  prove  that  this  truth  should  neveir 
vary  ?  Experience  must  be  limited,  and  cannot  teach  ^what 
is  universal  and  necessary.  It  is  not  exf>erience  which  dis-. 
cpvers  jto  usiihat  we  shall  always  have  the  ^rface  of  a  whole 

H#  K  A  N.T. 

fffmmi^  \v  Mil^lllgnvg  iM  l^^sa  by  tiii*  diird  pnrl  of.kii 

^11  Mver  ineel, 

AU  pittbeiagMftl  Ibritlbi,  noeordfttS  tn  KMt,.  aore  ><  a: 
priim  :^\  th^s,  tbikC  a  ^tr»igbt  Ibe  is  the  shortest  Af  bK 
pnaiUe  liaes  b^twean  two  gtTen  poiots ;  that  the  tinee 
jtflglcs  Ml  any  pkne  tfiangle  arei  always  .equal  to  twa  rigbt 
aungles,  are  propo^tioi^  vhieb  are  true  ^^  a  priori.^*  Porft 
|AonIedge  ^^  a  priori/*  is  tb^t  wfaicb  ia  wkbciut  aaj  iniKi- 
taee  of  expeneoce.  Two  and  two  mdiko  four,  is  a  trutb  of 
^bieb  the  kaowledge  is  f<a  priori;'^  but  it  is  not  pure 
loHftwleilge^  because  the  trutb  is  pasticmiar.  Tfaa  ideas  of 
substance,  and  of  cause  and  effect,  are  ^^  a  priori.;^^  find 
^en  tbej  ate  separated  fnim  ibsi  objects  ta  which  they 
ref^y  thej^  form^  aceordtpg  to  this  sjxsteai,  f'  vdd  ic)eas.*^ 
2t  is  our  fcqowledge  ^'  a  jpriosi,^^  that  is,  tbo  knowledge 
'  Vibi<;h  preoedes  expeviencQf  as  to  its  origin^  wktch  reai^aini 
<^perieiice  possible.  Qnr  faeuky  of  kpovdedge  has  an 
lefioet  on  cmr  ideas  of  seniaitio^»  aaaJogous  to  that  of  i|  ifesselr 
iidiieh  gives  its  own  form  to  the  liquor  with  whieh  it  .is  filled^ 
,  This,  in  all  kpowl^dge  ff  a  pesteiiiori,^^  thena  is  sometbiBf^ 
^  a  psiori^^V<}®>^^>^  iroiii  our  faculty  of  kaowiodge..  AIL 
tbe  opesationa  of  o^f  aaiBds,.«U  the  impressioBs  indiidi  our 
senses  recerre  aad  ratain,  are  brought  itito  effect  by  the 
oottditions,  the  forais,  whiah  exist  in  us  by  the  pi>ve  ideas 
^i  a  priori^V  which,  alone  Bendes  all  our  other  knowledge 
ceirtain.  Time  and  space  are  the  Iwq  essential  forms  of 
the  n^ind:  the  first,  for  impressions  received  by  the  in-^ 
tevnal  sense ;  the  second,  for  those  received  by  our  ex^ 
teciM||l  senses.  It  is  by  neans  of  the  form  ^accy  that  we 
are  enabl^^  ^  a  priori,'*  to  attribute  to  external  objects 
iaipenetrabilily^  divisibility,  Jic* ;  and  it  is  by  meatis  of  tibe 
form  iiTUef  that  we  attribute  to  any  thing  duration,  sqc* 
ocssiqn,  &o.  Arithmetic  is  derived  from  thf  iatenial  sense, 
andgeometry  from  that  of  our  exteroaL  Our  undevstaodinf^ 
eoUeotsihe  ide^s  veceived  by  the  impressions  m^de  on  our 
organs  of  senae^  oonfers  on  those  ideas  unity  by  a  parti«o 
cular  energy  ^^  a  prioily^^  and  thereby  forms  the  repniesem^ 
lattioQ  of  eafdi  object  Thua  a  peiison  is,  successively  struok 
with  ^he  impressiona  of  all  the  parts  which  fone  a  paaticalar 
garden^  His  mjiderstanding  unites  these  iinpressions,  00 
the  ideaa  resulting  from  them ;  and  in  the  unity  produced 
by  tbeaclr,  it  acquires  the  idea  of  the  whole  gai«ten#  if 
tk»  objeejbs  which  produce  tlie  knpiPAfsjma  aftwrd  «dao  the 

KANT.  2^ 

ip^ttur  of  the  »4i^a9»  tb^o  t^0  ideM  nre  <<  ^liipjrie  */'  but  if 

4^11  fi^^Pts  only  ^»fQ)(i  U^  fprm^  of  the  thought  the  Ui«ar 

4ur^  "  ^  priarif'' 

.  Judgaieot3  are  divi4^4  in%o  two  species;  anafytie  tfnd 

^fnf^eti^.    An  a/2«(yf2c  JM^gfnent  is  tbat  in  wfaich  the  attrU 

biyte  is  the  npere  df  velopem^Qt  of  ibd  subject,  and  is  found 

by  (he  siipple  analysis  ot'  the  pereeptton  ^  as,  a  triangle  hat 

t)ifee  si^es*    A  synt/^etic^^t  judgment  is  that  in  which  the 

attribute  is  connected  with  the  Subject  by  a  cause  or  basii 

^^  from  the  faculty  of  ktiowledge,  which  renders  thif 

eonneptioo  necessary ;  as,  iron  is  heavy ;  wood  is  combus* 

fciblep  the  three  Asgles  of  a  plaue  triangle  are  equal  tor 

twa  right  apgles. 

The  fofvns  of  the  understanding  are,  in  this  system,  quan^^ 
iftyy  quality,  relation,  modality.     Saenli/y  is  distingpished 
iptp ^ener^l,^  particular,  and  individual;  puifity,  into  af^ 
4rf9i^MW»  iies^l^)^  infinite;  relattan^  into  categoric,  hypo- 
ljietic»  iied  qisjonouve;    and  modaliiyy  into  problematic^' 
<}erta<itb  aud  neoe^sarj*     M.  Kant  adds  likewise  to  the  pro-' 
pertiif^  of  the  four  principal  forms  of  the  understanding  ^ 
tftjpilf^  of  categories,  or  ftindansental  ideas,  ^'  a  priqri.'* 
.  Pure,  reaaotv  i^  the  faeuhy  of  tracing  oar  knowledge  '^  a 
pr4oii»*'  to  si^ligeet  it  to  principles,  to  trace  it  from  its'  tie* 
<^asary  cpoditiopsi  till  it  bevemirety  without  condition,  and 
iQ  caiepJie^  Moity.    The  great  work  of  Kant  is  divided  into 
several  pv^rts,  under  the  titles,  ^^  Of  Esthetic  transcen- 
dental ;"    *^  Of  transcendental   L<ogie  ;'*    ^*  Of   the  pure 
Ideas  of   the  Understanding;'*    ^<  Of  the  transcendental 
Judgfoept ;"  ^^  Of  the  Paralogism  of  pure  Reason,^  &c. 
We  cwQOt,  from  the  nature  of  our  work,  discuss  alt  the 
parts  of  the  system ;  but  may  observe,  that  the  author  con- 
l^da  that  we  know  objects  only  by  the  manner  in  which 
tbejT  aS^ot  lu ;  and  as  the  impressions  which  they  make 
iipon  us  are  ool^  certain  apparitions  or  phenomena,  it  is 
ip|x>SBible  for  us  to  know  what  an  object  is  in  itself.   Hence 
the  system  of  Kant  has  been  compared  with  that  of  Berke- 
ley*  which  maietaioa  that  sensations  are  only  appearaneesy 
ai^d  thikt  there  is  ne  truth,  only  in  our  r^ison.     But  Kant 
4ee4  nqt.  go  to  this  length*  According  to  his  theory,  the  un« 
dersteniting^  when  it  coneiders  the  apparitions  or  pheno- 
^eea,  iK?km>vledges  the  exialence  of  the  objects  themsel  ves, 
aiMPiDliehas^lh^  sierve  &r  the  bases  of  those  apparitions ; 
itbough  we  :liMW  Mtbing  of  their  reality,  and  though  we 
eiA  hi^'M  oMtiiaqr:  hot  in  esperieii^e.  ^ 

4«iR  K  A  N  T. 


.  Trutbi  according  to  our  author,  consists  in  the  agreement 
of  our  notions  with  the  objects,  in  such  a  manner  as  that  all 
.men  are  obliged  to  form  the  same  judgment :  belief  con* 
Asts  in  holding  a  thing  to  be  true,  in  consequence  of  a 
persuasion  which  is  entirely  personal^  and  has  not  its  basis 
in  an  object  submitted  to  experience.  There  is  a  belief  of . 
dj^ctrine,  as,  that  '^  there  are  inhabitants  in  the  planets/' 
which  is  not  the  same  as  moral  belief;  because  in  moral 
belief  there  is  something  necessary.  The  ordinary  mode 
of  teaching  the  existence  of  God  belongs  to  the  belief  of 
doctrine ;  and  it  is  the  same  with  regard  to  the  immortality 
of  the  soul ;  nevertheless, .  the  author  was  a  firm  believer 
in  the  existence  of  God,  and  a  future  state ;  because, 
said  he,  ^^ 'this. persuasion  renders  immovable  my  moral 
principles-— principles  which  I  cannot  reject,  without 
xendering.  myself  contemptible  in  my  own  eyes.  I  wish 
for  happiness,  but  I  do  not  wish  for  it  without  morality ; 
9iid  as  it  depends  oh  nature,  I  cannot  wish  it  with  this 
condition,  except  by  believing  that  nature  depends  on 
a  Being  who  causes  this  connection  between  morality 
and  happiness.  This-  supposition  is  founded  on  the  want 
or  necessity  of  my  reason,  and  not  on  my  duty.  We 
have,  however,"'  says  Kant,  ^^  no  certainty  in  our  know- 
ledge of  God  ;  because  certainty  cannot  exist,  except 
when  it  is  founded  on  an  object  of  experience.  The  pbilo* 
sopher  acknowledges  that  pure  reason  is  too  weak  to  prove 
the  existence  of  a  being  beyond  the  reach  of  our  senses. 
The  necessity  of  believing  in  God  is,  therefore,  only  sub- 
jective, although  necessary  and  general  for  all  those  be- 
ings who  conform  to  their  duty.  The  proofs  of  natural 
theology,  taken  from  the  order  and  beauty  of  the  universe, 
are  proofs  only v in  appearance.  They  resolve  themselves 
into  a  bias  of  our  reason  to  suppose  an  infinite  Intelligence, 
%he  author  of  all  that  is  possible  ;  but  from  this  bias  it  does 
not  follow  that  there  really  is  such  an  aulhor.  To  say^ 
that  whatever  exists  must  have  a  cause,  is  a  maxim  '*  a 
priori ;"'  but  it  is  a  maxim  applicable  only  to  experience  : 
for  we  know  not  how.  to  subject  to  the  laws  of  our  percep- 
tions that  which  is  absolutely  inde.pendent  of  them.  It  is' 
impossible  to  know  that  God  exists ;  but  we  can  compre*^ 
hetid  how  it  is  possible  to  act  morally  on  the  supposition  of 
the  existence  of  an  intelligent  Creator,  -^  an  existence 
which  practicaji  reason  forces  theoretical  reason  to  adopt. 
This  proof  not  only  persuades,  but  ev^a  aotsoQ  the  coti-f 

KANT,  26*: 

Victioo,  in  proportion  as  tbe  inotiv!e8  of  .our  actions  are 
conformable  to  the  law  of  morality.  Religion  onght  to  be 
the  means  of  virtue^  and  not  its  object  Man  has  not  in 
himself  the  idea  of  religion,  as  he  has. that  of  virtue*  The 
latter  has  its  principle. in  the  mind  :  it  exists  in  itself,  and 
not  as  the  means  ofbappiness ;  and  it  may  be  taught  with*, 
out  the  idea  of  God,  for  tbe  pure  law  of,  morality  is  **  a 
priori."  He  who  does,  good  by  inciination,  does  not  act' 
morally.  There  are  compassionate  minds,  which. feel  an* 
internal  pleasure  in  communicating  joy  around  them,  and 
who  thus  enjoy  the  satisfaction  of  others  ;  but  their  actions^ 
bbwever  just,  however  good,  have  no  moral  merits  and 
may  be  compared  to  other  inclinations ; — to  that  of  bonour, 
for  example,  which,  wbile  it  meets  with  that  which  is  just 
and  useful,  is  worthy  of  praise  and  encouragement,  but 
i^ot  bf  any  high  degree  of  esteem.  According  to  Kant,  we 
ought  not  even  to  do  good,  either  for  the  pleasure  which 
we  feel  in  doing  it,  or  in  order  to  be  happy,  or  to  render - 
others  happy  ;  for  any  one  of  these  motives  would  be  em* 
piric,  and  injure  the  purity  of  our  morals.  We  ought  to: 
act  after  the  maxims  derived  ^'  a  priori,^'  from  the  faculty 
of  knowledge,  which  carry  with  them  the  idea  of  neces- 
sity, and  are  independent  of  all  experience ;  after  the 
maxims  which,  it  is  to  be. wished,  could  be  erected  into 
general  laws  for  all  beings  endowed  with  reason. 

If  this,  says  a  judicious  writer,  be  a  correct  view  of  the 
object  and  the  results  of  the  Critical  Philosophy,  we  con- 
fess ourselves  unable  to  discover  any  motive  which  should 
induce  our  countrymen,  in  their  researches  after  trutli,  to 
prefer  the  dark  lantern  of  Kant  to  the  luminous  torch  of 
Bacon.  The  metaphysical  reader  will  perceive,  that,  iti 
this  abstract,  there  is  little  which  is  new  except  the 
phraseology,  that  what  is  new  is  either  unintelligible  or 
untenable,  and  that  his  opinions  on  the  existence  of  tbe ' 
Supreme  Being  have  a  manifest  tendency  to  atheism* 
With  these  sentiments  of  Kant's  philosophy,  we  hear  with- 
out surprize  or  regret  that  it  is  already  much  neglected  in 
Germany,  and  will  probably  soon  fall  into  utter  oblivion.* 

KASTNER  (Abraham  Gothelf),  an  eminent  matbe- 
matician,  and  professor  of  mathematics  at  Gottingen,  was 
bpm  at  Leipsic,  Sept.  27,  1719.     He  had  part  of  his  edu- 

1  Dr.  Gleig'8  Supplement  to  tfie  EncyclopsBdia  Britaonics,  a  reiy  elaboratt 
^nd  yalual^le  article.— 'Rees's  CyclopsMii?* 

26S  K  A  S  T  N  £  R. 

cation  at  homes  tmder  his  father  and  uncW,  both  of  whonr 
were  lectiimr^  on  jurispradence,  and  men  of  general  lite- 
rature. In  1731  he  attended  the  philosophical  iectnres  of 
the  celebrated  Winkler,  and  next  year  studied  natheinatics 
under  G.  F.  Itiohter,  and  afterwards  under  llausea ;  hvA 
practical  astronomy  being  at  that  period  very  little  encou* 
raged  at  Leipric,  h^  laboored  for  some  yeaiB  under  great 
dificolties  for  want  of  instruments,  and  does  not  appear 
to  have  made  any  great  progress  until,  in  1742,  he  formed 
ao  acqiiaiataHce  with  J.  C.  Baomann,  and  by  degrees 
acquired  such  helps  as  enabled  him  to  make  several  obser- 
vatiens.  Heinsius  was  his  first  preceptor  in  ajgebra ;  and^ 
19  17M,  he  was  inrited  to  Gottingen,  to  be  professor  of 
mathematios  and  moral  philosophy,  and  afterwards  became 
secretary  of  the  royal  society,  and  had  the  care  of  the 
obserratory  on  the  resignation  of  Lowita  in  176S;  but, 
notwithstanding  his  talents  in  astronomy  and  geography^ 
the  services  he  rendered  to  ^mathematical  sciences  in 
general  are  more  likely  to  convey  his  naane  .  to  postertiy. 
He  exerted  himself  with  the  most  celebrated  geometers  of 
Germany,  Segner,  and  Karsten,  to  restore  to  geometry  ita 
ancient  rights,  •  and  to  introduce  more  precision  and  accu* 
racy  of  demonstratipn  into  the  whole  of  mathematical 
analysis.  The  doctrine  of  binomials ;  that  of  the  higher 
equations ;  the  laws  of  the  equilibrium  of  t¥9o  forces  on  the 
lever,  and  their  composition ;  are  some  of  the  most  im- 
portant points  in  the  doctrine  of  mathematical  analysis  and 
mathematics,  which  KaUtner  illustrated  and  explained  in 
such  a  manner  as  to  excel  all  his  predecessors.  Germany 
is  in  particular  indebted  to  him  for  his  classical  works  on 
every  part  of  the  pure  and  practical  mathematics.  They 
unite  that  solidity  peculiar  to  the  old  Grecian  geometry 
witb  great  brevity  and  clearness,  and  a  fund  of  erudition, 
by  which  Kistner  has  greatly  contributed  to  promote  the 
study  and  knowledge  of  the  mathematics.  Ksbtner^s  talents, 
however,  were  not  confined  to  mathematics :  his  poetical 
and  humorous  works,  as  well  as  his  epigrams,  are  a  proof 
of  the  extent  of  his  genius ;  especially  as  these  talents 
seldom  fall  to  the  lot  of  a  mathematiciao.  How  KastQer 
acquired  a  taste  for  these  pursuits,  we  are  told  by  himself 
in  one  of  his  letters.  In  the  ^arly  part  of  his  life  he 
resided  at  Leipsic,  among  friends  who  were  neither  mathe- 
maticians nor  acquainted  with  the  sciences  ;  he  then,  as  he 
tells  us,  contracted  ^<  the  bad  habit  of  laughing  at  others  ;*' 

K  A  S  T  N  £  R.  SK9 

but  he  used  always  to  i ay,  Hanc  veniam  doTims  pitinho^ 

'  K&stfiei'  died  at  Got^ingen,  June  ^130,  1800/  Betifdtfl 
works  on  the  pure  and  prftctioal  tnathetnatios,  We  9it6  in4 
debted  to  Kibtaer  for  a  history  of  the  matbeiMAties,  fmttt 
the  refvival  of  literature  to  the  end  of  the  ^i^teenth  cefn^ 
tury.  :Y6l  I.  contains  arithmetic,  algc^hl,  She  elements  tf 
geometry,  trigonometry,  and  practical  geometry,  aAd  wtti 
{)ablisbed  at  Gottingeo,  1796,  and  art  appendix  in  lf97« 
Vol.  II.  which  appeared  art  the  same  time^  ^  emhrtioes  pe^-^ 
apective  geometricial  analysis,  and  the  higher  georttel^y, 
mechanics,  optics^  aild  astronoiliy.^ 

KAUFFMAN  (Mary  Angelica),  a  female  artist,  w^ 

known  in  this  country,  was  born  in  1740,  at  Coh'e,  tfcfer 

capital  of -the  Grison%  and  received  tbe^  eiem^ntd'  of  art 

from  her  fathet,  who,  on  some  surprising  pi^6ofe  6f  h^ 

early  Capacity,  at  the  age  6f  fourteen),  conducted-  hef  to 

Miko^  and,  after  some  years*  practice  there  and  elsewbifrW^^. 

to  Robie,  where  her  talent^  cbarftis,  accSoniplishtnent^,  dftd 

graces,  soon  rendered  her  an  object  of  general  adminltioh  : 

in  1764  she  removed  to  Venice,  and  in  the  following  year 

accbmpwiied  lady  Wentwortb,  the  wiH^  of  the  Briti^  teA^ 

4ent,  to  Enghnd.     Here,  cnjoyinfg  royal  favour,  the  i«W- 

tress  of  public  taste,  loved,  esteemed,  perhftp^  ebvidd  'by 

artists,    decorated  with  academic  honours,   opulent  Hftd 

happy,  she  sunk  her  own  name  in  that  df  sir  A.  ZUdChi,  a 

Venetian  airtist,  whom  she  married^,  Sfnd,  after  a  residetf e^ 

of  seventeen  years,  returned,  through  her  native  pkide,  to 

Italy,  andserttled  at  Rome;  where,  after  a  new  career  of 

iuccess^  eoUrted,  employed,  and  rewarded,  by  monarehs, 

prmces,  and  the  most  distinguished  travellers,  she  died  in 

IS07,  of  gradual  decay,  resigned,  regretted,  sind  honot^- 

ed  by  splendid  obsequies. 

Mr.  Fuscli,  who  was  honoui'ed  by  the*  friendship  of  Ata* 
getica,  and  cfaeririies  her  memory,  say^,  that  be  *'  bas  n6 

*  Iq  the  Cyclopaedia,  we  are  toldt  kindness,  but  treated  berrfnry  iU^    At 

that  after  some  years  residence  here,  last,  however,  by  a  payment  mode  to 

iSie  wet  tmhiiippily  dee«ived  by  A  fa(ot'>  him  of  300/.  he  wa!i  induced  i6  rettirii 

nsM  of  a  Germaa  county  whoj.  cofDiag  to  Oieriiiai^,  and^pruikijfted  ttBte#  t6 

to  England,   persoo^Lted  his  master,  molest  her  uny  more.     He  kept- bit 

eoiltriVed  to  be  pres^ted^  at  court,  add  engagement ;  and  the  lady  not'  liearing 

ibrsuAded  Angeiicar  to  marry  hilML  The  of  Hitt  for  Seireli^yeilrs)  ai^eeneltiAli^ 

cheat  was  soon  discovered,  and  the  him  dead,   then  married  an    Italiam 

rascal  bad  not  the  humanity  to  endea-  painter  of  the  nasve  of  2^gebi, 
Vttiif  to  sooth  ber  disappointment  by  . 

*  Tillocb*s  Philosophical  Magazine,  toK  IX. 

tlQ  K  A  U  F  F  M  A  N. 

yfiA  to  contradict  those  who  make  success  the  statidftrd  df  . 
genius^  and  as  their  heroine  equalled  the  greatest-  names-' 
ill  the  firsts'*  suppose  that  she  was  on  a  level  with  thein  in  , 
powers.   Angelica  pleased,  and  deserved  to  please,  the  age 
i^D  which  she  lived,  and  the  race  for  which  she  wrought. 
The  Germans,  with  as  much  patriotism  at  least  as  judg- 
9^nt,  have  styled  her  the  Paintress  of  Minds  (Seelen  Mah«  . 
ierin) :  nor  can  this  be  wondered  at  from  a  nation,  who, 
in-A.  IL.Mengs,  flatter  themselves  to  possess  an  artist  equal 
to  Raffaello.    The  male  and  female  characters  of  Ange-* 
Ijca  never  vary  in  form,  features,  and  expression,  fr^m^ 
the  favourite  ideal  she  had  composed  in  her  mind.     Her 
heroes  are  all,  the  man  to  whom  she  thought  she  could  have 
submitted,  though  him  perhaps  she  never  found ;  and  to' 
bis  fancied  manner  of  acting  and  feeling,  she,  of  course, 
submitted  the  passions  of  the  subject.     Her  heroines  are! 
herself;  and[  wbibt  suavity  of  countenance  and  alluring 
graces  shall  be  able  to  divert  the  general  eye  from  the 
sterner  demands  of  character  and  expression,  can  never 
fail  to  please*'^ 

.  Angelica  painted  the  lighter  scenes  of  poetry  with  a 
grace  and  taste  entirely  her  own ;  and  happily  formed  to 
meet  that  of  an  engraver  whose  labours  highly  contributed 
to  the  growth  and  perpetuity  of  her  fame.  Bartolozzi  was 
the  man,  who,  enjoying  at  the  same  time,  youth,  health, 
and  ingenuity,,  almost  entirely  devoted  his  talents  between 
Angelica  and  Cipriani.  The  three  were  endowed  with  con* 
genial  feelings  in  arts ;  which,  if  not  of  the  highest  class, 
were  certainly  entitled  to  rank  among  the  most  agreeable.'^' 
KAYE,  KEYE,  CAY,  or  CAIUS  (John),  a  learned 
English  physician  and  co-founder  of  Gonvil  and  Caius 
cpUege,  Cambridge,  the  son  of  Robert  Kaye,  of  a  Norfolk 
family,  was  born  at  Norwich,  Oct.  6,  1510.  After  having 
received  his  school  education  at  Norwich,  he  was  admitted 
very  young  of  Gonvil-hall,  of  which  he  became  fellow. 
While  here,  among  other  proofs  of  literary  application,  he 
informs  us  that  at  the  age  of  twenty-one,  he  translated  out 
of  Greek  into  Latin,  Nicephorus  Callistus^s  treatise  of 
**  Confession  in  prayer,**  another  of  Chrysostom,  on  the 
^*  manner  of  prayer;**  and  out  of  Latin  into  JEnglish,  Eras« 
mus's  paraphrase  on  Jude.     He  also  epitomized  bis  bool^ 

t  Piikmgtoo,  by  Fuseli,  in  art.  Zaochi.— Qent.  Mas-  ▼oU  J^XXyiU.^Mfpf 
ntBan,  toI.  III.  aod  IV.— Reel's  Cydopsdia. 

KAY  E.  271 

•^Dc  Vera  ThedlogW*  The  study  of  divtaity  mj^i  pi 
bably  bare  engaged  bis  attention  at  this  time)  but  we  find 
tbat  when  he  went  afterwards,  according  to  the  cudtom  of 
the  age>  to  Italy,  he  studied  physic  under  the'  learned 
Mpntanus,  and  soon  became  himself  so  eminent  in  that 
faculty,  as  to  read  lectures  in  the  university  of  Padua  for 
some  years.  We  also  find  him  reading  lectures  on  Aris- 
totle at  that  university  about  1542,  but  he  took  his  cfector's 
degree  \at  Bononia.  In  1543  he  travelled  through 'the 
greatest  part  ,of  Italy,  Germany,  and  France,'  and  on  his 
return  to  England,  commenced  M.  D.  at  Cambridge,  and 
practised  both  at  Shrewsbury  and  Norwich  with  such  suc^ 
cess,  as  to  be  considered  oae  of  the  \  ablest  physicians  in 
JEngland.  It  was  doubtless  this  high  reputation  which  pro* 
cured  him  the  honour  of  being  successively  physician  to 
Edward  VI.  queen  Mary,  and  queen  Elizabeth. 
'  In  1547,  he  was  admitted  fellow  of  the  college  of  phy- 
sicians ia  London,  of  which  he  held  all  the  higher  offices, 
of  censor,  president,  &c.  and  upon  every  occasion  shewed 
himself  a  zealous  defender  of  the  college's  rights  and 
privileges,  and  a  strict  observer  of  her  statutes,  never,  even 
in  advanced  life,  absenting^  himself  from  the  coniitia,  or 
meetings,,  without  a  dispensation.  He  also  compiled  the 
annals  of  the  college  from  1555  to  1572,  entering  evef:y 
memorable  transaction  in  its  due  time  and  order.  In  1557^ 
being  in  great  favour  with  queen  Mary,-  and,^  it  is  said, 
almost  an  oracle  in  her  opinion,  he  determined  to  employ 
this  influence  in  behalf  of  literature  in  general,  and  ac^-* 
co(;dingly  obtained  a  licence  to  advance  GonviUfaall,  in 
which  he  had  been  educated,  into  a  college.  As  yet  it 
was  not  a  corporation,  or  body  politic ;  but,  by  Caius's  in-^ 
terest  at  court,  it  was  now  incorporated  by  the  name  of 
Gonvil  and  Caius  College,  which  he  endowed  :widi  con* 
siderable  estates,  purchased  by  him  ,  on  the  dissoliitidn  of 
the  monasteries,  for  the  maintenance  of  an  additional  num« 
ber  of  fellows  and  scholars.  He  also  built,  at  his-own  ex* 
pence,  the  new  square  called  Caius  Court.  The  first  sta- 
tutes of  this  new  foundation  were  drawn  up  by  him,  and 
that  he  might  have  the  better  opportunity  of  consuhing  its 
interest,  be  accepted,  and  retained,  the  mastership,  almost 
as  loiig  as  he  lived.  Some  short  time  before  his. decease 
he  caused  another  master  to  be  appointed  in  his  room,  biit 
continued  in  college  as  a  fellow-commoner,  assisting  daily 
at  divine  service  in  a  private  seat  in  the  chupel,  which  he 


K  At  % 

had  bttik  f9t  UamOL  Her*  ;be  didi  July  2f ,  1 573,^  ^nA 
ins  buried  in  the  cotlege-cbepal^  mA  ibe  sb^Tt  efikapink 
**  Foi  Caiits.  Vivii  post  fimeni  virtas/* 

Caius's  feligtous  principteft  bikte  been  dMpetecL  IM 
anott  probable  conjecture  is,  tbat  be  bAd  a  i^ret  mdiiul^ 
tioa  to  tbe  primsiples  of  hi»  early  yeal^^  but  confo/ttM^^ 
at  Itfast  in  outward  pbsen^nees,  to  the  ref6muitk)b.i*  Mi 
latter  days*  Of  bis  learning  tbere  is  no  difierettcc}  i^i^ 
•ion.  It  was  various  and  ejrtcasive ;  and  his  bnowleidg^  of 
the  Greek  language^  particolaHy^  gave  hiifr  a  sajMridtit]^ 
bver  BKMa  of  his  oonienporftriesy  the  study  of  that'  ten** 
guage  in  this '  country  being  then  in  \t»  infancy.  His  teal 
for  tbe  ialeresis  of  learning  appears  from  his  niauificett<id 
to  bis  alma  aiater»  and  the  same  motive  led  faim  in  155YS6 
erect  a  monument  in  St<  Paul's  cathedral  to  the  edebriitedf 
Linacre*  Ak  an  author,  be  wrote  much ;  but  some  of  hii 
wofks  have  not  been  pubUsbed.  H^  retis^,  cmrre^tied, 
and  translated  several  of  Galen's  works,  piHnted  at  difieietkt 
tianes  abroad.  He  published  also,  I.  *<  Hippocrat^fs  Ai 
Medicamentis,*'  fi^t  discovered  in  MS.  by  him ;  also  ^''di^ 
imtione  Yietus,''  9vo.  2.  <«  De  medendi  metbodb/*  B$M^ 
l:i4>4,  Lood.l55e,  8vo.  3.  '<De  Ephemera  Brtcatittica^^ 
or  an  account  of  tbe  sweating  sickness  in  England,  hMdl 
\i56^  and  reprinted  so  lately  as  1721.  4.  <<De  Tbermi* 
Britaooicis."  5.  <<  Of  some  rare  Plante  add  Animab,*^ 
Londi  i570«  6.  <<De  Canibus  Britannicis,'*  Lond.  157&, 
wA  kiserted  entire  in  Pennant's  **  British  Zoology.**  ti 
<^  De  proounciatione  Griecd  et  Latinae  iiugaae,**  Lcuhd; 
U^t^f  with  several  other  works,  a  history  of  bis  college, 
Cia  stilt  in  manuscript  *.  One  only  of  his  works  we  r^« 
serve  for  a  more  particular  notice.  This  was  bi^  Hiitor^ 
of  tbe  university  of  Cambridge,  occasioried  by  the  appig^i 
ance  of  a  work  written  by  the  subj^te  of  our  neitt  Aiii6tet 
ui  which  it  was  asserted  that  Ottotd  wto  the  m6st  MdtMl 

-»  ThirtitoSDifidenM  AOcally  M 
nfioverinn  Uie  proper  titlat  aud  dates 
of  books  of  the  sixteenth  century  ;  and 
I^M,  Pittk   and  ereii  tanner,   often 

S'w  m$  Mfiftrate  pnUtcafeioitt*  vlua 
elong  to  a  collection.  We  are  not 
iute  that  ill  the  above  litt  we  hAve  not 
laUea  into  the  latne  6rror  ;  but  we  ean 
refer  the  reader  to  a  very  aearce  vo^ 
lUUe,  in  which  {he  -best  oi  Carat's 
tticts  are  to  be  found,  and  hi  which 
they  were  collected  by  the  author.    It 

is  MIltM,  « J.  0ail  BritiriHii  t>fi«M 
aliqiDiotet  VefMonMt  partiia  jfsr  Mdijl 
partim  recognita  atque  aucta.".  Lo^ 
vaine,  1556,  8^0.  To  t»is  editi6&  ii 
imeAsted  a-  prim  of  Dr;  Oalts^  HiB^ 
rately  cut  in  wood,  with  «1m|^  heafrdg 
according  to  the  custom  of  the  age. 
Dp.  Jebb*s  volmAe  of  Cfaias^s  ti^6t*  ilir< 
oMes,  «  De  Oadibuei*'  **  De  far|iS 
AnioBelibus  ;"^  <*  De  librkr  proprSit ;' 
and  *«  De  pnmoncitttidiie  Of.  ^  toL^ 


K  A.Y  E.  ^9 

9aAw0nii^9  Ib^ndtd  by  apme  Greek  pbilosopheris  ib^  C4in« 
{Htfmnii  of  Bruttt«»  und  restored  by  king  Airred  in  $7Q^ 
cooaequendy  crfder  tbiin  Cambridge.  Pr.  Caiii4)  hQweyer» 
oompleiiely  defeated  his  antagonist  by  going  farther  back  141 
eooient  Jbiatory,  and  aaterting,  thai  Cambridge  was  founded 
fay  Centaber,  394  year*  before  Christ,. end  consequently 
snw  1S67  years  older  than  Oxford  !  Strype  says  ^nt  Geiuf 
inMiahed.  this  work  (io  U68»  iMra)  attbeiQOtion  of  arcb^ 
biflkop  Parker.  It  is  to  be  regretted  that  either  sbotild 
liave  eesbarked  in  so  ridiouloos  a  oontroversy. ' 

KAY,  or  CAIU8  (Thowas),  the  antagonist  of  Dr*  Caitis 
jn  die  a^qoicy  of  the  univeraitiesf  was  bom,  as  Wood  eonr 
jeefcures,  in  Lioookisbire,  but,  acoording  to  Bkmiefield^ 
fNas/of  a  Yorkahire  family.  He  was,  however,  educated  a^ 
Vttiverisity  college,  Oxford,  where  he  entered  about  ibe 
fear  tsas*  In  I5d5,  he  was  ^oted  fellow  ef  All  8ooli» 
where  he  took  bia  degrees  in  arts,,  and  at  thai  time  was 
eateemed  an  excelleot  Latin  scholar,  GreeiaOf  and  poet 
ib  1534,  be  was  afianimonsly  chosen  registrar  of  the  i>Qi«- 
asersity ;  bat»  in  1538,  waa  deprived  of  this  office  for  negU<* 
|;Moe.  Soon  after  thie  accession  of  queen  Elisabeth^  he 
wsm  oade  prebendary  of  Saltabury.  In  IS^U  be  waa 
eleeted  maeter  of  Uaiversity  eolbge,  to  which  be  waa 
WWwatds  a  eonsiderable  benefacuw;  and^  in  15«S,  he 
4ras  instituted  to  the  rectory  ef  Tredingtoa  ia  Worcester*- 
4hi0e.  He  died  in  his  college,  in.  1572,  and  was  buried  in 
tke  chiifcb  of  St.  Peter's  in  the  East.  He  was  well  versed 
iiifsacredand  pro£sne  learnings  but,  according  to  8aitfa| 
negfigeiit  and  cavelesft  in  some  partt  of  biaoeiiduct.  He 
transbkted  Enamos^a  ^*  Paraphrase  on  St.  Mark/*  by  com^ 
eiand  of  qneeo  Catherine  Parr,  Load.  154^;  and  likewise 
made  translatipna  frem.  the  Greek  of  Aristotle,  Eortpidea, 
&a.  bat  which  do  not  appear  to  ha^ebeea  printed.  Wha^ 
ppeaervea.bis  aienMvy  is  his  vindieativo^f  the  antiquity  of 
Oxford,  mentioned  in  the  preceding  article,  entitled, 
^^  Aasevtie  antiqiiitaiia  Oaoniensis  aeadi^niiB,*'  printed  with 
Da.  JohnCaina*a  aaswer,  1568,  1574,  and  again  by  He^me 
S  vxds.  9vo,  1790*  Mr.  Smit^^  in  bis  history  of  Uoiverr 
aiiy  College,  ha»  nearly  answmd  Caius^a  ai^pmenu  iw^ 
apecting  Alfred.  * 

>  Biw.  Brit—Stnrpe'i  PvIb^j^  )99^201,  «57,  380.— P^k's  J^fiaMu  « 
«  Ath.  Ox.  ToL  I.^SAith'j  MijB»U  of  Qnlferiity  Colkre,  p.  ISt. 

V^JU  XIX.  T 

474  K  E  A  C  H. 

KEACH  (Benjamin),  a  Baptist  divine  of  conmdferable 
note  in  his  day,  and  some  of  whose  writings  are  still  poptfi 
lar,  was  born  Feb.  29,  1640,'  at  Stokehaman  in  Bqdcing- 
barh^hire :  be  appears  to  have  had  no  regular  education^ 
owing  to  the  poverty  of  his  fjarents,  and  for  some  time 
worked  at  a  trade.  He  read  rnuch^  however^  in  the  reti* 
gious  controversies  of  the  times,  and  ent^taining  doabti 
of  the  validity  of  infant  baptism^  was  hinisdf  re- baptised 
by  immersion,  when  in  his  fifteenth  year,  and  joined  him* 
self  to  a  congregation  of  Baptists.  Between  this  and  his 
eighteenth  year,  he  probably  studied  witb'  a'  view  to  the 
ministry,  as  at  that  latter  period,  he  became  a  preacher, 
and  some  time  after  his  settlement  in  London,  attached 
himself  to  the  particular  or  Calvinistic  Baptists.  After 
the  restoration,  he  frequently  was  involved  in  prosecutions, 
owing  to  the  bold  avowal  of  his  sentiments,  especially  in  a 
little  tract  called  «<  The  Child's  Instructor,"  in  whi«h  he 
asserted  that  infants  ought  not  to  be  baptised;  tfaait  laymen,^ 
having  abilities,  might 'preadi  the  gospel,  tce^*  .For  this 
he  was  tried  at  Aylesbury  assizes,  Oct  8,  1664,  andsen- 
tenced  to  imprisoi^ment  and  pillory,  the  latter  of  which 
was  exiecilted:at  the  market-place  of  Winslow,  where  be 
was  then- a  preacher.  In  1668  be  was  ehoaen  pastcnr  of  a 
congreg«itiou  oip  Baptists  in  Goat^yard  passage,  Hortiey^ 
down,  Southwark.  In  1674  ^nd  soma  following  yearsy  be 
bad  a  controversy,  ooncerning  his  particular  tenets,,  with 
Baxter,  Burkttt,  Kiavei,  and  others,  and  with  someof  hi^ 
own  persuasion,  coiiceming  certain  minute  points  of-  dis^ 
cipline.  He  was  in  all  his  opinions  sincere,  and  accoanted 
a  man  of  great. piety,  and  of  very  considerable  knowledge, 
£onsidering  tbd  want  of  early  education  and  oppottunitiea. 
He  died  July  18,  1704,  and  was  interred  in  the  bufiaU 
ground  beloi^ing  to  :tb0  Baptists,  in  the  Park  Sk>iitbwavlc. 
lie  published*  a  great  many  tracts,  some  controversial  and 
some  practical.  His  <*  Travels  o£  True  Godliness,"  and 
^<  Travels  of  Ungodliness,''  vrritten  in  the  manneriof  Bont* 
yan,  have  passed  tUrongh  ipany  editions,  and  are  still  pitf*. 
pillar;,  but  bis. ablest  worlds  are  his  }^  Key  tox»pen  Scrip- 
ture Metaphors,'',  first  puUisfaed  in  I6d2;.  and  hit>  ^  Ex^ 
position  of  the  Parables,"   1704,  both  in  fblio.i  . 

KEATE  (Gborge),  a  very  agreeable  English  writer,  vvas 
descende^l  from  sir  .George  Hungerford,  his  great  grietnd- 

"  Crosby's  Hist,  of  the  Baptists.— Wilson's  Hist,  of  JOissenHnf  Chnrohet^ 

K  E  A  T  E.  219: 

ftitber,  by  lady  Fraaces  Dueie,  only  dniigbter  of  Fraoci:)' 
lord  Seymour, . barofl  of  Trowbridge.     He  was  bom,  as. 
may  be  conjectured,  about  1729  or  1730,  and  received  bi»-. 
education  at  Kiogston  school,  under  tbe  rev.  Mr.  Woode- 
son.     From  thence  be  went  to  Geneva,  vbere  be.  resided, 
some  yeairs ;  and  during  bis  stay  therei  became  acquainted-. 
vf%th  V^oltaire,  with  wh^  be  continued  to  correspond  many* 
years  after  he  returned  to  Englaud*     After  fiiiisbing  tbe. 
tour  of  Europe,  be  settled  as  a  student  in  tbe  Inner  Tern-, 
ple^  was  called  to  tbe  bar,  and  sometimes  attended  Wester  r 
mioster-liaU ;  though  be  did  not  meet  with  encouragement/ 
enough  tp  induce  his  perseverance  in  his  profes^ioni  noi? 
indeed  doe?  it  se^m  probable  that  he  bad  sufficient  appli-r 
cati<m  for  it.     His  first  performance  was  '^Ancient  and 
Modern  Rome,*'  a  poem,  written  at  Rome  in  1755,  .and. 
pubii^ed  in  1760,  with  merited  applause*     Soon  after,  be. 
printed  ^*  A  short  Account  of  the  Ancient  History,  present* 
Government,  and  Laws  of  tbe  Republic  of  Geneva."  .  This 
work   be  dedicated  to  his  friend  Voltaire.  .In  1762  hei 
produced  an  ^^  Epistle  from  lady  Jane  Gray  to  lord  Guild- 
ford Dudley  ;''  and  in  1763  ^<  Tbe  Alps,"  a  poem,  whichi: 
for  truth  of  description,  elegance  of  versigcation,  and  vi-) 
gour  of  imagination,  greatly  surpasses  all  his  other  poeti-; 
cxd. productions,    la.  1764  he  produced  '^  Netley  Abbey;** 
and  io  1 765,  the  ^^  Temple.  Student,  an  Epistle  to  a  Friend," 
ini.wbioh  be  agreeably  rallies  his  own  want  of  application  in 
theL  study  of  tb^e.  law,  and  intimates  bis  irresistible  penchant 
for  the  belles  lettres..    In  1769.  be  married  miss  Hudson^ 
of  Waolip,  Leicestershire.    Some  months  before  which,  he 
bad  published  '^  Ferney,"  an  epistle  to  Mons.  de  Voltaire,  in 
which  be  introduced  a  fine  eulogium  on  Shakspeare,  which, 
procured  him,  soon  after,  the  compliment,  from  the  mayor 
apd  burgesses  of  Stratford,  of  a  standisb,  mounted  with  siU 
ver,  made  out  of  the  •  mulberry-tree  planted  by  tbatillus* 
trious.bard.     In- 1773  be  published  ^<  The  Monument  in 
Arcadif^,"  a  dramatic  poem,  founded  on  a  well-known  pic- 
tuj^e  of  Poussin;  and  in  1779,  ^  Sketches  frbm  Nature,* 
taken>  and  coloured  in  a  Journey   to  Margate,"  2  vqIs.  . 
13mo,  an  imitatioQ  of  Sterne's  '*  Sentimental  Journey."-^* 
In.  1781  be  collected, his  poetical  works  in  two  volumes, 
with  a  dedication  to.  Dr.  Heberdec\,  including  a  number  of 
new. pieces  never  before  printed,,  and  an  ]excellent  por* 
trait  of  himself. ,  Of  these  pieces^  one  was  ^*  The  Helve- 
tiad)"  afragnoent,  written  at  Geneva^  in  1756,     He  bad. 

T  2 

27t  K  £  A  T  £. 

iiitei>d6d  to  eotnpofte  a  poem  of  tome  long^,  on  tbi^ 
vofojeet  of  the  emancipation  of  Swit2etland  from  tbe  ep^ 
pre«ston  of  the  house  of  Austria,  and  bad  even  iettled  the 
plan  of  bis  work,  when  he  acquainted  M.  Voltaire  with  bia 
iotentiOQi  wbo  advised  him  rather  to  employ  hit  time  on 
tUljects  more  likely  to  interest  the  public  attention ; 
f<  For/*  said  be»  <<  should  you  devote  yourself  to  tbe  eom^* 
pletioa  of  your  present  design,  the  S^iss  would  be  mtMb 
obliged  to  yoo^  without  being  able  to  read  yoti,  and  die 
rest  of  the  wdrld  would  care  little  aboat  the  matter.^ 
Whatever  justice  there  was  in  this  remark,  Mr.  K-  reliti* 
^uished  his  plan,  and  never  resumed  it  afterwards.  In 
1781,  he  published  an  **  Epistle  to  Atigelica  Kaoffman." 

A  few  years  after  he  became  engaged  in  a  long  and  velr- 
atioua  lawsuit,  in  consequence  of  the  neglect  (to  say  the 
leaat  of  it)  of  an  arehitect  who  professed  himself  to  be  bis 
friend ;  the  particulars  of  which  it  is  of  no  importance  to 
detail.  At  the  conclusion  of  the  business  be  shewed  that- 
his  good  humour  bad  not  forsaken  him :  and  in  17H7  he 
gave  to  the  public  the  priiicipal  circumstances  of  his  cstte 
in  a  performance  entitled  *'  The  Distressed  Poet,  a  serio- 
eomic  Poem,  in  three  cantos,**  4to,  with  some  pleasantry, 
and  without  any  acrimony. 

In  the  next  year,  1788,  tbe  last  of  his  productions  ajfi-- 
peered;  and  the  composition  was  very  honourable  to  his 
rufents  and  bis  liberality.  In  1782,  the  Antelope  packet 
was  shipwrecked  on  tbe  Pelew  Islands,  where  the  com- 
mander, ci^tain  Wilson,  and  his  crew  lived  some  time  bW 
fore  th^  could  get  oif*  The  circumstances  attending  this 
extraordinary  deliverance  having  been  communicated  to'Mr. 
Keate,  he  offered  to  draw  up  the  narrative  of  them  for  tbe 
advantage  of  his  friend  captain  Wilson.  This  he  executed 
in  <^A{i  Account  of  the  Pelew  Islands,  sttoated  in  tl^e 
westorn  part  of  the  Pacific  ocean ;  composed  from  the 
journals  and  communications  of  captain  Henry  Wilson  ahd 
some  of  his  officers,  who  in  August  17S3  were  there  ^h)p- 
wrecked,  in  the  Antelope,  4  packet  belongingtothe  honolir- 
able  East  India  Company,"  4to,  a  work  written  \iirith  gviat 
elegance,  compiled  with  much  care,  and  which,  ifeml^U 
lisbed  (as  it  certainly  appears  to  be)  with  facts  better -eaU 
culated  to  have  found  a  place  in  a  novel  than  a  igeAirine 
narrative,  must  be  ascribed  to  the  mls-infermatien^of 
those  who  wef^  actors  in  the  aceue^.  ai^d  Xfixi9t  first  ha/ve 
deceived  before  they  obtained  credit.    Mr.  Keate  (who 

K  £  A,  T  £,  M7 

»    ■ 

undertook  ^e  task  oo.tbe  moAt  disinterested  principte,  a^d 
Uerived  190 .  advaQtai^e  whatever  from  the  worU)  «m  tM 
ilprcliy  jL moralist  tO!  bad  any  band  in  the  impogitioff* 
,  :  Brides  tbe.pie^e^  already  men  timed,  Mr.  Keate  waf 
tibe  aiitbqr  of.  many  prologues  and  epilogues^  apdieit  at 
IVIr»  Newcomb*«  school  at  Hackney ;  and  of  other  ocea- 
'  siociai  .verses  in. the  literary  journals,  not,  however/  of  aaf- 
fideot  importance  to  be  enumerated.  He  bad  abo 
4^dapted  bis  friend  Voltaire's  **  Semiramis*'  to  the  stag^ ; 
but  this  was  attperseded,  in  1 777p  at  Drury'-laoei,  by  cap* 
tMn  Ayi^oiigh's  traosUtionv 

Mn  Keate's  life  passed  without  any  vicissitttdes  of  for* 

tune ;  be^  iaberited  an  ample  estate,  which  be  did  not  at* 

tempt  to  increase  otberwit^e  than  by  those  attentions  whieb 

.piHidirnce  duotated  in  the  management  of  it    He  was  bos- 

;pirable  aod  beneficentt   and  possessed  the  good  will  4( 

.mankind ill  a  very  eminent  degree.    For  the  last  yeaver 

t%WQ,  hU  health  visibly  declined ;  but  on  the  day  be  died» 

^he  appeac^  to  be  somewhat  mended-     His  death  wasaed- 

den,  on  June  27,  1797,    He  left  one  daughter,  msMnried 

ip  .,^796  to  John  Hendersoffi)  esq.  of  the  Adelpbl     His 

ivid9w  died  in  1  aoo.    At  the  time  of  his  death,  Mr.  Keate 

was  a  bencher  of  the  Temple,  and  a  very  old  member  ef 

ibe  royal  and  antiquary  societies,  of  both  which  be  bftd 

'  been  frequeruly  elected  one  of  the  council.^ 

KEATING  (Geoffuy),  an  Irish  historian,  was  been 

in  the  province  of  Munster,    of  English  ancestry,    md 

^.flourisheid .  in  the  earlier  part  of  the  seventeenth  century. 

.  He  was  educated  with  a  view  to  the  Roman  catholic  cbtireb, 

.and  having  received  at  a  foreign  universit|r  the  degree  #f 

O.  D«  be  returned  to  bis  native  country,  and  became  a  ce* 

*<lebrated  preacher.    Being  well  versed  in  the  ancient  Irish 

ianguage,  he  collected  the  remains  of  the  early  histoiy 

and  antiquities,  of  the  island,  and  formed  them  into  a  i^* 

.gular  narrative.    This  work,  which  he  finished  about  the 

flime  of  the.  accession  of  Charles  I.  commences  from  the 

.firai.plaDtiiig.  of  Ireland,  after  the  deluge,  and  goes  on  to 

.the  seventeenth  year  of  king  Henry  II.  giving  an  accowt' 

4»f  the  Jives  «nd  reigns  of  one  hundred  and  seventy^^four 

kiiiga  of  the  Milesian  race,  replete  with  6etitious  person- 

^agesimd  fabulous  narratives,  which,  however,^  it  has  been 

>aai4r  1^6  giy^  *9  ^^^^9  and  does  not  impose  tbem^oo  bis 

:   '  Qenileiiuiii>i  ttS  ffawpurss  Mafssianfifr  lYS'li^iasiwlt'^  ^9^J9r* 


Iteadera  as  true  history.    The  work  remained  in  MS.  in  the 

*  original  language,  till  it  was  translated  into  English  "by 
Dermot  O'Connor,  and  published  in  London  in  1723;  but 
a  better  edition  appeared  in  1738^  with  plates  of  the  arms 
of  the  principal  Irish  families,  and  an  appendix,  not  in  the 
former,  respecting  the  ancient  names  of  places.    Keating 

'  died  about  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth  century,  f3»y  as 

*  isome  thinb,  much  earlier,  about  1625.  He  wrote  some 
pieces  of  the  religious  cast,   and  two  poems^   one,   an 

'  ^'  Elegy  on  the  Death  ^f  the  Lord  Oecies,*'  the  other  a 
burlesque  on  his  servant  Simon,  whom  he  compares  with 

'  the  ancient  heroes.^ 
<    KEBLE  (Joseph),  an  English  lawyer,  was  the  eon  oi  a 

'  lawyer  of  eminence,  during  Cromwell^s  usurpation,  and 
born  in  London,  1 632.  After^  a  proper  preparation,  he  wils 
sent  to  Jesus -college,  Oxford ;  whence  he  shortly  removed 

'  to  All-souls,  of^  which  he  was  made  fellow  by  the  parlta- 

<  ment  visitors  in  1648.  He  took  the  degree  of  LL.  Bt  in 
1644 ;  and,  not  long  after,  was  admitted  student  at  Gray^s 
inn,  London,  and  became  a  barrister  about  1658.  The 
following  year  he  went  to  Paris.  After  the  restoration,  he 
attended  the  King's  bench  bar  with  extraordinary  tnssi- 
duity,  continuing  there  as  long  as  the  court  sat,  in  all  the 
terms  from  1661  to  1710,  but  was  hacdly  ever  known  to 
be  retained  in  any  cause,  or  even  to  make  a  motion.     He 

('died  suddenly,  under  the  gute-way  of  GrayVinn,  Aug. 

•  1710,  just  as  he  was. going  to  take  the  air  in  a  coach.     He 

•  was  a  man  of  incredible  industry,  for  besides  having  pub- 
lished -  several  books  in  his  life-time,  be  left  above  100 
large  foHos,  and  more  than  50  thick  4tbsin  MS.  twenty  of 
which  are  in  the  library  of  Grliy^s-inn.  Writing  must  have 
been  hi»  delight  as  well  as  employment,  and  hecaaie  so 
habitual,  that  be  not  only  reported,  the  law  cases  at  the 
KingVbenoh,  Westminster,  but  all  the  sermons  at  Gray's- 
inn  chapel,' both  fonenoon  and  afternoon,  which  amounted  i^t 
last  «to  above  4000.  This  was  the  ino<ib  of  tbe'Umes  when 
he  was  young ;  and  there  is  a -mechanism  in  .some  natures^ 
which  makes  them  fond  of  proceeding  as  they  have  set  out. 
He  appears  to  have  been  a  man  of  a  singular  turn  in*  other 
respects,  yetregtilar  in  his  conduct^  and  very  benevolent. 

The  &rst  work  he  undertook  for  the  public  was  a  new 
table^  with  many  new  references^  to  the  statute-bookj  in 

I  llam'f  edilfon  of  .W»r8*i  iidafnl^wvlforari. 

K  E  BL  E.  .«7d 

i^-Tii  '  2;  '^  Ail  ExpIaDation  of  the  Laws  against  Recii* 
sanlis^  &c.  abridged,"  16dl^  8vq.  3.  ^^  An  Assistance  to 
Juaiices  of  the  Peace,  for  the  easier  Performance  of  their 
DiMy,"  1683,  folio;  licensed  by  alt  the  judges.  4.  "  Re- 
ports taken  at  the  King's«beAch  at  Westminster,  from  the 
12th  to  the  30th  year  of  the  Beign  of  our  late  Sovereign 
Lord  Kmg  Charles  11/'  1685,  3  vols,  folio.  This  work 
Was  ako  lieensed  by  the  judges ;  but  not  being  digested  iii^ 
tfape  ordinary  method-  of  such  collections,  and  having  no 
table  of  references,  it  was  not  sp  well  received  as  was  ex- 
pected ;  and  the  credit  of  it  being  once  sunk,  cotild .  not 
.be  retrieved,  though  the  table  was  added  in  1696..  Indeed, 
MS  a  reporter  he  does  not  stand  high  in  the  opinion  of  the 
profession.  ~S*  Two  essays,  one  '^On  Human  Nature,  or  the 
Creation  of  Mankind ;"  the  other,  ^*  On  Human  Actions.^ 
These  were  pamphlets.'  ' 

KECKERMAN  (BartholO(M£W),  a  very  learned  man, 
was  born  at  Dantzio,  in  Prussia,  1571.  He  received  the 
^rst  rudiments  of  learning  Onder  James  Fabricius,  so  dis- 
tinguished by  his  zeal  against  Paputs,  Anabaptists,  and 
other  heretics^  and  in  1589,  was  sent  to  the  university  of 
Wirtemberg,  where  he  studied  philosophy  and  divinity. 
Two  years  after,  he  removed  to  the  university  of  Leipsic ; 
whenitte,  after  half  a.  year's  stay,  he  went  in  1592,  to 
that  of  Headetberg.  Here  he  took  a  master's  degree, 
and  was  so  highly  esteemed  by  the  governors  of  the  uni- 
versity, that  be  was  first  made  a  tutor  and  afterwards  He* 
brew  professor  there.  In  1597,  the  senate  of  Dantzic, 
pleased  with  the  reputation  and  merit  of  their  countryman, 
sent  him  a  formal  and  honourable  invitation,  by  letter,  to 
come  and  take  upon  faim  part  of  the  management  of  tfaetr 
academy,  which  be  at  first  refused,  but  on  a  second  invi* 
tation,  in  1601,  consented,  after  having  first  received  the 
degree  of  D.  D.  at  Heidelberg.  As  soon  as  he  was  settled 
at,  Daiitzic,  he  proposed  to  lead  the  youth  through  the 
▼ery  penetralia  of  philosophy,  by  a  newer  and  moire  com^ 
pendious  method  than  had  hitherto  been  found  o^t,.ac«' 
cording  to  which  they  might,  within  the  compass  of  thred 
years,  finish  a  complete  course.  For  this  purpose  he  pur* 
aaed  the  scheme  he  had  begun  at  Heidelberg,  and  drew 
up  a  great  number  of  books  and  systems  upon  all  sorts  of 
objects;  logic,  rhetoric,  osconomics,  ethics,  politics,  phy^ 

I  Biog.  Brit.«<nKtdioli't  BoiiyeT.«-Bffidgaiaii*«  Les*l  Bibliosrapby. 

fl»  K  E  C  K  K  R  M  A  N. 

^CS)  mMapbyskB,  geognpfay,  aitfonimiy,  fit/:  «fid  mthli 
a&diutiious  manner  he  went  on  titri609y  wbes^  fairly  wxti 
'tet  inritbcoBBmnt  attention  to  tbe  businefs  of  teachings  he 
4Mi  at  the  early  age  of  thtrty-eigbL  Hii  wc^rkft  wens 
t^Uitbed  at  Geneva  in  1614^  ^  vols.  foi.  Tbe  nost  tw- 
JwaUearfe  bis  syatetnatic  treatises  on  rfaetohe;  but  tte^ 
Hnrert  ail  for  some  time  Used  in  teathsng^  and  afterwarai 
fiiUaged  by  odielr  compilers^  withont  aekiiowledguent. '  • 
;  K£ENE  (Edm0SI]>),  lui  English  prelate^  bom  In  1711^, 
wm  the  younger  son  of  Cbarles  Keene,  of  Lyatiy  in  'Nor«> 
Aik,  «sq«  siMaetime  mayor  of  that  town,  whose  eldest  aon 
;#as  sir  Behjsmin  Keene,  many  yearn  ambassador  <at  Afsw 
dtid)  aaid  K.  B.  who  died  D^c.  15, 1757^  leaving  bisfotttiM 
to:tlie  Sttbjett  of  this  article.  Mr.  Edmnnd  Kuseiie  was 
ftm  ed«eat?ed  at  the  Charter^bouse.  and  afterwards  «t  Caiua 
college,  Cambridge,  where  be  was  admitsed  in  IT30.  In 
list  be  was  appointed  one  of  Ms  majeifty's  preacfaen  at 
Wihiteball  chapel,  and  made  fellow  of  Peterhonse  in  17S9. 
In  1740. be  was  made  chaplain  to  a  regiment  of  marines; 
^d,  tti'tbesame  year,  by  the  interest  of  bis  brotber  with 
iir  ^Robert  Walpole,  he  succeeded  bishop  Bntier  in  tint 
jvaltiafaie  irectory  of  Stanhope,  in  the  bishc^ric  of  DnrfMim. 
Ilk  174^,  be  preached  and  published  a  sermon  at  Newtastle, 
^  tbe  anniversary  meeting  of  the  society  for  the  relief  of 
ibB  iddows  and  orphans  of  clergytiien  ;  and,  in  December 
foUowing^  on  the  death  of  Dr.  Whattey,  he  was  chosen 
flMtttet  «f  PeteSrhousew  In  I7<$0,  bemg  vice^chancelkN'y 
isader  tfae'auspiais  of  the  latie  duke  of  Neapcasdc^  he  ve^ 
itied  the  ooncludnig  paragraph  in  his  speech  <«  being 
sdected,  <<Kec  taidnm  nectimidum  babebitisprcvanceHa^N 
tisMfei,**  by  {MTOttOting,  with  great  aeal  and  success^  the  re* 
gotaiiioiis  Hbr  improviDg  the  discipline  of  the  university*; 
This  exposed  bim  to  much  obloquy  from  the  yoimger  part 
bf  it,  particulariy  in  the  faimous  ^*  Fmgment^*'  and  ^^  Tbe 
Key  to  the  Fragoienty  *  by  Dr.  Kii^,  in  whith  i>f,  Keene 
was  rishculed  (in  prose)  uvider  the  name  of  M'un,  and:  in 
that  of  the  ^^  Capitade*'  (in  verse),  under  that  of  Aomes^ 
btftut  tbenaiiie  tinie  his  care  and  attention  to  the  itMresfts 
and  cbai9K:ier  of  tbe  university  jiisi4y  endeared  Mm  to  Ms. 
fseat  patron,  so  that  in  Jan.  lT5d,  soon  after  the  expiim^ 
lion  of  his  oAee,  which  he  held  for  two  years,  be  was  no« 
W»|ted  to  the  see  uf  Cheater^  vacamt  by  «he  death  <if  b^^^ 

\  |jfekHirJMftsi».*-*'Mimk^*4>»ff.  Diet. 

K  E  E  K  E,  -sr»i 

"^ploe,  and  was  consecrated  in  Cly-bouse  cbftpel  on  Palm 
Sunday,  March  M.  With  this  he  heid  in  commendam  his 
Mctoiryi  and,  for  two  years^  his  headship,  when  he  was 
wscceeded,  much  to  his  satisfaction,  by  Dr.  Law*  In  May 
following  his  lordahip  murried  the  only  daughter  of  Lan- 
*«eIot  Andrews,  esq.  of  Edmonton,  formerly  an  eminent 
JlMo^draper  in  Cheapstde,  a  lady  of  considerable  fortune, 
and  a  descendant  of  the  family  of  bishop  Andrews.  She 
4ied  March  24,177€.  In  1770,  on  the  death  of  bishop 
iMawson,  be  was  translated '  to  the  valuable  see  of  Ely. 
^R<^c#mng  large  <HiapidaftionS|  bis  lordship  procured  an  act 
4f  parliament  for  aiienaltng  ilie  old  palace  in  Holbom,  and 
Iraikhnga  new  one,  by  which  the  see  has  been  freed  from 
m  great  incumbrance,  and  obtained  some  increase  ako  of 
annual  revenue*  **  The  bishopric,*'  it  has  beefn  humorous]^ 
observed,  ^<  though  stripped  of  the  strawberries  which 
Shakspeare  commemorates  to  have  been  so  noted  in  Hot- 
born,  hast  in  lieu  of  them^  what  may  very  well  console  "a 
man  not  over-scrupulous  in  his  appetites,  yt2.  a  new  maii- 
aion  of  Portland  stone  in  Dover-street,  and  a  revenue  of 
WOOL  a  year,  to  keep  it  warm  and  in  gootd  repute."  Bishop 
Keene  soon  foUowed  his  friend  Dr.  Caryl,  <<whom,'*  he 
sakl,  **  he  had  long  known  and  regarded,  and  who,  though 
he  had  a  few  more  years  over  him,  he  did  not  think  would 
bave  gone  before  him.**  He  died  July  6,  17S1,  in  tbfe 
•iicty-eighth  year  of  his  age,  and  was  buried  at  his  owh 
demre  in  bishop  West's  chapel,  Ely  cathedral,  where  is 'a 
abort  epitaph  drawn  ap  by  himself.  '*  Bishop  Keene,**  it 
is  observed  by  bishop  Newton,  **  succeeded  to  Ely,  to  his 
beart*s  desire,  and  happy  it  was  that  he  did  so ;  for,  few 
could 'have  borne  the  expence,  or  have  displayed  the  tasti^ 
and  magmficence,  which  he  has  done,  having  a  liberal  for^ 
tune  as  ^e\V  as  a  liberal  mind,  and  really  meriting  the  ap<* 
pellation  of  a  builder  of  palaces.  For,  he  built  a  nev^ 
palace  at  Chester;  he  built  a  new  Ely^^house  in  London ; 
and,  in  a  great  aneature,  a  new  palace  at  Ely;  leaving 
only  the  outer  walls  standing,  he  formed  a  hew  inside,  and 
thereby  converted  it  into  one  of  the  best  episcopal  houses, 
if  not  the  veiy  best,  in  the  kingdom,  fle  had  indeed  re« 
oetvied  the  money  which  arose  from  the  sale  of  old  Ely?* 
houses  and  also  what  was  paid  by  the  e:seeutors  of  his  pre« 
dece«»or  Tor  dilapidations,  which,  all  together,  amounted 
to  about  11,000/.;  but  yet  he  expended  some  thousands 
more  of  his  own  upon  the  buildings,  and  new  houses  re- 

48i  :.K.E  E.N,E. 

.quire  new  furniture.*'  It  is  cbieily  on  account  of  this  taste 
and  munificence  that  he, deserves  notice,  as  he  is  not 
known  in  the  literary  world,  unlef»s  by  five  occasional  ser* 
mons  of  no  disUoguisbed  merit. ' 

KEILL  (John),  an  eminent  mathematician  and  philo- 
.sopber^  was  born  Dec  1,  1671,  at  Edinburgh,  yvhero  he 
received  the  Brst  rudiments  of  learning ;  and,  being  Va- 
cated in  that  university^  continued  there  till  he  took  the 
degree  of  M.  A.     His  genius  leading  him  to  the  mathemai- 
tics,  he  atudied  that  science  very  successfully  under  David 
•  Gregory  the  professor  there,  who  was  .one  of  the  first  that 
bad  embraced  the  Newtonian  philosophy;  aod,  in  1694) 
he  followed  his  tutor  to  Oxford,  where^  beii»g  admitted  of 
Baliol,  he  obtained  one  of  the  Scotch  exbtbitioms  in  that 
eoUeg^.     He  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  who  taught 
Kewton's  principles  by  the  experiments  on  which  they  are 
grounded,  which,  he  was  enabled  to  do  by  an  apparatus  of 
instruments  of  his  own  providing;  and  the  lectures  he  de- 
livered in  his  chambers  upon  natural  and  experimental 
philosophy,  procured  him  very  great  reputation.   The  first 
public  specimen  he  gave  of  his  skill  in  mathematical  and 
philosophical  knowledge,  was  his  ^'  Examination  of  Bur- 
net's Theory  of  the  Earth,''  which  appeared  in  1698,  and 
viras  universally,  applauded  by  the  men  of  scieuee,  and  al« 
lowed  to  be  decisive  agsiinst  the  doctor's  '^  Theory,'^     To 
this  piece  he  subjoined  ^^  Remarks  upon  Whiston's  New 
Theory  of  the  Earth ;"  and  these  tbeories,  being  defended 
by  their  respective  inventors,  drew  from  KeitI,  in  I&99, 
another  performance   entitled  '^  An  Examination  of  the 
Reflections  of  the  Theory  of  the  Earth,  together  with  ^  a 
.Defence  of  the  Remarks  6n  Mr.  Whiston's  New  Theory'." 
Dr.  Burnet  was  a  man  of  great  humanity^  moderation,  and 
candour;  was  therefore  supposed  that«Keill  had 
treated  him  too  roughly,  considering  the  great  disparity  of 
years  between  them.    Keill,  however,  left  the  doctor  in 
possession  of  that  which  has  since  bee^  thought  the  great 
characteristic  and  excellence  of  bis  work :  and,  though  he 
disclaimed  him  as  a  philosopher,  yet  allowed  him  to  be  a 
man  of  a  fine  imagination.     ^^  Perhaps,"  saya  be,  ^*  many 
of  his  readers  will  be  sorry  to  be  undeceived  about  his 
Theory ;  for,  as  I  believe  never  any  book  was  fuller  of 
mistakes  .and  errors  in  philosophy,  so  none  ever  abounded 

t  Bentham's  Ely. — ^Nichols's  Bowyer.^Bisbop  Kewton*s  Life, 

,  K  £  I  L  L.  285 

.  Hkh  more  beautiful  scenes  and  surprizing  icmges  of  nature. 
But  1  write  only  to  those  who  might  expect  to  find  a  true 
^  philosophy  in  it :  they  who  read  it  as  an  ingenious  romance 
will  still  be  pleased  with  their  entertainment.'' 

The  foUowing  year  Dr.  MilUngton,  Sedleian  prc^essor 
,of  natural  philosophy  in  Oxford,  who  had  been  appointed 
physician  in  ordinary  to  king  William,  siibstituted  Keill  as 
^  bis  deputy,  to  read  lectures  in  the  public  schools.     This 
t  office  he  discharged  with  great  reputation  ;  and  the  term 
of  ..ef^oying  the  Scotch  exhibition  at  Baliol^coUege,  wtth^ 
:Qttt  taking  orders,  now  expiring^  he  accepted  an  invitation 
.;from  Dr.  Aldricb^  dean  of  Christ-church,  to  reside  there. 
.In  1701  he  published  bis  celebrated  treatise,  the  substance 
..of  .several  lectures  on  the  new  philosophy,  entitled  ^Mn- 
troductio  ad  veram  physicam,"  which  is  supposed  to  be  the 
;  best  and  most  usefulof  alLbis  performanoes.     In  the  pre- 
bce  be  insinuates  the  little  progress  that  Sir  Isaac  Newton's 
^^  Prinpipia"   had  made  in   the  world  ;    and  says,   that 
*^  though  the  mechaoieal  philosophy  was  then  in  repute, 
;  yet,  in  most  of'  the  writings  upon  this  subject,  scarce  any 
.  thing  was  to  be  found  but  the  name."     Tne  first  edition 
.  of  this  book  contained  only  fourteen  lectures  ;  but  to  the 
second,  in  1703,  he  added  two  more.     About  50  years 
ago,  when  the  Newtonian  philosophy  began  to  be  .esta- 
blished in  France,  this  piece  was  in  great  esteem  there, 
being  considered  as  the  best  inlroductton  to  the  '^  Prin- 
cipia;"  and  a  new  edition  in  English  was  printed  at  Lon- 
don in  17;i^6,  9t  the  ii^stance  of  M.  Maupertuis,  who  was 
then  in  England,  and  subjoined  to  it  a  new  hypothesis  of 
bis  f>wn,  concerning  the  ring  of  the  planet  Saturn. 

In  Feb.  1701   he  was  admitted  a  fellow  of   the  royal 

'  ^K^ciety;  and,  in  1708,  published,  in  the '^  I^iiloBophical 

.Transactions,"  a  paper  ^^Of  the  Laws  of  Attraction,  and 

its  Physical  Principles."    At  the  same  time,  being  offended 

at  a  passage  in  the  ^^  Acta  Erudltonim"  at  Leipsic,  in 

which  Sir  Jsaac  Newton's  claim  to  the  first  invention  of  the 

method  of  flu3(ions  was  called  in  question,  he  commnni« 

pated  to  the  royal  society  another  paper,    in  which  he 

asserted  tb^  justice  of  that  claim.     In  1709  he  was  ap- 

-.pointed  treasarer  to  the   Palatines,  and   in  that  station 

attended  them  in  their  passage  to  New  England  ;   and, 

soon  after  his  return  in  1710,  was  chosen  9avilian  professor 

of  astronomy  at  Oxford.      In   1711,   being  attacked  by 

Jpeibnitz,  he  entered  the  lists  against  that  mathematician^ 


484  K  E  ILL. 

in  tbe  dispate  about  Ae  inventbn  ef  ftQiioni/    L^Uilrtfej, 
vrote  a  letter  to  Or.  Hans  Sloans  then  ^e^mwy  to  the 
royal  sooiety,  dated  Mardi4i  17ll|  in  which  faereqiliiriKt 
Keill,  in  eflPect^  lo  give  him  taiisiattik)!!  for  tbe  in^ory  he 
had  done  him  in  his  paper  relating  to  the  passage  in  the 
^^Acta  £rudi«omm*'  at  Leipsic.     He  protested,  that  be 
was  fisr  from  assuming  to  himself  Sir  Isaac  Newton's  tiid* 
thod  of  Aoxioos ;  and  desired,  therefore,  that  Keill  might 
.be  obliged  to  retract  his  fidse  assertion.     Ketlt  desired,  on 
the  other  band^  that  he  might  be  permitted  to  justify  what 
he  had. asserted;  whiob  he  performed  to  the  approbation 
of  Sir  Isaac,  and  other  members  of  tbe  society;  and  « 
copy  of  his  defcfnce  was  sent  to  Leibnita,  who,  in  a  secomd 
letter,  remonstrated  still  more  loodly  agaiMt  Kettles  wa^tt 
•of  eandoor  an^d  sincerity ;  adding,  that  it  was  not  fit  ktr  one 
<tf  hia  age  and  experience  to  enter  inio  4t  dispute  with  an 
upstart,  who  acted  without  afiy  authority  ifoifi  Sir  Isaac 
Newton;  and  desiring  that  tbe  royal  society  would  enjoin 
Jimi  silence.   Upon  this,  a  special  comanitletf  was  appointed; 
who,  after  examining  the  foots,  concluded  tbeilr  report  ^ith' 
^^  recfconing  Mr.  Newton  the  inirentor  of  fiuxlont ;  and  that 
IMr.  Keili,  in  asserting  the  same,  had  been  no  ways  injurious 
to  Mr.  Leibnitz.'*     In  the  mean  time,  KetH  behaved  btUi* 
aelf  with  great  firmnem  and  spirit ;  whieh  he  Am  sbe#4^ 
jrfterwards  in  a  Latin  epistle,  written  in  1720,  to  BernoiilK, 
mathematical  professor  at  Basil,  on  account  of  the  same 
visage  shewn  to  Sir  Isaac  Newton;  in  tbe  titie-page  ^ 
which  he  put  the  arms  of  Scotland,  vis.  u  thistle,  wit£  thifs 
motto,  ^'Nemo  me  impane  lacessit"     The  particulars  of 
the  contest  are  recorded  in  Colltns's  ''  Commercium  Epitf* 
tdicum.'*  '  -- 

.  About  1711,  several  objections  were  urged  against^Sirlsaao 
N^wton^  philosophy,  in  support  of  'Ocs  Cartes's  notions 
of  a  plenum ;  which  occasioned  Keill  to  draw  up  a  paper,- 
which  was  published  in  the  ^^  Philosophical  Transactions,^- 
**  On  the  Rarity  of  Matter,  and  tbe  Tenuity  of  its  Compo 
sitioo,"  in  which  he  points  out  various  phenomena,  which 
cannot  be  explained  upon  the  supposition  of  a  plenum. 
But,  while  he  was  engi^ed  in  this  controverrjr,  queen  Anne 
was  pteas^  to  appoint  him  her  decipher(er;  a  post  ftnr 
which  be  was,  it  seems,  very  fit.  His  sagacity  was^  sueb^ 
ibat,^  though  a  decipherer  is  alwayv'supposed  to  be  mode^ 
rately  skilled  in  tbe  language  in  which  ^e  paper  given  htm 
to  decipher  is  written ;'  yet  he  is  said  once  to  have  deci- 

h    '• 

piMired  t  paper  ivritten  fai  Swedish^  without  knowing  a  word* 
of.  tb«  language.     In  1719»  the  iroirersity  conferred  on 
bioi  ibe  degr^  of  M.  D.  at  t|w  pablic  act ;  and,  two  years 
after,  he  publitbed  an  edition  of  Commandinus^s  **  £uclld,'* 
with  additioM;of  hiatywo,  of  two  tracts  on  Trigonometry^ 
and  the  nature  of  Logarithms*    In  1717  be  was  married  to 
smyielady,  who  recommended  herself  to  him,  it  is  said^ 
pucely  by  her  personal  accomplishments.    The  fscetioua 
Mr.  Alsop  wrote  some  lines  on  this  occasion  (Gent.  Magj 
^folXXXVIIL  S38),  which  intimate  that, Keiil  bad  been 
a  man  ^f  gallantry  in  his  youth ;  and  this  appean,  indeed^ 
to  be  conArmed  by  the  writer  of  bis  life  an  the  Biograpbia 
BrUaimica.      In  1718  he  published  bis  ^Mntroductio  ad 
veram  Astronomiam  i^'  which  treatise  was  afterwards,  at  the 
se^esi  of  the  duchess  of  Chandos,  translated  by  himself 
iiiio  English ;  and,  .with  several  emendations,  published  in 
1721,  under  ^e  title  of  ^*  An  Introduction  to  the  true 
Astronomy^  or.  Astronomical  Leotores  read  in  the  Astrow 
nomical  Soboois  of  the  University  of  Oxford.**    This  was^ 
bis  last  gift  to  the  public ;  for  he  was  seized  this  summer 
with  a  violait  ferer,  which  pat  an  end  to  hi$^  life  Sept.  I, 
t721|  when  he  was  not  quite  fifty  yiears  old.^ 
.  K£IIJL  <Jijits),'an  eminent  physician  of  the  mathe-- 
matioal  sect,  and  brother  to  the  preceding,  was  born  in 
Scotland  Marqb  27,  1 673.  .  Having  receiv^  the  early  part' 
of  his  education  in  his  native  country^  he  went  abroad  with' 
the  view  of  cempietiog  at  in  the  schools  of  celebrity  on  the 
cootineDt;  and  obtained  such  a  degree  of  knowledge  as 
distiugoisbed  him  soon  after  his  return  to  England.     He 
bad.  early,  applied  to  dissections,  land  pursued  the  study' 
o£  anatomy,  under  Doverney,  at  Paris  ;  whence  he  was* 
enabled  to  give  anatomical  lectures,  with  great  repatation, 
in  both  the  English  univenities.     He  was  honoured  witk 
the  degree  of  M.  D^  by  the  university  of  Cambridgeb^ 
)n  1703  he  settled  at  Northampton,  and  began  the  prae«( 
tiee  of  his  profesmon,  in  which  he  attained-  considerable 
faoflue  and  success.     In  1706  be ,. published  a  paper  in  the 
Philosophical  Transactions,  No.  306,  containing  **  an  ac-; 
ooumt  of  the  death  and  dissection  of  John  Bayles,  of  that 
town^  reputed  to  have  been  130  years  old."     The  circum- 
stiancea  which  he  detailed  very  much  resembled  those  that 
wece  observed  by  the  celebrated  Harvey  in  the  dissection  o€ 

*  Bi9f*  Brit.«--i08n.  Diet.^Msrtin'i  Biof*  PfcHosoi^ics. 


486  K  E  I  L  L; 

old  Parr.     Dr.  Keill/  like  his  brother  John,  wasw^U  skiUeid: 
in  maibematical  learning,  which  he  applied  to  the  expJanan-. 
tion  of  the.  laws  of  the  animal  economy.     His  first  pufai^ 
lication  was  a  compendium  of  anatomy,  for  the  use  of  theN^ 
pupils   who  attended  his  lectures,  and  was  entitled  *^  Tbe^* 
Anatomy  of  the  Human   Body  abridged/'    Lond.   169^ 
12mo,  and  was  taken  chiefly  from  Cowper ;  it  went  through - 
many  editions.     In  the  year  1 708,  he  gave  tl^  world  a  pcooQ 
of  his   mathematical  skill,  in  ^^  An  Account  of  Animal 
Secretion,  the  quantity  of  blood  in  the  humiaii  body,  and' , 
muscular  motion,'*  London,  Svo.     This  work  was  reprinted, 
ki  1717,  with^  the  addition  of  an  essay,  '^  cooceming  the 
force  of  the  heart  in  driving  the  blood  through  the  whole, 
body,"  and  under  the  title  of  <*  Essays  on  several  parts  of 
the  Animal  GElconomy."     He  likewise  published  the  same 
treatise  in  Latin,  with  the  addition  of  a  ^^  Medicina  Statica 
Britannica."     The  essay  concerning  the  force  of  the  hieart 
drew  him  into  a  controversy  with  Dr.  Jurin,  which  was 
carried  on  in  several  papers,  printed  in  the  Philosophical' 
Transactions  of  the  royal  society,  of  which  Dr.  Keili  had 
been  elected  a  member ;  and  was  continued  to  the  time  of 
the  death  of  the  latter,  which  took  place  at  Northampton, 
July  16,  16 1 9,  in  the  vigour  of  his  age.     He  had  for  some 
time  laboured  under  a  very  painful  disorder,  viz.  a  c^neer 
in  the  roof  of  his  mouth,  to  which  he  had  applied  the  can-' 
tery  with  his  own  hands,  in  order,  if  possible,  to  procure 
some  relief,  but  in  vain.     He  wius  buried  at  St  Giles'^i- 
church  at  Northampton.     An  handsome  m^onumept  and  in-^ 
scription  were  placed  over  him  by  his  brother,  John  JKeili,' 
to  whom  be  left  his  estate,  being  never  married.;  but  who. 
survived  him,  as  we  have  seen,  little  more  than  two  yeara^' 
KEITH  (James),  field-marshal  in  the  king  of  ^Prussiar's*- 
service,  was  born  in   1696,  and  was  the  younger  son  of 
William  Keith,  earl  marshal  of  Scotland.      He  had  his 
grammar*learning  under  Thomas  Kuddiman,  author  of  the^ 
^^  Rudiments ;"   bis  academical,  under  bishop  Keith  a&d- 
William  Meston,  in  the  college  of  Aberdeen.     He  was  de*- 
signed  by  his  friends  for  the  profession  of  the  law;  but  the, 
bent  of  bis  genius  inclined  him  to  arms,  with  which  .%bey. 
wisely  complied.   His  first  military  services  were  employed- 
while  a  youth  of  eighteen,  in  the  rebellion  of  171$.  >  ]n> 
this  unhappy  contest,  through  the  instigation ^of  the  ooiiii«' 

t  Biog.  Brit-*^ett,  Dtct.r^Mqvtiii'fr Bio;;' Phil. -^R^ei^s  CyddpsBtfia. 

KEITH.  299 

tess  his  mother^  who  w^s  a  Roman  catholic,  he  joined  the 
Pretender's  party,  and  was  at  the  battle  of  Sherilfuiuir,  in 
wfatcfa  he  was  wounded,  yet  able  to  make  his  escape  to 
France.     Here  be  applied  to  those  branches  of  education^ 
which  are  necessary  to  accomplish  a  soldier.     He  studied 
-mathematics  under   M.  de  Maupe^tuis ;  and  made  such 
proficiency,  that  he  was,  by  his  recommendation,  admitted 
a  fellow  of  the  royal  academy  of  sciences  at  Paris.     He 
afterwards  travelled  through  Italy,  Switzerland,  and  Portu«* 
gal ;  with  unconunon  curiosity  examined  the  several  pro« 
factions  in  architecture,  painting,  and  sculpture;  and  sur* 
▼eyed  the  different  fields  where  famous  battles  bad  been 
fought  .  In  1717,  he  had  an  opportunity  of  forming  an  ac- 
quaintlince  with  Peter,  czar  of  Muscovy,  at  Parisj  who  in- 
vited him  to  enter  into  the  Russian  service.     This  offer  he 
declined,  because  the.  emperor  was  at  that  time  at  war 
with  the  )Eing  of  Sweden,  whose  character  Keith  held  in 
great  veneration.     He  then  left  Paris,  and  went  to  Madrid ; 
where,  by  the  interest  of  the  duke  of  Lyria,  he  obtained  a 
commission  in  ,the  Irish  brigades,  then  commanded  by  the. 
duke  of  Ormond.     He  afterwards  accompanied  the  duke  of 
Lyria,  when  he  was  sent  ambassador  extraordinary  to  Rus- 
sia, and  was  recommended  by  him  to  the  sei:vice  of  the 
czarina,  who  promoted  him  to  the  rank  of  lieutenant-gene- 
ral, and  invested  him  with  the  order  of  the  black  eagle. 

The  Turks  at  this  time  invaded  the  Ukrain  on  the  side 
of  Russia,  and  the  empress  sent  two  numerous  armies  to 
repel  the  invaders ;  one  of  which  marched  for  Oczakow, 
under  the  command  of  count  Munich,  which  place  was  in« 
vested  and  taken  by  the  valour  and  conduct  qf  Keith,  to 
whom  the  success  was  chiefly  attributed.  In  the  war  with 
the.  Swedes,  he  had  a  command  under  marshal  Lacey,  at 
ti:e  battle  of  Willmanstrand ;  which  he  gaiued  by  fetching 
a  compass  about  a  hill,  and  attacking  the  Swedes  in  flank, 
at  a  time  when  victory  seemed  to  declare  in  their  favour. 
He  likewise,  by  a  stratagem,  retook  from  them  the  isles  of 
Aland  in  the  Baltic,  wbich  they  had  seized  by  treachery. 
Afterwards  he  had  po  inconsiderab!*^  share  in  the  bringing 
about  that  extraordinary  revolution,  which  raised  the  em* 
press  Elizabeth,  the  daughter  of  Peter,  to  the  throne.  He  . 
served  the  Russians  in  peace  also  by  several  embassies : 
but,  finding  the  honours  of  that  country  no  better  than  a 
splendid  servitude,  and  not  meeting  with  those  rewards 
which  his  long  and  faithful  services  deserved,  he  left  that 

269  KEITH. 

court  for  Ihat  of  Prassisi  where  merit  wa9  better  knowfi^ 
aod  better  rewarded. 

Tbe  king  of  Prussia  received  bion  widi  all  possible  marks 
of  honour,  made  him  governor  of  Berlin^  and  field  marshal 
of  the  Prussian  armies  ;  to  which  places  be  annexed  addi* 
tional  claries.  He  likewise  distinguished  him  so  &r  by 
his  confidence,  as  to  travel  with  him  in  disguise  over  a 
great  part  of  Germany,  Poland,  and  Hangaiy.  In  busi- 
riess,  he  made  him  his  chief  counsellor  ;  in  his  diversion^ 
his  constant  companion.  The  king  was  much  pleased  with 
an  amusement,  which  the  marshal  invented,  in  imitation  of 
the  game  of  chess.  The  marshal  ordered  several  thousand 
small  statues  of  mto  in  armour  to  be  cast  by  a  founder: 
these  he  would  set  opposite  to  each  other,  and  range  them 
in  battalia,  in  the  same  manner  as  if  he  had  been  drawing 
up  an  army :  he  would  bring  out  a  party  from  the  wings 
PI*  centre,  and  shew  the  advantage  or  disadvantage  result- 
ing from  the  several, draughts  which  he  made.  In  this 
manner  the  king  and  the  marshal  often'^amused  themselves, 
and  at  the  same  time  improved  their  military  knowledge. 

This  brave  and  experienced  general,  after  baiving  greatly 
distinguished  himself  in  the  later  memorable  wars  of  that 
iUustrioiis  monarch,  was  killed  in  the  unfortunate  affitir  of 
Hohkerchen,  Oct.  14,  1758,  and  was  buried  in  the  church 
of  that  place,  the  enemy  joining  in  paying  respect  to  bis 
virtues.  His  character  may  be  g^ven  in  the  few  but  com- 
pretiensive  words  of  his  brother,  the  late  lord  mardial  of 
Sootlaody  who  on  being  applied  to  by  M.  Formey,  who 
wished  to  write  his  eloge,  answered,  '^  Probus  vixit,  fortis 

KELLER  (James),  or  in  Latin  Cellarius,  was  bora 
in  1568,  at  Seckingen.  '  He  entered  the  Jesuits'  order  in 
1588,  was  appointed  rector  of  the  college  at  Ratisboli, 
afterwards  of  that  at  Munich,  and  was  for  a  long  time  con- 
fessor to  prince  Albert  of  Bavaria,  and  the  princess  his  wifo. 
The  elector  Maximilian  had  a  particular  esteem  for  him, 
and  frequently  employed  him  in  affairs  of  the  utmost  tm» 
portance.  Keller  disputed  publicly  with  James  KailbruUi^ 
ner,  the  duke  of  Neuburg's  most  celebrated  minister,  on 
the  accusation  brought  against  the  Lutheran  ministers,  of 
having  corrupted  several  passages  quoted  from  the  Fadiers,. 
in  a  German  work  entitled  **  Papatus  AcathoUcos  }^  their 

}  9AeiDoirs  of  Field  Jtoshal  Kelth^  lt99$  9fO.  .      . 



»  ♦ 

KELLER.  \   .  Mt 

dUput^  was  held  at  N.6ubargy  1615.  Father  Keller  died 
at  Munich,  February  23,  1631,  aged  sixty«4three,  It^atm^ 
9C!ine  controversial  works,  and  several  political  k>nes^  .coaf 
ceming  the  affairs  of  Germany,  in  which  he- >&e(ylienily 
conceals  himself  under  the  names  of  Ftabtus  Hercynianus^ 
Aurimontius,  Didacua  Tafias,  &c.  His  book  against 
France,  entitled  '^Mysteria  Polttica,"  1625^  4to,  .was  burnt 
by  a  sentence  of  the  Cbatdet,  censured  iu'ibbe  Sorfafonne«. 
and  condemned  by. the  French  clergy.  It  is  acbU^ctioifc 
of  eight  letters  respecting  the  alliance  of  France  with£ng-» 
land,  Venice,  Holland,  and  Transylvania.  The  **  Ganea 
Turturis,"  in  answer  to  the  learned  Gravina's  Song  jqiS  xhe 
Turtle,  is  attributed  to  Keller.* 

KELLEY,  alias  TALBOT  (EdwaKD)^  a  famous  English 
alchymist,  or,  as  some  hare  called  bfni,  a  necromancer,  was 
born  at  Worcester  in  1555,  and  educated  at  .GlQucester^r 
hall,  Oxford.  Wood  says,  that  When  his  nativity  was 
.calculated,  it  appeared  that  b^  was  to  be  a  man  of  most 
acute  wit,  and  great  propensity  to  philosophical 'studiea 
and  mysteries  of  nature.  He  belied  this  prophecy,^  how* 
ever,  both  in  the.progress  and  iteormtnation  ttf  ^his  life ;  for, 
leaving  Oicford  abruptly,  and  rambling 'a'bout  th^  kingdonr, 
iie  was  guilty  of  some  crinfie  in  Lan'casbice,  for  Which  'his 
ears  were  cut  off  at  Lancaster ;  but  what  -ctihie  this  was 
we  are  not  informed.  He  became  afterwards  an  associate 
with  the  famous  Dr.  Dee,  travelled  into  foreign  countries 
with  him,  and  was  his  reporter  of  what  pass^d^  between 
him  and  the  spirits  with  whom  the  doctor  held  ihtelligence, 
and  who  wrote  down  the  nonsense  *  Kelley  pretended  to 
have  heard.  Of  their  journey  with  Laski,  a  Poliiih  noble- 
man, we  have  already  given  an  account  in  the  life  of 
Dr.  Dee.  We  farther  learn  from  Ashmdle,  if  such  !ufor<* 
mation  can  be  called  learning,  that  Kelley  and  Dee  had 
the  good  fortune  to  find  a  large  quantity  of  the  elixir,  or 
philosopher's  stone,  in  the  ruins  of  Glastonbury  abbey ; 
which  elixir  was  so  surprisingly  rich,  ti^at  they  lost  a  great 
deal  in  making  .projections,  befove  'they  discovered  the 
iforce  of  its  virtue.  This  author  adds,  that,  at  Trebona  ifi 
Bohemia,  Kelley  tried  a  grain  of  this  elixir  upon  an  ounce 
and  a  quarter  of  common  mercury,  which  was  presently 
transmuted  into  almost  an  ounce  of  fine  gold.  At  aiibther 
timehe  tried  his  art  upon  a  piece  of  metal,  cut  6ivt  of  a 

*  Gen.  Diet.— Moreri.-rDict.  Hi«t*  de  L*ATO«at. 

Vol.  XIX.  U 

S»0  K  £  L  L  E  r. 

warmiog-pan;  whichi  without  handling  it,  or  melting  th^ 
metal,  was  turned  into  very  good  silver,  only  by  warming  it 
at  a  fire.  Cervantes  has  given  us  nothing  more  absurd  in 
the  phrenzy  of  Don  Quixote.  This  warming-pan,  how- 
ever, and  the  piece  taken  out  of  it,  were  sent  to  qoeen 
Elizabeth  by  her  ambassador,  then  residing  at  Prague. 
Kelley,  afterwards  behaving  indiscreetly,  was  imprisoned 
by  the  emperor  Kodolphus  11.  by  whom  he  had  been 
Iniiglitad ;  and,  endeavouring  to  knake  his  escape  out  of 
the  window,  fell  down  and  bruised  himself  so  severely  that 
be  diedsoon  after,  in  1595.  His  works  are,  **  A  Poem  of 
CbenHstry,**  and  ^*  A  Poem  of  the  Philosopher's  Stone ;" 
both  inserted  in  the  ^^Theatrum  Cfaymicum  Britannicum,^' 
J 652;  <*  De  Lapide  Philosophorum,*'  Hamb.  1676,  Svo;  but 
it  is  questioned  whether  he  was  the  author  of  this.  He  was, 
however,  certainly  the  author  of  several  discourses  in  *'  A  true 
■and  faithful  Relation  of  what  passed  for  many  Years  between 
Pr.  John  Dee  «nd  some  Spirits,'*  &c.  Lond.  ]  659,  folio, 
published  by  Dr.  Meric  Casaubon.  There  are  **  Fragmenta 
aliquot,  edita  a  Combacio,"  Geismar,  1647,  12mo;  also 
^f  £d.  Kelleii  epistola  ad  Edvardum  Dyer,"  and  other  little 
things  of  Kdley,  in  MS»  in  Biblioth.  Ashmol.  Oxon.* 

KELLISON  (Matthew),  an  English  Roman  catholic 
of  considerable  eminence  as  a  controversial  writer,   was 
bom  in  Northamptonshire,  about  1560,  and  brought  up 
in  lord  Vaux's  famMy>  whence  he  was  sent  for  education  to 
:the  English  colleges  at  Doway  and  Rheims,    and  after- 
wards, in  1 582,  to  Rome,  where  he  remained  about  seven 
years,  and  acquired  the  reputation  of  a  very  able  divine. 
In  1589,  he  was  invited  to  Rbeims  to  lecture  on  divinity, 
»nd,  proceeding  in  his  academical  degrees,  was  created 
D,  D.  and,  in  1606,  had  the  dignity  of  rectcn'  magnificusj 
or  chancellor  of  the  university,  conferred  upon  him.  After 
'being  public  professor  at  Rheims  for  twelve  years,  he  re- 
rturned  to  Doway  in  1613,  and  a  few  months  after  was  de- 
clared president  of  the  college,  by  a  patent  from  Rome, 
lii  this  office  he  conducted  himself  with  great  reputation, 
^md  ably  promoted  the  interests  of  the  college.     He  diet! 
Jan.  £i,  1641.    Among  his  works  are,*  1.  ^^  Survey  of  the 
new  reKgion,"  Doway,  1603,  8vo.     2.  *<  A  reply  to  Sut- 
tcliffe's  aiiswer  to  the  Survey  of  the  new  religion,"  Rheims, 
.  .1608,  8vo.     3.  <^  Oratio  coram  Henrico  IV.  rege  Chris- 

I  Atb.  Ox.  ToU  I.<^We«Ter'f  Fancral  BlQDaBi^iitf. 

K  E  L  L  I  SO  N.  291 

tianissiaio."  4.  ^^  The  Gagg .  of  the  reformed  gospel.^' 
ThU)  the  catholics  teli  us,  was  the  cause  of  the  conversioa 
of  many  protestants.  It  was  answered,  however,  by.  Mon- 
tague, afterwards  bishop  of  Chichester,  in  a  tract  called 
**  The  new  Gagger,  or  Gagger  gagged,'^  1624-.  Montagile 
and  he  happened  to  coincide  in  so  many  points  that  the 
former  was  involved  with  some  of  bis  brethren  in  a  contro« 
versy,  they  thinking  him  too  favourable  to  the  popiiftli 
cause.  5.  *^  Examen  reformationis,  praesertim  Calvints- 
tics,'*  8vo,  Doway,  16^16.  6.  <<  The  right  and  jurisdie-* 
tion  of  the  prince  and  prelate,**  1617,  1621,  8vo.  This 
be  is  said  to  have  written  in  his  own  defence,  having  been 
represented  at  Rome  as  a  favourer  of  the  oath  of  alle- 
giance. In  the  mean  time  the  work  was  represented  to 
king  James  L  as  allowing  of  the  deposing  poWer,  and  of 
murdering  excommunicated  princes,  and  his  majesty  thought 
proper  to  inquire  more  narrowly  into  the  matter ;  the '  re* 
suit  of  which  was,  that  Dr,  Kellison  held  no  such  opinions, 
and  bad  explained  his  ideas  of  the  oath  of  allegiance  with 
as  much  caution  as  could  have  been  expected.  7*  ^^  A 
treatise  of  the  hierarchy  of  the  church  :  i^inst  the  anar- 
chy of  Calviuj"  1629,  8vo.  In  this  treatise,  he  had  the 
misfortune  to  differ  from  the  opinion  of  his  own  church  in 
some  respect  His  object  was,  to  prove  the  necessity  of 
episcopal  government  in  national  churches;  and  he  par- 
ticularly pointed  at  the  state  of  the  catholics  in*  England, 
who  were  without  such  a  government.  Some  imagined  th^t 
the  book  would  be  censured  at  Rome,  because  it  seemed 
indirectly  to  reflect  upon  the  pope,  who  had  not  provided 
England  with  bishops  to  govern  the  papists  there,  al- 
"^though  frequently  applied  to  for  that  favour;  and  because 
it  seemed  to  represent  the  regulars  as  no  part  of  the  eccle- 
siastical hierarchy,  and  consequently  not  over- zealous  in 
supporting  the  dignity  of  the  episcopal  order.  The  court 
of  Rome,  however,  took  no  cognisance  of  the  matter;  but 
others  attacked  Dr.  Kellison*s  work  with  great  fury.  The 
controversy  increasing,  the  bishops  and  clergy  of  France 
espoused  his  cause,  and  condemned  several  of  the  produc- 
tions of  .his' antagonists,  in,  which  they  had  attacked  the 
hierarchy  of  the  church.  Dr.  Kellison*s  other  works  were, 
8.  "  A  brief  and  necessary  Instruction  for  the  Catholics  of 
England,  touching  their  pastor,**  1631.  9,  '<  Comment 
in  tertiam  partem  Summae  Sancti  Thomce,**  1632,  fol. 
10.  <<A  Letter  to  king  James  I.**  in  MS.     SutcliflPe  and 

u  2 

iSt  IC  E  L  L  Y. 

Montague  were  liis  principal  antagonists  kmong  tlie  pro- 
testants. ' 

KELLY  (Hugh),  Iel  dramatic  and  miscellaneous  writer, 
a  native  of  Ireland,  was  born  on  the  banks  of  the  take 
of  Killarney,  in  1739.  His  father  was  a  gentleman 
of  good  family  in  that  country,  whose  fortune  being  re- 
duced by  a  series  of  misfortunes,  he  was  obliged  to  repair 
to  Dublin,  in  order  to  endeavour  to  support  himself  by  his 
personal  industry.  He  gave  our  author,  however,  some 
school  educatioti ;  but  the  narrowness  of  his  finances  would 
not  perinit  him  to  indulge  his  son^s  natural  propensit}^  io 
study,  by  placing  him  in  the  higher  schools  of  Dublin.  He 
was  therefore  bound  apprentice  to  a  stay-iiiaker,  an  em- 
ployment but  ill  suited  to  his  inclination;  yet  continued 
with  his  master  till  the  expiration  of  his  apprenticeship, 
and  then  s^t  out  for  London,  in  1760,  in  order  to  procure 
a  livelihood  by  his  business.  This,  however,  he  found  very 
difficult,  and  was  soon  reduced  to  the  utmost  distress  for 
the  means  of  subsistence.  In  this  forlorn  situation,  a 
stranger,  and  friendless,  be  used  sometimes  to  endeavour 
to  forget  his  misfortunes,  and  passed  some  of  his  heavy  hours 
at  a  public-house  in  Russel-street,  Covent-garden,  much 
resorted  to  by  the  younger  players.  Having  an  uncommon 
share  of  jgood-humour^  and  being  lively,  cheerful,  and  en- 
.gaging  in  his  behaviour,  he  soon  attracted  the  notice,  not 
only  of  these  minor  wits,  but  of  a  set  of  lionest  tradesmen 
wbo'frequented  that  house  every  evening,  and  who  were 
much  entertained  with  his  conversation.  In  a  little  tinie 
Mr.  Kelly  became  so  well  acquainted  with  the  characters 
of  the  club,  that  he  was  enabled  to  give  a  humorous  descrip- 
tiou  of  them  in  one  of  the  daily  papers ;  and  the  likenesses 
were  so  well  executed  as  to  draw  their  attention,  and  excite 
their  curiosity  to  discover  tl^e  author.  Their  suspicions 
soon  fixed  on  Mr.  Kelly,  and  from  that  time  he  became 
distinguished  among  them  as  a  man  of  parts  and  consider-* 

One  of  the  members  of  the  society,  in  particular,  an 
attorney  of  some  reputation  in  his  profession,  being  much 
pleased  with  Mr.  Kelly^s  company,  made  particular  inquiry 
.  into  his  history,  and  thinking  him  worthy  of  a  better  situ- 
ation, invited  him  to' his  house,  and  employed  him  in 
copying  and  transcribing,  an  occupation  which  Mr.  Kelly 

*  Poda'S  Church  Hist.  vol.  ni.-*^Pitt.— Fuller's  WorUiies. 

K  E  L  ^-  r.  |?8 

prosecuted  with  so  ini|c^  assiduity^  th^t  h^  e,arQed  about 

tivee  guineas  a  week ;    an  incoQfie  whicb^  cbinpared  to 

what  he   had  been   hitherto,  able  to   procure,  might  be 

deemed  ainuent.    But  this  employmentj|  though  profitable^ 

could  not  long  be  agreeable  to  a  man  of  his  lively  turn  9? 

mind.     From  his  accidental  acquaintance  with  sonieKook- 

sellers^  he,  in  1762,  became  the  editor  of  the  '^Ladys 

Museum,"  the  "  Court  Magazine,"  and   o^her.  periodical 

publications,  in  which  he  vifrotq  sq  o^any  original  esss^ys, 

aqd  pieces  of  poetry,  that  his  iam^  \yas  quickly  spread^ 

and   ne  now  found   himself  fully  employed    in   various 

branches  of  periodical  literature ;   ii^  the  proseci^tion  of 

which  he   exerted  himself  with  the  most  unwearied  in* 

dustry,  being  then  lately  m.arried,  and  having  an  increasing 

family,   whose  sole   dependence   was   upon  his   personal 


About  tt)is  time  he  began  to  write  many  political!  paoi- 
phl^ts,  and  fimong  the  re§^  ^*  A  Vindication  of  Mr.  Fitt's 
Administration,"  which  lord  Chesterfield  makes  honourable 
mention  of  in  the  second  volume  of  his  letters.  Letter  178. 
Iq  1767,  the  "Babbler"  appeared  in  two  pocket  volumes, 
which  bad  at  first  been  inserted  in  "  Ovt^en^s  Weekly  Chro- 
nicle" in  single  papers  :  as  did  the  *^  Memoirs  of  a  Magi 
dalene,"  uhdfi^r  the  titl^  of  "  Louisa  Mildmay."     AJbout 
this  time  also,  perceiving  t^t  ChurchilPs  reputation  had 
been  much  rfii'sed  by  his  critipi^fn  of  the  st^ige  in  tb^ 
**  Jlosciad,"  Mr.  Kelly  produced  his  ^'Thespis,"  by  much 
the  most  spirited  of  bis  poetic  compositions,  in  ^hich  lie 
dealt  about  his  satire  and  panegyric  with  great  freedom  ani^  ' 
^cutenei^s.     It  is  somewhat  singular,  that  while  Mr.  |CeIly 
was  making  this  severe  attack  upon  the  merits  of  the  lead- 
ing perfornier^  at  our  theatres,  which  had  so  ^re^t  an  effect 
upon  the  feelings  of  Mrs.  Barry  and  Mrs.  Cliv.e.  that  they 
both  for  some  time  refused  to  perform  in  any  of  his  pieces, 
|ip  was  actually  writing  for  the  $tage';  for,  in   176^^  his 
comedy  of  "  False  Delicacy"  macle  its  appearance,  and 
yi'as   received   with   such  universal  applause,  as  at  oncp 
established  his  reputation  as  .a  dramatic  writer,  and  pro- 
cured him  a  distinguished  rank  among  the  wit9  of  the  ag^» 
The  sale  of  this  comedy  was  exceedingly  rapid  and  greg^t, 
and  it  \vas  repeatedly  performed  throughput  Britain  'an<i 
Ireland,  to  crowded  audiences.     Nor  was  its  reputatioa 
conBned  to  the  British  dominions }  it  was  translated  into 
JBopt  of  tbfi  moflprn  laqgua^es,  vijs.  into  Portuguese,  by 

2»4  K  E  L  L  V. 

command  of  the  marquis  de  Pombal,  and  acted  with  great 
applause  at  the  public  theatre  at  Lisbon;  into  French  by 
the  ceiel>rated  madame  Ricoboni ;  into  the  same  language 
by  another  hand,  at  the  Hague ;  into  Italian  at  Paris,  where 
it  was  acted  at  the  Theatre  de  la  Comedlie  Italienne  ;  and 
into  German. 

The  success  of  this  play  induced  Mr.  Kelly  to  continue 
to  write  for  the  stage;  and  he  soon  produced  another 
comedy,  entitled  "  A'  Word  to  \he  Wise/*  which,  on  a 
report  then  current,  that  he  ws^  employed  to  write  in  de* 
fence  of  thp  measures  of  administration,  met  with  a  very 
illiberal  reception ;  tor,  by  a  party  who  had  previously  de- 
termined on  its  fate,  after  an  uncommon  uproar,  it  was 

•  *  •"'(  ••  a<f',- 

most  undeservedly  driven  from  the  theatre,  uf  this  treat- 
ipent  he  severely  complains  in  an  ^'  Address  to  the  Public," 
prefixed  to  an  edition  of  that  play,  soon  after  published 
l>y  subscription,'  before  which  above  a  thousand  names  ap- 
pear as  his  encouragers ;  and  though  the  pride  of  the  poet 
was  hurt,  his  fortune  was  improved,  and  his  friends  were 
considerably  increased. 

The  ill  fat^  6f  th^  «  Word  to  tjie  Wise"  past  no  damp 
on  the  ardoqr  of  our  poet  in  the  prosecution  of  theatric 
fame ;  and  2^  his  friends  were  strongly  of  opinion,  that  his 
genius  excelled  in  the  sentimental  and  pathetic,  He  was 
persuaded  to  make  a  trial  of  it  in  tragedy,  and  soon  afcer 
presented  the  public  with  **  Clementina.'*     In  1*774,  under 
the'patronage  of  justice  Addington,  who  kindly  helped  to 
conceal  th6  name  of  the  real  author,  by  lending  bis  own  to 
that  performance,  he  produced  his  **  School  for  Wives.'' 
'  JBy  this  n^anceuvre  he  completely  deceived  the  critics,  who 
Ipiad  not  vet  forgot  their  resentment;  for  the  play  was 
prepared  ror  the  stage,  and  represented,  without  the  least 
discover^  of  bis  relation  to  it ;  though  they  pretended  to 
he  perfectly  well  acquainted  with  Mr.  Kelly's  style  and 
;pianner  of  writing.     Ifowever,,  after  the  character '  of  the 
play  was  fully  estaljilisbed,  and  any  farther  concealment 
became  unnecessary,  Mr.  Addington  very  genteelly,  in  a 
public  advertisement,  resigned  his  borrowed  plumes,  and 
the  real  author  was  invested  with  that  share  of  reputation 
io  which  he  was  entitled.  ' 

But,  whilst  Kelly  was  employed  1n  these  theatric  put^ 
suits,  he  was  too' wise  to  depend  solely  on  theii^  precai^ious 
success  for  the  support  of  his  family.  He  had,  therefore, 
some  years  before  this  period,  resolved  to  study'  the  law. 

KELLY.  295 

bad  become  a  member  of  the  society  of  the  Middle  Tern* 
ple^  and  was  called  to  the  bar  so  early  ai  1774.  His  pro-* 
ficiency  in  that  science  was  such  as  afforded  the  most  pro- 
mising hopes  that,  had  he  lived,  he  would  in  a  little  time 
have  made  a  distinguished  figure  in  that  profession. 

His  next  production  was  the  faroe  of  a  ^f  Rpmance  of  aa 
Hour,*'  which  made  its  appearance  about  this  time.  This 
performance,  though  borirowed  from  Marmontel,  he  so 
perfectly  naturalised,  that  it  bears  every  mark  of  an  opgi. 
nal.  The  comedy  of  ^^  The  Man  of  Reason*'  followed  this 
piece  of  genuine  humour,  but  was  attended  with  less  suc- 
Cfsss  than  any  of  his  former  productions.  This  was  his  last 
attempt,  for  the  sedentary  life,  to  which  his  constant 
labour  subjected  him,  injured  his  health;  and  early  in  1777 
an  abscess,  formed  in  his  side,  after  a  few  days  illnessi  put 
a  period  to  his  life  February  3d,  at  his  house  in  Gough* 
square,  in  the  38th  year  of  his  age.  He  left  behind  him;a 
widow  and  five  children,  of  the  last  of  which  she  was  de« 
livered  about  a  month  after  his  death.  Very  soon  after  his 
death,  his  comedy  of  "  A  Word  to  the  Wise^'  was  revived 
for  the  benefit  of  his  wife  and  family,  and  introduced  %y 
an  elegant  3nd  pathetic  prologue  written  by  Dr.  Johnson^ 
which  was  heard  with  the  most  respectful  attention.  About 
the  same  time  an  edition  of  his  work^  was  jjublished  in  ito, 
with  a  life  of  the  author.  > 

KELLY  (JoIhn),  a  learned  English  clergyman,  was  boim 
Nov.  1,  1750,  at  Douglas,  in  the  Isle  of  Man,  Descended 
from  a  line  of  forefathers  who  had  from  time  immen^prial 
possessed  a  small  freehold  near  that  town,,  called  Aalcaer, 
which  devolved  on  the  doctor,  he  was  placed,  un^er^e 
tuiton  of  the  rev.  Philip  Moore,  master  of  the  free  gn^* 
mar*school  of  Douglas,  where  he  became  speedily  distin- 
guished by  quickness  of  intellect,  and  t)3e  rapidity  of  liis 
classical  progress.  From  the  pupil  he  b^^came  t;he  mvoiirite 
and  the  companion  of  bis  iinstru^for,  whose  regard  he  ap- 
pears to  have  partici^Jarly  conciliated  jbj^,  h?9  sk^l  in  ibe 
vernacular  dialect  of  the  Celtic  tongue^  spokep  in  '^at 
island.  When  not  seventeen,  ,ypung^elly  attempted  .th^ 
difficult  task  of  reducing  to  writing  the  grammatical  ^ujes, 
and  proceeded  to  compile  a  dictionary  pf  the  tongu^.  The 
obvious  difficulties  of  such  an. undertaking  to>s^  school- boy 
foay  be  estimated  by  the  refl^tioii.  fhat  tjiis  w^i^  the  very 

!  Life  at  aboTe. 

2M  K  E  L  L  Yi 

first  dttcMofirt  to  en&bocfy,  to  arrange^  or  to  grammaticize^ 
this  language:,  that  it  was. made  without  any  aid  whatevejp 
from  bookfl,  MSS.  or  from  oral  communications;  buit 
merely  b^  dint  of  observation. on  the  conversation  of  hia 
unlettered  codntrymen.  It  happened  at  this  moment  thal^ 
I>r.  Hildesley,  the  then  bisbpp  of  Sodor  and  Man,^  had 
1ir66gbt  to  mjaturity  bis  benevolent  plan  of  bestowing  on 
libe  tiatives  of.  the  inland  a  translation  of  the  Holy  Scrip- 
turesy  of  the  Common.  Prayer  book^  and  of  some  religious 
traots^  in  t1!kdir  own  idtofp.  His  lordship  most  gladly  availed 
himself  6£  the  talents  aiid  attainments  of  this  youtig  mafii 
sod  prevailed  06' him  to  dedicate  severaL  years  of  hi^  life 
1to  faia  lordship^i  favourite  .object.  The  Scriptures  had  been 
distributed  in  portions  amongst  the  insular  clergy,  for  each 
to  translflite  his  part:  on  Mr.  K«  the  serious  charge  waa 
kilposed  of  revi^ng,  correcting,  and  giving  uniformity  to 
these  teveral  tratisliatiops  of  the  Old  Testament ;  and  also 
tbAt  of  condacting  ^through  the  press  the  whole  of  these 
publications.  In  June  1 7^8  he  entered  on  his  duties :  in 
April  1770  he  transmitted  the  first  portion  tp  Whitehaven^ 
where  the  vt'ork  was  printed ;  but  .whea.  conveying  the  se- 
cond, he  wds  shipwrecked^  and  narrowly  escaped  perish- 
ing.  The  MS.  witib  which  .he  was  charged  was  held  five 
^GTurs  above  water;  and  was  nearly  the  only  article  on 
board  preserved.  In  the  course  of  ^Vhis  labours  in  the 
vineyard,''  he  jtranspribed,.  with  bi^  own  hand,  all  the 
bobhs  of  the  Old  Testament  three  several  times.  The 
Ivholc  impression,  wa^  completed,  under  bis  guidance,  ill 
Decdmbefr.  177^2^  speedily  aftfer  the  worthy  bishop  died. 

In  1776,  Mr,  Kelly  received  an  invitation  from  the. Episr 
copal  congregation  at  Air,  in  North  Britain^  to  become 
their  jf^a^ tor. vOjn^  this  title  he  was  ordained  by  the  bishop 
of  Carlisle,  before  whom  he  preached  th^  idrdination  &er» 
moBi  <  f  rohi  that  tihie  he  continued  to  reside  at  Air  till 
177%  whefivhe.  vtas  ^engaged  .by  his  grace  the  duke  of 
Gordon  as  tuioic  to.  his  son  <tbe  n)ar(}uis  of  Huntley.  Th^, 
ttndies  of  ihi^  gallant  young  .nobltemaQ  Mr.  K.  continued 
td  direct  ;at  Eton  and.  Cambr^ige  ;  and  afterwards  a,cqoiti* 
pafaied.  him  on  a  tour  to  the  Continent.  After  his  return^ 
in  17 91 J  by  tlie  interest  of  his.  noble  patron,  Mr,  K.  ob- 
taiued  from* the  ehaiicellor  the  presentatioti  to  the  vjoaragi^ 
of  Ai^leigh  near  Colchester,  which  preferment. he.  conr 
tinned  to  hold  till  1807.  Being  presented  by  the  chancel- 
lor to  the  more  valuable  rettory  of  Copford  in  the  sanie 

KELLY;  S97 

fieighbouchood,  Dr.  Kelly  bad  tbe  satisfaetioo  of  being  en* 
abled  ^>  resign  bis  vicarage  of  Ardleigh  in  favour  of  his 
friend  and  brother-in-law  tb^  rev.  Henry  Bishop. 
.  He  was  of  St.  Jobn's-coUege,  Cambridge,,  where  be  pro^ 
ceeded  LL.  B.  1794,  LL.  D.  1799.  In  1803  he  corrected 
and  sent  to  the  press  tbe  graimnatical  notes  oo  bis.  native 
dialect,  above  alluded  to ;  these  weie  printed  by  Nichols 
and  Son^,  with  a  neat  Dedication  to  the  doctor^s  fotmeir 
pupil,  under  the  title  of  ^^  A  Practical  Grammar  of  the  an* 
cient  Gaelic,  or  language  of  tbe  Isle  of  Man,  usually  calLed 

In  l8Cl5  he  issued  proposals  for  printing  ^'A  Triglot 
Dictionary  of  tbe  Celtic  tongue,  as  spoken  in  tbe  High- 
lands of  Scotland,  Ireland,  and  tbe  Isle  of  Alan  ;*'  and  . 
bestowed  considerable  pains  in  bringing  to  completion  this 
useful  and  curious  work.  It  has  been  the  misfortune  of 
Celtic  literature,  that  those  learned  perspns^  whose  mater- 
nal tongue  happens  to  have  been  one  of  these  dialects, 
liave  usually  treated  it  with  neglect :  but  it  has  been  its 
still  greater  misfortune  to  be  overlaid  and  made  ridiculous 
by  the  reveries  of  many  of  those  whose  ^^  zeaP'  is  utterly 
*'  without  knowledge^^  of  the  subiect  on  which  tbey  descant. 
Dr.  Kelly  furnished  the  rare  ana  probably  solitaxy  example 
of  a  competent  skill  in  these  three  last  surviving  dialects  of 
the  Celtic.  With  every  aid  which  could  be  afforded  by  a 
well-grounded  knowledge  of  tbe  learned  languages,  and  of 
the  principal  tongues  now  spoken  in  Europe,  and  with 
every  attention  to  such  prior  memorials  of  the  tongue  as 
^re  really  useful.  Dr.  Kelly  proceeded,  am  amorCy  with  bis 
task.  As  it  advanced,  it  was  transmitted  to  the  press:  in 
1808,  63  sheets  were  printed;  and  the  first  part  of  tbe 
Dictionary,  English  turned  into  the  Uiree  dialects,  was 
nearly  jqx  quite  completed,  when  the  iir;e  at  Messrs.  Ni- 
cbols^  which  we  have  had  such  frequent  occasion  to  lament, 
reduced  to  ashes  the  whole  impression.  The  doctor's  MSS. 
and  some  of  tbe  corrected  proofs^  it  is  understood,  remain 
with  the  family ;  but  whether  the  printing  may  ever  be  re- 
sumed, is  doubtful.  The  doctor  gave  to  the  press  aji 
Assize  Sermon,  preached  at  Chelmsford  \  and  a  sermon  for 
the  benefit  of  a  certa,in  charitable  institution  preached  like- 
wise at  the  same  place.  The  former  was  printed  sLt  the 
instance  of  chief  baron  Macdonald ;  the  latter  91  tbe 
earnest  request  of  the  right  boo.  lord  Woodhouse. 

*98  K  E  L  L  y. 

-    In  1785  Dr.  Kelly  married  Louisa,  eldest  daughter  of 
Mr.  Peter  Dollond,  of  St.  Paul's  cburch-yard.    A  short 
memoir  was  printed  in  1808  of  Mrs.  Kelly^s  grandfatber, 
Mr^.  John  Dollond,  which  we  h^ve  already  noticed  in  our 
liccount  of  that  ingenious  man.     Whilst  in  possession  of 
good  health  and  spirits,  with  the  prospect  of  many  happy 
iand  useful  years  yet  to  come,  Dr.  Kelly  was  seized  by  a 
typhus  :  after  a  short  struggle,  he  expired  Nov.  12,  1809, 
very  sincerely  regretted.    To  acuteness  of  intellect,  sound 
«nd  various  learnings  were  added  a  disposition  gendre,  gene- 
rous, and  affectionate.    His  last,  remains,  accompanied  to 
the  grave  by  his  parishioners  ifi  a  body,  were  interred  on 
the  i7th  of  November  in  his  own  parisn*church,  when  an 
occasional  discourse  was  delivered  from  the  pulpit  by  the 
rev.  J.  G.  Ta^ylor,  of  Dedham  near  Colchester.    Dr.  Kelly 
left  an  only  son,  a  fellow  of  St.  John's*c<dlege,  Cambridge.' 
KEMPIS  (TfiOMAS^  A),   a  pious  and   learned  regul^ 
canon,  and  one  of  the  most  eminent  men  in  the  fifteenth 
century,  was4>ofu  1380,  at  Kemp,  a  village  in  the  diocese 
ot  Cologn,  from  whence  he  took  his  name.    •He  studied  at 
Deventer,  in  the  community  of  poor  scholars  established 
by  Gerard  Groot,  made  great  progress  both  in  learning 
and  piety,  and  in  1399  entered  the  monastery  of  regular 
canons  of  Mount  St.  Agnes,  near  Zwol,  where  his  brother 
was  prior.     Thomas  h  |Cempis  distinguished  himself  in 
this  situation  by  his  eminent  piety,  his  respect  for  his  su- 
periors, and  his  charity  towards  his  brethren;  and  died  in 
^great  reputation  for  sanctity,  July  25,  1471,  aged  ninety- 
one.     He  left  a  great  number  of  religious  works,  which 
breathe  a  spirit  of  tender,  solid,  and  enlightened  piety,  of 
which  a  collection  was  printed  at  Antiyerp,  1615,  3  torn. 
8vo.    The  abb6  de  Bellegarde  translated  part  of  his  works 
into  French,  under  the  title  of  ^^  Suite  du  Livre  de  PImi- 
•tation,*'  24mo,  and  Pere  Valeite,  under  that  of  **  Eleva- 
tion  k  J.  C,  sur  sa  vie  et  ses  mysteries,''  12mo.    Tlie 
learned  Joducus  Badius  Ascensius  was  the  first  who  attri- 
buted the  celebrated  book  on  the  Imitatioh  of  Jesus  Christ 
to  Thomas  k  Kempis,  in  which  be  hat  been  followed  by 
Francis  de  Tob,  a  regular  canon,  who  in  favour  of  this 
opinion  quotes  the  MSS.  ^hich  may  still  be  seen  in  Thomas 
i,  Kempis's  own  hand;     On  the  other  hand,  Pere  Poss^vin, 
a  Jesuit,  was  the  first  who  attributed  this  work  to  the 

}  Gent  Ma^.  toL  XJOa^Botler^s  Vh  of  B^.  Hildesky,  ^.  «3]|,  63^. 

K  E  M  P  I  S,  299 

i^bbot  John  Gersen  or  Gessen,  in  his  '^^  Apparatus  sacer,^' 
M^hich  opinidn  has  been  adopted  by  the  Benedictines  of 
^be  congregations  de  St.  Maur.     M.  Vallart,  in  bis  edition 
of  the  ^*  Imitation/*  supposes  it  to  be  more  ancient  tha^ 
Thomas  k  Kempis,    and  that  it  was  written  by  Gersen. 
Those  who  wish  to  be  acquainted  with  the  disputes  which 
arose  on  this  subject  between  the  Benedictines,  who  are 
for  Gersen,  and  the  V^gular  canons  of  the  congregation  of 
St.  Genevieve,  who  are  for  Thomas  k  Kempis,  may  coq- 
sult  the  curious  account  of  them  which   Dom.  Vincent 
Thuiiier  has  prefixed  to  torn.  1.  of  Mabillon^s  and  Rui- 
part's  Posthumous  Works,  or  Dupin's  History,  who  has 
also  entered  deeply  into  the  controversy.    The  first  Latin 
edition  is  1492,  12mo,  Gothic.    There  was  at  that  time 
an  old  French  translation  under  the  title  of  L'Internelle 
Consolation,**  the  language  of  which  appears  as  old  as 
Thqma)  a  Kempis,  which  has  raised  a  doubt  whether  the 
book  was  originally  written  in  Latin  or  French*     The  abb6 
Langlet  has  taken  a  chapter  from  this  ancient  translation, 
which  is  not  in  the  Latin  versions.     Dr.  Stanhope  trans- 
lated it  into  Enelish,  and  there  are  numerous  editions  of  it 
in  every  known  language.^ 

KEN  (Thomas),  the  deprived  bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells, 
was  descended  from  an  ancient  family  seated  at  Ken- 
place,  in  Somersetshire,  and  born  at  Berkhamstead,  in 
Hertfordshire,  July  1637.  At  the  age  of  thirteen  he  was 
sent  to  Winchester-school ;  and  thence  removed  to  New- 
college,  in  Oxford,  of  which  he  became  a  probationer- 
fellow  in  1657.  He  took  his  degrees  regularly,  and  pur- 
sued his  studies  closely  for  many  years;  and  in  1666  he 
renaoved*  to  Winchester-college,  being  chosen  fellow  of 
ihat  society.  Not  long  after  this,  he  was  appointed  do- 
mestic chaplain  to  Morley,  bishop  of  that  see,  who  pre- 
sented him  first  to  the  rectory  of  Brixton,  in  the  Isle  of 
Wight,  and  afterwards  to  a  prebend  in  the  church  of  W^stT 
minster,  1669.  In  1674  he  made  a  tour  to  Rome,  with 
his  nephew  Str.  Isaac  Walton,  then  B.  A.  in  Ghrist- 
bhurcb,  in  Oxford ; '  and  after  his  return,  took  his  der 
grees  in  divinity,  1679.  Not  long  after,  being  appointed 
chaplain  to  the  princess  of  Orange,  be  went  to  Hol- 
land.    Here  his  prudence  and  piety  gained  him  the  esteem 

I  Cav€,  toL  11.^— Dapin.— Moreri.*-Miich  infomiatioa  respectinir  the  edi* 
tioos  and  ths  aiitJior  ta  a  series  of  letters  ia  Gent.  Maf.  yoU  « tXXJtIlt.  an4 

3dO  K  ^  N. 


and  confidence  of  bis  ipistress ;  but  in.  the  course  pf  bi» 
pflBce,  be  happened  to  incur  the  displeasure  of  ber  con- 
sort^ by  obliging  one  of  his  favourites  to  perform  a  pr9niu$e 
of  marriage  with  a  young  lady  of  th^  ppii\cess'&  train>  wbop^ 
be  bad  seduced  by  that  contract    Thi^  si;e,al  ki  Ken  ^e 
offended  the  prioce,  afterwards  king  William,  that  be  vei»y 
warmly  thresM:wed  to  turn  bim  away  from  tbi^  ^j^ryip^,; 
which  Ken  9^  warmly  reseating^  requested  leave  q£,  tl|e 
pirincess  to  returci  bog^e,  and  would  not  consi^ipit  tQ  stay 
till  iutreated  by. the  pri^ice  in  person.    Abqut  a  year  afif^, 
boweverj^  he  retiiuri>ed  to  England,  and  was  appoini^d  V^ 
quality  of  chaplain,  to  attend  lord  Dartmwtb  with  the 
royal  commission  to  demolish  the  fortificatioipa  of  Tai^igier. 
The  doctor  returned  with  this  nobleman  April  i§B4  ;  and 
was  immediately  advanced  to  be  chaplain  to  the  kUxg^  by 
an  order  from. his  majesty  himself.     Not  only  the  nature 
of  tbe  post,  but  the  gracious  manner  of  qoaferring  itjt  evi- 
dently shewed  that  it  was  intended  as  a  step  to  future  fa- 
vours; and  this  was  so  well  understood,  that,  upon  thfc 
removal  of  the  court  to  pass  tbe  summer  at  Winchester, 
the  doctor^s  prebendal  house  was  pitched  upon  for  tbe  us^ 
of  Mrs^  Eleanor  Gwyn.     But  Ken  was  too  pious  even  to 
countenance  vice  in  his  royal  benefactor ;  a^d  therefore 
positively  refused  admittance  to  tbe  royal  mistress,  wl^ich 
tbe  king,  however,  did  not  take  amiss,  as  he  knew  the 
sincerity  of  the  man;  and,  previous  to  any  appUciatipn,  no- 
minated him  soon  after  to  the  bishopric  ^  Bath  )^nd  Wells. 
A  few  days  after  this,  fhe  king  was  seized  with  the  illn^s^ 
of  which  be  died ;  during  which,  the  doctor  thought  it  his 
duty  to  attend  him  very  constantly,  and  did  his^  utmost  to 
awaken  his  conscience*    Bishop  Burpet  tells  ps  that  h^ 
spoke  on  that  occasion  ^<  with  great  elevation  of  thought 
and  expression,  a^d  like  a  man  inspired."     This  pious 
duty  was  the  cause  of  delaying  his  adinission  to  the  tem- 
poralities of  the  see  of  Wells;  so  that  when  king  James 
came  to  the  <;rown,  new  ipstruments  were  prepared  for 
that  purpose. 

When  he  was  settled  in  bis  see,  be  attepded  closely  to 
bis  episcopal  function.  He  published  ^'  An  Exposition  of 
the  Church.  Catechism''  in  J 685,  and' the  same  year, 
"  Prayers  for  the  Use  of  the  Bath."  Nor  w^s  he  le^^^ 
zealous  as  a  guardian  of  the  national  church  in  general,  in 
opposing  the  attempts  to  introduce  popery.  He  did  not 
indeed  take  part  in  the  popish  controversy,  then  ag^ated 

K  E  K.  301 

?80  Warmfy ;  for  he  had  v6ry  little  of  a  controversial  turn  ; 
bdt  Irom  the  pulpit,  be  frequently  took  occasion  to  uu^.k 
HBind  confute  the  errors  of  popery  ;  nor  did  he  spare,  when 
his  duty  to  the  church  of  England  more  -especiaHy  called 
for  it,  to  take  the  opportunity  of  the  royal  pulpit,  to  set 
before  the  coutt  their  injurious  and  unmanly  politics,  in 
^ojeoting  a  coalition  of  the  sectaries.  For  same  time  he 
%eld,  in  appearance,  «the  aame  place  in  the  £aivour  of  king 
Jamie&  as  he  had  holden  in  the  former  reign ;  and  some  at- 
«ea»pts  were  made  to  gain  him  over  to  the  interest  of  the 
popish  ^party  at  court,  but  these  were  in  vain  ;  (for  when 
(he  deoiaration  of  indulgence  was  strictly  commanded  to 
be  read,  b^*  virtue 'of  a  dispensing  power  claimed  by  the 
"fcii^g,  this^  bishop  was  one  of  the  seven  who  openly  opposed 
the  Trading  of  it:  for  which  he  was  sent,  with  bis  siic 
brethren,  to  the  Tower.  Yet. though  in  this  be  ventured  to 
disobey  his -sovereign  forthesake  of  his  religion,  yet  he 
would  not  violate  his  conscience  by  transferring  his  alle- 
giance from  hrrm,  *  When  the  prince  of  Orange  therefore 
^ime-over,  and  the  revolution  took  iplace,  the  bishop  re- 
hired; and  ZB  soon  as  king  -William  wa»  seated  on  the 
'throne^  atnd  th&  new  oath  of  allegiance  was  required,  he, 
'by  hisretosal,  suifered  himself  to  be  deprived.  After  bis 
^deprivation,  he  resided  at  Longleate,  a  seat  of  the  lord 
viscount  Weymouth,  in  Wiltshire ;  wfaetyce  he  sometimes 
made  a  visit  to  his  nephew,  Mr.  Isaac  Walton,  at  Salisbury, 
whb  was>a  prebendary  of  that  icihurch.  In  this  retirement 
liecompoged  many  pious  works,  some  of  the  poetical  kind; 
ifor  he  bad  an  inelinatton  for  poetry,  and  had  many  years 
before  written  an  epic  poem  of  13  books,  en  titled  *^  Ed^ 
-mutfid,"  which  was  'not  published  till  after  his  death. 
'There  is  a  prosaic  flatness  in  this. work;  but  some  of  his 
Hymns  aild  other  compositions,  have  more  of  the  spirit  of 
poi^t^y,  and' give  usan  idea  of  that  devotion  which  'ani*- 
mated '  the  author.  It  is  said  that  when  bewasaflieted 
with  the  o^e,  to  whioh  he  was  very  subject,  he  frequently 
-amused  him^lf  with  writing  verses.  Hence  some  of  his 
pious  poems  are  entitled  ^^  Anodynes,  or  the  Alleviation  ()f 

3tshop  Kdn  did  not  tnix  in  any  of  the  disputes  or 
'«ttea^ts  of  his  party,  though  it  is  very  probable  he 
was  earnestjy  solicited  to  it ;  since  we  find  the  deprived 
bishop  of  Ely,  Dr.  Turner,  his  particular  friend,  with  whom 
he  had  begun  an  intimacy  at  Winchester  school^  so  deeply 

sea  K  £  N. 

engaged  in  it.  He  never  concurred  in  opinion  with  those 
nonjurors  who  were  for  continuing  a  separation  from  the 
established  church  by  private  consecrations  among  them*- 
selves,  yet  .he  looked  on  the  spiritual  relation  to  his  diocese 
to  be  still  in  full  force,  during  the  life  of  his  first  successor. 
Dr.  Kidder;  but,  after  his  decease  in  1703,  upon  the 
nomination  of  Dr.  Hooper  to  the  diocese,  he  requested 
that  gentleman  to  accept  it,  and  afterwards  subscribed 
himself  <<  late  bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells."  The  qoeen^ 
who  highly  respected  him,  settled  upon  him  a  pension  of 
200/.  per  annum,  which  was  punctually  paid  out  of  the 
treasury  as  long  as  he  lived.  He  had  been  afflicuki  from 
1696  with  severe  cholicky  pains,  and  at  length  symptoms 
being  apparent  of  an  ulcer  in  hi^  kidneys,  he  went  to 
Bristol  in  1710  for  the  benefit  of  the  hot  wells,  and  there 
continued  till  November,  when  he  removed  to  Leweston, 
near  Sherborne,  in  Dorsetshire,  a  seat  belonging  to  the 
hon.  Mrs.  Thynne.  There  a  paralytic  attack,  which  de- 
prived him  of  the  use  of  one  side,  confined  him  to  his 
chamber  till  about  the  middle  of  ]\$arch ;  when  beings 
as  he  thought,  able  to  go  to  Bath,  he  set  out,  but  died  at 
Longleate,  in  his  way  Uiither,  March  19,  1710*11.  It  k 
said  that  he  had  travelled  for  many  years  with  his  shroud  iti 
bis  portmanteau ;  and  that  he  put  it  on  as  soon  as  he  came 
to  Longleate,  giving  notice  of  it  the  day  before  his  deatli| 
to  .prevent  his  body  from  being  stripped* 

His  works  were  published  in  1721,  in  four  volumes ;  and 
consist  of  devotional  pieces  in  verse  and  prose.  Various 
reports  having  been  industriously  spread  that  he  was  tainted 
with  popish  errors,  and  not  steadfast  to  the  doctrine  of  thie 
church  of  England,  it  was  thought  proper  to  publish  the 
following  paragraph,  transcribed  from  bis  will :  ^'  As  for 
my  religion',  I  die  in  the  holy  catholic  and  apostolic  faith, 
professed  by  the  whole  church,  before  the  disunion  of  East 
and  West ;  more  particularly,  I  die  in  the  communion  of 
the  church  of  England,  a&  it  stands  distinguished  from  all 
papal  and  ppritan  innovations/rand  as  it  adheres  to  the  doc-* 
trine  of  the  cross."  * 

KENNEDY  (James)^  bishop  of  St  Andrew's,  Scotland, 
and  founder  of  the  college  of  St.  Salvator  there,  was  the 
younger  sqa:  of  James  Kennedy,  of  Dunmure,  by  the  lady 

'    '  '  *  * 

^  Life  by  Ilawk'ios,  prefixed  to  his  works.—- Gen.  Diet,*— >Biog.  Brit««**Blir* 
wt»»  Own  Times.-^-Qent  Mag.  vol.  LXXXIV. 

I  ' 


Mary,  countet^  of  Angus,  his  wife,  daughter  of  Robert  III. 
king  of  Scotland.  He  was  bom  in  1405,  or  1406,  and  after 
some  preparatory  education  at  home,  was  sent  abroad  for 
his  philosophical  and  theological  studies.  Entering  into 
holy  orders,  he  was  preferred  by  James  I.  to  the  bishopric 
of  Dunkeld  in  1437.  In  order  to  be  better  qualified  to  re-- 
form the  abuses  which  had  crept  into  his  diocese,  he  un** 
dertook  a  journey  to  pope  Eugenius  IV.  then  at  Florence, 
Imt  the  schism  which  then  prevailed  in  the  church  of  Rome 
prevented  his  procuring  the  necessary  powers*  The  pope, 
however,  to  show  his  esteem  for  him,  gave  him  the  abbey 
of  S>coon  in  commendam.  In  1440,  while  he  was  at  Flo- 
rence, the  see  of  St.  Andrew*s  becoming  vacant,  was  con- 
ferred upon  him  :  and  .on  his  return,  after  being  admitted 
in  due  form,  be  restored  order  and  discipline  throughout 
bis  dioceser  In  1444  be  was  made  lord  chancellor,  but 
not  finding  his  power  equal  to  his  inclination  to  do  good  in 
this  office,  he  resigned  it  within  a  few  weeks.  The  nation 
being  much  distracted  by  party  feuds  during  the  minority 
of  James  II.  and  bishop  Kennedy  6nding  himself  unable  to 
compose  these  differences,  determined  to  go  again  abroad, 
and  try  what  be  could  do  in  healing  that  schism  in  the  pa- 
pacy which  had  so  lone  disturbed  the  quiet  of  the  church. 
With  this  view  he  undertook  a  journey  to  Rome,  with  a 
retinue  of  thirty  persons;  and  it  being  necessary  to  pass 
through  England,  he  obtained  a' safe  conduce  from  Henry 
VI.  dated  May  28,  1446. 

It  does  not  appear  that  he  was  very  successful  as  to  the 
objects  of  thisjouruey ;  but  on  his  return  home  he  acbieted 
what  was  more  easy  and  more  to  his  honour.  This  was  his 
founding  a  college,  or  university,  at  St.  Andrew's,  called 
St.  Salvator's,  which  he  liberally  endowed  for  the  main>- 
tenance  of  a  provost,  four  regents,  and  eight  bursars,  or 
exhibitioners.  He  founded  also  the  collegiate  church  with* 
in  the  precincts  of  the  college,  in  which  is  his  tomb,  of  ex- 
quisite workmanship :  a  few  years  ago,  six  magnificent 
silver  maces  were  discovered  within  the  tomb,  exact  modelii 
of  it.  One  was  presented  to  each  of  the  three  other  Scotch 
universities,  and  three  are  preserved  in  the  college.  He 
founded  also  the  abbey  of  the  Observantines,  which  was 
finished  by  bis  successor,  bishop  Graham,  in  1478,  but  is 
now  a  ruin.  During  the  minority  of  James  III.  he  was  ap- 
pointed one  of  the  lords  of  the  regency,  but  in  fact  was 
allowed  the  whole  power^  and,  according' to  Buchanan  and 

304  *  KENNEDY. 

S^^tsMPood,  c^onducted  -himself  witjb  gi^eat  prudence^.  He 
died  May  10,  1466.,  and  was  interred  in  his  collegiate 
church.  Jn<his  prijirate  character  he  was  frugal,  but  aiagoi* 
ficent  io  his  expeuces  for  the  pihomotion  of  religion  and 
learning.  He  (is  said  to  have  written  some  .poliucal  advices, 
^Mtfonita  PoUtica,''  and  a  History  of  his*  own  timesi  both 
probably  lost.  *  • 

KENNfiUDY  (John,  M.  D.))  a  native  of  Scotknd,  who 
resided  some  time  in  Smyrna,  And  died  at  an  advanced  age, 
Jan.  26, 1760^  is  recorded  as  an  antiquary  of  some  abilities^ 
although  we  know  very  little  <of  his  history.  He  had  a  col- 
lection of  about  200  pictures,  amongst  which  were  two 
beads  of  himself  by  Keysing ;  he  had  also  a  very  valuable 
collection  of  Greek  and  Latin  coins,  which,  with  the  pic- 
tures, were  sold  by  auction  in  1760.  Amongst  the  Roman 
coitis  were  256  of  Carausius,  9  of  them  silver,  and  89  of 
Aleotus;  these  coins  of  Carausius  and  Aleotus  were  pur- 
i^ha^ad  hyp.  C.  Webb,  esq.  the  256  for  70Z.  aiid  the  89 
for  16/.  lOy.  They  were  afterwards  bought  by  Dr.  Hunter, 
who  added  to  the. number  very  considerably.  Dr.  Ken- 
nedy, ;in  his  ^^  Diss€artation  on  the  Coins  of  Carausius,"  as- 
serted, that  Oriuna  was  that  emperor^ i^  guardian  goddess. 
Df.  :Stukeley,  in  bis  ^<  Palseograj^hia  Britannica,  No.  III. 
.1752,^'  4to,  affirmed  she  was  his  wife;  to  which  Dr.^Ken- 
i>e4y  replied  in  "Fai^dier  Observations,"  &c.  1756,  4to; 
and,  upon  his  antagonist's  supporting  bis  opinion  in  his 
"  History  of  Carausius,"  1757 — 59,  be  abused  .him  in  -a 
6il9penny  ^to- letter. 

^*  Oriuna,  on  the  medals  of  Carausius,"  says  Mr;  Wal- 
pole,  in  his  preface  to  .Historic  Doubts,  <^used  to  pass  for 
the  Moot>.;  of  late  years  it  is  become  a  doubt  whether  she 
was  not  hisxonsort.  It  is  of  little  importance  whether  she 
(was  moon  or  empress ;  but  how  little  must  we  know  of  those 
times,  when  those  landrmarks  to  certainty,  royal  names, 
do  not  derve. even  that  purpose !  In  the  cabinet  of  .the 
hmg  of  Fmnoe  are  sev^eral  coins  of  sovereigns  whose  coua- 
;try  cannot  be  guessed ^at."  ^  " 

•KEN NET  (White),  an  English  writer,  and  bishop  of 
^Peterborough,  was  the  son  of  the  rev.  Basil  Kennet,  rec- 
.tor  of  Dunchurcb,  and  vicar  df  Postling,  near  Hythe,  in 
^Kent,  and  was  born  at  Dover,  Aug.  10,  1660.  He  was 
eailed  White^  from  his  mother's  father,  one  Mr.  Thomas 

1  |if9ckfiuie's.LiTes.rr<<rt^ford'8.LiYe8  0f  Statesmei^     *  Nicholses  Bowyer. 

K  E  N  N  E  T.  305 

White,  a  wealthy  magistrate  at  Dover,,  who  had  formerly 
been  a  master  shipwright  there.     When  he  was  a  little 
grown  up,  he  was  sent  to  Westminster-school,  with  a  view 
of  getting  upon  the  foundation;  but,  being  seized  with 
the  sinall-pox  at  the  time  of  the  election,  it  was  thought 
advisable  to  take  him  away.     In  June  1678  he  was  entered 
of  St.  Edmund-hall  in  Oxford,  where  he  was  pupil  to  Mr. 
AUlam,  a  very  celebrated  tutor,  who  took  a  particular  plea* 
sure  in  imposing  exercises  on  him,  which  be  would  often 
read  in  the  common  room  with  great  approbation.     It  was 
by  Mr.  Allam's  advice  that  he  translated  Erasmus  on  Folly, 
and  some  Other  pieces  for  the  Oxford  booksellers.     Under 
this  tutor  he  applied  hard  to  study,  and  commenced  an 
author  in  politics,  even  while  he  was  an  under-graduate  ; 
for,  in  1680,  he  published  "  A  Letter  from. a  student  at 
Oxford    to  a  friend  in  the  country,  concerning  the  ap- 
proaching parliament,  in  vindication  of  his  majesty,  the 
church  of  England,  and  the  university  :'*  with  which  the 
whig  party,  as  it  then  began  to  be  called,  in  the  House  of 
Commons,  were  so  much  offended,  that  inquiries  were  made 
after  the  author,  in  order  to  have  him. punished.    In  March 
1681  he  published,  in  the  same  spirit  of  party,  "a  Poem,'* 
that  is,  "  a  Ballad,^'  addressed  ^^  to  Mr.  E.  L.  on  his  majesty's 
dissolving  the  late  parliament  at  Oxford,'^  which  was  printed 
on  one  side  of  a  sheet  of  paper,  and  began,  ^*  An  atheist 
now  must  a  monster  be,'^  &c.     He  took  his  bachelor's  de- 
gree in  May  1683  ;  and  published,  in  1684,  a  translation 
of  Erasmus's  "  Moris  encomium,' » which  he  entitled  "Wit 
against  Wisdom,  or  a  Panegyric  upon  Folly,''  which,  as 
we  have  already  noticed,  his   tutor  had  advised  him  to 
undertake.     He  proceeded  M.  A.  Jan.  22,  1684;  and,  the 
S2Ltae  year,  was  presented  by  sir  William  Glynne,  hart,  to 
the  vicarage  of  Amersden,  or  Ambroseden,  in  Oxfordshire; 
which  favour  was  procured  him  by  his  patron's  eldest  son, 
who  was  his  contemporary  in  the  hall.     To  this  patron  be 
dedicated  *<  Pliny's  Panegyric,"  which  he  translated  in 
1686,  and  published  with  this  title,  "An  address  of  thanks 
to  a  good  prince,  presented  in  the  Panegyric  of  Pliny  upon 
Trajan,  the  best  of  the  Roman  emperors."     It  was  re- 
printed in.l717 ;  before  which  time  several  reflections  hav- 
ing been  made  jon  him  for  this  performance,  he  gave  the 
following  account  of  it  in  a  "  Pastscript"  to  the  translation 
of  his  "Convocation  Sermon,"  in  1710.     "  The  remark  er 
aays,  the  doctor  dedicated  Pliny's  Panegyrid  to  the  late 
Vol.  XIX.  X 

306  K  E  N  N  fi  T. 


king  James :  and,  what  if  he  did  ?  Only  it  appears  he  did 
not.  This  is  an  idle  tale  among  the  party,  who,  perhaps, 
have  told  it  till  they  believe  it :  when  the  troth  is,  there . 
tvas  no  such  dedication,  and  the  translation  itself  of  Pliny 
was  not  designed  for  any  court  address.  The  young  trans«» 
lator^s  tutor,  Mr.  Allam,  directed  his  pupil,  foy  way  of  ex^ 
ercise,  to  turn  some  Latin  tracts  into  English.  The  first 
was  a  tittle  book  of  Erasmus,  entitled,  ^  Morise  Encomium  ;* 
which  the  tutor  was  pleased  to  give  to  a  bookseller  in  Ox* 
ford,  who  put  it  in  the  press  while  the  translator  was  but  an 
under-graduate.  Another  sort  of  task  required  by  his  tutor , 
was  this  *  Panegyric  of  Pliny  upon  Trajan,'  whifcb  he  like- 
wise gave  to  a  bookseller  in  Oxford,  before  the  translator 
was  M.  A.  designing  to  have  it  published  in  the  reign  of 
king  Charles ;  and  a  small  cut  of  that  prince  at  full  length 
was  prepared,  and  afterwards  put  before  several  of  thQ 
books,  though  the  impression  happened  to  be  retarded  till 
the  de^th  of  king  Charles  ;  and  then  the  same  tutor,  not 
long  before  his  own  death,  advised  a  new  preface,  adapted 
to  the  then  received  opinion  of  king  James's  being  a  just 
and  good  prince.  However,  there  was  no  dedication  to 
king  James,  but  to  a  private  patron,  a  worthy  baronet,  who 
came  in  heartily  to  the  beginning  of  the  late  happy  revo* 
lution.  This  is  the  whole  truth  of  that  story,  that  hath 
been  so  often  cast  at  the  doctor ;  not  that  he  thinks  himself 
obliged  to  defend  every  thought  and  expression  of  his 
juvenile  studies,  when  he  had  possibly  been  trained  up  to 
some  notions,  which  he  afterwards  found  reason  to  put 
away  as  childish  things." 

In  1 689,  as  he  was  exercising  himself  in  shooting,  he 
bad  the  misfortune  to  be  dangerously  wounded  in  the  fore- 
bead  by  the  bursting  of  the  gun.  Both  the  tables  of  his 
skull  were  broken,  which  occasioned  him  constantly  to 
wear  a  black  velvet  patch  on  that  part.  He  lay  a  consider- 
able time  under  this  accident ;  and  it  is  said,  that  while  he 
wa^  in  great  disorder  both  of  body  and  brain,  just  after  he 
had  undergone  the  severe  operation  of  trepanning,  he  made 
a  copy  of  Latin  verses,  and  dictated  them  to  a  friend  at 
his  bed-side.  The  copy  was  transmitted  to  his  patron,  sir 
William  Glynne,  in  whose  study  it  was  found,  after  the 
author  had  forgot  every  thing  but  the  sad  occasion  :  and 
the  writer  of  his  life  tells  us,  that  *^  it  was  then  in  his  pos- 
session, and  thought,  by  good  judges,  to  be  no  reproach 
to  the  author."    He  was  too  young  a  divine  to  engage  itk 

K  E  N  N  E  T.  307 

the  fai]]0|i$  popUh  controyeray ;  bat  be  distinguished  bim* 
self  by  preaching  against  popery.  He  likewise  refused  to 
read  the  declaration  for  liberty  of  conscience  in  1683,  and 
vrent  with  the  body  of  the  clergy  in  the  diocese  of  Oxford, 
when  they  rgected  an  address  to  king  James,  reeommend- 
ed  by  bishop  Parker  in  the  same  year.  While  he  conti* 
Dued  at  Amersden,  be  contracted  an  acquaintance  with  Dr. 
Oeorge  Hickes^  whom  he  entertained  in  his  house,  and 
was  instructed  by  him  in  the  Saxon  and  Northern  tongues; 
though  their  different  principles  in  church  and  state  after- 
wards dissolved  the  friendehtp  between  them.  In  SepteiB* 
her  1691,  he  was  chosen  lecturer  of  St.  Martinis  in  Oxford, 
having  some  time  before  been  invited  back  to  Ednund-haU, 
to  be  tutor  and  vice- principal  there;  where  he  lived  in 
friendship  with  the  learned  Dr.  Mill,  the  editor  of  the  New 
Testament,  who*  was  then  principal  of  that  house.  Iti 
February  1692,  he  addressed  a  letter  from  Edmund-hall  to 
Brome,.  the  editor  of  Somner's  ^^  Treatise  of  the  Roman 
Pixels  iand  Forts  in  Kent,''  containing  an  account  of  the 
life  of  that  famous  antiquary;  which  gave  him  an  oppor- 
tunity of  di^laying  his  knowledge  in  the  history  of  the 
SaKon  language  in  England.  In  February  1693,  he  was 
presented  to  the  rectory  of  Shottesbrook,  in  Berkshire,  by 
William  Oherry,  esq.  the  father  of  one  of  bis  fellow-stu- 
dents at  college,  but  be  still  resided  at  Oxford,  where  he 
diligently  pursued  and  encouraged  the  study  of  antiquities. 
We  have  a  strong  attestation  to  this  part  of  his  character 
from  Gibson,  afterwards  bishop  of  London,  who  publish- 
ing, in  1694,  a  translation  of  Somner's  treatise,  written  in 
answer  to  Chifflet,  concerning  the  situation  of  the  Pdrtus 
Iccius  on  the  coast  of  France,  opposite  to  Kent,  where 
Caesar  embarked  for  the  invasion  of  this  island,  introduced 
it  to  the  world  with  a  dedication  to  Mr.  Kennet. 

On  Majr  5,  1694,  he  took  the  degree  of  B.  D. ;  that  of 
D.  D.  July  19,  1699  ;  and  in  1700,  was  appointed  minister 
of  St«  Botolph  Aldgate  in  London,  without  any  solicitation 
of  bis  own.  In  1701,  he  engaged  against  Dr.  Atterbury, 
in  the  disputes  about  the  rights  of  convocation,  of  which 
lie  became  a  member  about  this  time,  as  archdeacon  of 
Huntingdon ;  to  which  dignity  he  was  advanced  the  same 
year  by  Dr.  Gardiner,  bishop  of  Lincoln.  He  now  grew 
into  great  esteem  by  those  who  were  deemed  the  low<«' 
church  party,  and  particularly  with-Tenison  the  archbishop 
of  Canterbury^   He  preached  a  sermon  at  Aldgatei  Janusiry 

X  9 


-308  K  E  N  N  E  T. 

30,  1703/  which  exposed  him  to  great  clamour,  and  occft* 
.  sioned  many  pamphlets  to  be  written  against  it ;  and  in 
1705,  when  Dr.  Wake  was  advanced  to  the  see  of  Lincoln, 
was  appointed  to  preach  bis  consecration  sermon  ;  which 
was  so  much  admired  by  lord  chief-justice  Holt,  that  he 
declared,  <^  it  had  more  in  it  to  the  purpose  of  the  legal  and 
Christian  constitution  of  this  church  than  any  volume  of 
discourses.''     About  the  same  time,  some  booksellers,  hav- 
ing undertaken  to  print  a  collection  of  the  best  writers  of 
the  English  history,  as  far  as  to  the  reign  of  Charles  I.  in 
.two  folio  volumes,  prevailed  with  Dr.  Kennet  to  prepare  a 
.third  volume,  which  should  carry  the  history  down  to  the 
then  present  reign  of  queen  Anne*    This,  being  finished 
with  a  particular  preface,  was  published  with  the  other  two, 
under  the  title  of  *^  A  complete  History  of  England,  &c.'* 
in  1706.     The  two  volumes  were  collected  by  Mr.  Hughes, 
who  wrote  also  the  general  preface,  without  any  participa- 
tion of  Dr.  Kennet:  and,  in  1719,  appeared  the  second 
edition  with  notes,  said  to  be  inserted  by  Mr.  Strype,  and 
several  alterations  and  additions.     Not  long  after  this,  he 
was  appointed  chaplain  to  her  majesty ;  and  by  the  ma- 
nagement of  bishop  Burnet,  preached  the  funend  sermon 
on  the  death  of  the  first  duke  of  Devonshire,  Sept.  5,  1707ir 
This  sermon  gave  great  offence,  and  made  some  say,  that 
•  '^  the  preacher  had  built  a  bridge  to  heaven  for  men  of  wit 
and  parts,  but  excluded  the  duller  part  of  mankind  from 
•any  chance  of  passing  it."     Thb  charge  was  grounded  on 
the  following  passage ;  where,  speaking  of  a  late  repent- 
ranee,  he  says,  that '^  this  rarely  happens  but  in  men  of 
,  distinguished  sense  and  judgmeot^     Ordinary  abilities  may 
<be  altogether  sunk  by  a  long  vicious  course  of  life:  the 
duller  flame  is  easily. extinguished.     The  meaner  sinful 
wretches  are  commonly  given  up  to  a  reprobate  mind,  and 
"die  as  stupidly  as  they  lived  ;  while  the  nobler  SL^d  brighter 
.parts  have  an  advantage  of  understanding  the  worth  of  their 
.souls  before  they  resign  them.     If  they  are  allowed  the 
benefit  of  sickness,   they  commonly  awake  o.ut  of  their 
(dresam.  of  sin,  and  reflect,  and  look  upward.   They  acknow- 
.ledge  an  infinite  being ;  they  feel  theii*  own  immortal  part ; 
.they  recollect  and  relish  the  holy  Scriptures  ;  tbey  callrfor 
.the  eiders  of  the  church ;  they  think  what  to  answer  at  a 
judgment-seat*    Not  th^t  God  is  a  respecter  of  persons, 
(but.  the  difference  is  in  men ;  and,  the  more  intelligent 
.nature  is, /th^,  more  susceptible  of  the  diviue  grftce.'\    Of 

K  E  N  N  E  T.  309. 

this  sermon  a  new  edition,  with  ^'  Memoirs  of  the  Family 
of  Cavendish,'*  and  notes  and  illustrations,  was  published* 
in  1797,  which  is  now  as  scarce  as  the  original  edition,  the- 
greater  part  of  the  impression  having  been  burnt  at  Mr. 
Nichols's  (the  editor's)  fire  in  1808. 

Whatever  offence  this  sermon  might  give  to  others,  it 
did  not  offend  the' succeeding  duke  of  Devonshire,  to  whom 
it  was  dedicated,  who,  on  the  contrary,  recommended  the 
doctor  to  the  queen  for  the  deanery  of  Peterborough,  which 
ke  obtained  in  1707.  In  1709,  he  published  "A  Vindi* 
cation  of  the  Church  and  Clergy  of  England  from  some 
late  Reproaches  rudely  and  unjustly  cast  upon  them  ;"  and^ 
*>  A  true  Answer  to  Dr.  Sachevereii's  Sermon  before  the 
JLord^Mayor,  November  5  of  that  year."  In  1710,  he 
was  greatly  reproached,  for  not  joining  in  the  London: 
clergy's  address  to  the  .queen.  When  the  great  point  in 
Sachevereii's  trial,  the  change  of  the  ministry,  was  gainedy 
and  addresses  succeeded,  aO'  address  was  prepared  from 
the  bishop  and  clergy  of  London,  so  worded  that  they, 
who  would  not  subscribe  it,  might  be  represented  as  ene- 
mies to  the  queen  and  her  ministry.  Dr.  Ken  net,  however^* 
refused  to  sign  it,  which  was  announced  in  one  of  the 
newspapers,  Dyer's  Letter  of  Aug.  4,  1710.  This  zealous 
conduct  in  Kennet,  in  favoiir  of  his  own  party,  raised  so 
great  an  odium  against  him,  and  made  him  so  very  ob- 
noxious to  the  other,  that  very  uncommon  methods  were 
taken  to  expose  him  ;  and  one,  in  particular,  by  Dr.  WeU 
ton,  rector  of  Whitechapel.  In  an  altar-piece  of  that 
church,  which  was  intended  to  represent  Christ  and  his  .1 
(welve  apostles  eating  the  passover  and  the  last  supper, 
Judas,  the  traitor,  was  drawn  sitting  in  an  elbow-chair, 
dressed  in  a  black  garment,  between  a  gown  and  a  cloak, 
with  a  black  scarf  and  a  white  band,  a  short  wig,  and  a 
SEiark  in  his  forehead  between  a  lock  and  a  patch,  and  with 
so  miach  of  the  countenance  of  Dr.  Kennet,  that  under  it, 
in  effect,  was  written  ^^  the  dean  the.  traitor.".  It  was  ge-. 
nerally  said^  that  the  original  sketch  was  designed  for  a 
bishop  under  Dr.  Welton's  displeasure,  which  occasioned 
the  elbow-chair,  and  that  this  bishop  was  Burnet :  but  the 
painter  being  apprehensive  of  an  action  of  Scandalum  Mag* 
naiurn^  leave  was  given  him  to  drop  the  bishop,  and  a)$ike 
the  dean.  Multitudes  of  people  came  daily  to  the  church 
to  admire  the  sighf; ;  but  it  was  esteemed  so  insolent  a  con- 
tempt of  all  that  is  sacred,  that,  upon  the  conoiplaint  of. 


K  E  N  N  E  T. 

others,  (for  the  dean  never  saw  or  seemed  to  regard  itf 
the  bishop  of  London  obliged  those  who  set  the  picture  up 
to  take  it  down  again. 

But  these  arts  and  contrivances  to  expose  him,  instead 
of  discowaging,  served  only  to  animate  him  ;  and  he  con<* 
tinued  to  write  and  act  as  usual  in  the  defence  of  that  causo 
which  be  hdd  espoused  and  pushed  so  vigorously  hitherto,- 
In  the  mean  time,  he  employed  his  leisure-hours  in  things 
of  a  different  nature ;  but  which,  he  thought,  would  be  no 
less  serviceable  to  the  public  good.  In  17 IH,  he  made  a 
large  collection  of  books,  charts,  maps,  and  papers,  at  hia 
own  expence,  with  a  design  of  writing  *'  A  full  History  of 
the  Propagation  of  Christianity  in  the  English  American 
Colonies ;"  and  published  a  catalogue  of  all  the  distinct 
treatises  and  papers,  in  the  order  of  time  as  they  were  first 
printed  or  written,  under  this  title,  "  Bibliothec»  Ameri** 
cans  primordia."  About  the  same  time  he  founded  **an 
antiquarian  and  historical  library'*  at  Peterborough;  for 
which  purpose  be  had  long  been  gathering  up  pieces,  from 
tlie  very  beginning  of  printing  in  England  to  the  latter  end 
of  queen  Elizabetb^s  reign*.  In  the  rebellion  of  1715,  be 
published  a  sermon  upon  '^  the  witchcraft  of  the  present 
Kebellion  ;*'  and,  the  two  following  years,  was  very  zealous 
for  repealing  the  acts  against  occasional  conformity  and 
the  growth  of  schism.  He  also  warmly  opposed  the  pro« 
ceedings  in  the  convocation  against  Hoadly,  then  bishop  of 
Bangor ;  which  was  thought  to  hurt  him  so  as  to  prove  au 
effectual  bar  to  his  farther  advancement  in  the  church: 
nevertheless,  he  was  afterwards  promoted  to  the  see  of 
Peterborough,  November  1718.  He  continued  to  print 
several  things  after  his  last  promotion,  which  he  lived  to 
enjoy  something  above  ten  years ;  and  then  died  in  his 
house  in  James's-street,  December  19,  1728.  His  nume* 
rous  and  valuable  MS  collections,  which  were  once  in  the 
collection  of  Mr.  West,  were  purchased  by  the  earl  of 
Shelburne,  afterwards  marquis  of  Lansdowne,  and  sold 

*  This  collection,  amounting  to  about 
1500  Tolumes  and  small  tracts,  was 
placed  in  a  private  room  at  Peterbo- 
roogb,  with  a  view  of  being  dmWy  sup- 
plied and  augmented  by  the  care  of 
the  rev.  Mr.  Sparke,  a  member  of  that 
church,  of  very  good  literature*  and 
'vvell  (qualified  to  assist  in  the  design, 
\rho  published  the  oldest  histories  of 
tiie  abbey,  and  witii  Mr.  Timothy  Neve 

founded  the  Gentlemen's  society  at  Pe- 
terborough. There  is  a  large  written 
catalogue  of  this  eolleetiou,  ittaoribed* 
"  Inden  librorum  aliquot  vetostorum 
quos  in  commune  bonum  congessit  W, 
K.  decan'  Petriburgh.  1712."  Thti 
library  is  now  arranged  in  the  chapel 
of  St.  Thomas  Becket,  over  the  west 
porch  of  the  cathedral  church* 

K  E  N  N  £  T.  311 

mtb  the  rest  of  his  lordship^s  MSS.  to  the  Bfiiisb  Museum, 
where  they  are  now  deposited.  Among  these  are  two  vo-^ 
lumes  in  a  large  Atlas  folio^  which  were  intended  for  pub- 
lication under  the  following  comprehensive  title :  '^  Dip- 
tycha  Ecclesias  Anglicanae  :  sive  Tabulae  Sacree  j  in  quibus 
facili  ordine  recensentur  Arcbiepiscopi,  Episcopi,  eorum« 
que  SufFraganei,  Vicarii  Generates,  et  Cancellarii ;  Eciile- 
siarum  insuper  Cathedralium  Priores,  Pecani,  ^besaurarii, 
Praecentores,  Cancellarii^  Archidiaconi,  &  melioris  not® 
Canonici|  continua  serie  deducti  a  Gulielmi  I.  Conquestu,. 
ad  auspicata  GuL  III.  tempora." 

There  is  also  in  the  British  Museum,  a  curious  Diary  by 
bishop  Kennety  in  MS.  of  which  the  following  specimen, 
extracted  for  our  last  edition,  may  not  be  unacceptable : 

'^  Dr.  Swift  caiine  into  the  coffee-house,  and  had  a  bow 
from  every  body  but  me,  who,  I  confess,  could  not  but 
despise  him.     When  I  came  to  the  an ti- chamber  to  wait 
before  prayers,  Dr.  Swift  was  the  principal  man  of  talk  and 
business,  and  acted  as  a  master  of  requests.     He  was  soli- 
citing the  earl  of  Arran  to  speak  to  bis  brother  the  duke  of 
Ormond,  to  get  a  chaplain's  place  established  in  the  gar- 
rison of  Hull  for  Mr.  Fiddes,  a*clergyman  in  that  neigh- 
bourhood, who  had  lately  been  in  gaol,  and  published  ser- 
mons to  pay  fees.     He  was  promising  Mr.  Thorold  to  un- 
dertake with  my  lord  treasurer,  that,  according  to  his  peti- 
tion, he  should  obtain  a  salary  of  200/.  per  annum,  as  mi- 
nister of  the  English  church  at  Rotterdam,     Then  he  stopt 
F.  Gwynne,  esq.  going  in  with  his  red  bag  to  the  queen, 
and  told  him  aloud  .he  had  somewhat  to  say  to  him  from 
my  lord  treasurer.     He  talked  with  the  sop  of  Dr.  Dave* 
nant  to  be  sent  abroad,  and  took  out  his  pocket»book  and 
wrote  down  several  things,  as  memoranda,  to  do  for  him. 
He  turned  to  the  fire,  and  took  out  his  gold  watch,  and,, 
telling  the  time  of  the  day,  complained  it  was  very  late. 
A  gentleman  said,  ^  he  was  too  fast.'     ^  How  can  I  help  it,' 
says  the  doctor,  ^  if  the  courtiers  give  me  a  watch  that 
won't  go  right  ?'     Then  he  instructed  a  young  nobleman, 
that  the  best  poet  in  England  was  Mr.  Pope  (a  papist),  who 
had  begun  a  translation  of  Homer  into  English  verse;  for 
,  which  ^  he  must  have  'em  all  subscribe  ;'  for,  says  he,  the 
author  shall  not  begin  to  print  till  I  have  a  thousand  guineas 
for  him.     Lord  Treasurer,  after  leaving  the  queen,  came 
through  the  room  beckoning  Dr.  Swift  to  follow  him  :  both 
went  off  just  before  prayers. 

S12  K  E  N  N  E  T. 


'^  Not.  8.  I  see  and  hear  a  great  deal  to  confirm  a  doubt,, 
that  the  pretender's  interest  is  much  at  the  bottom  of  some 

hearts ;  a  whisper,  that  Mr.  N n  (Nelson)  had  a  primq 

band  in  the  late  book  for  hereditary  right ;  and  that  one  of 
them  was  presented  to  majesty  itself,  whom  God  preserve 
from  the  effect  of  such  principles  and  such  intrigues !'' 

Bishop  Kennet  took  such  an  active  part  in  the  eccle- 
sifistical  and  pglitical  controversies  of  his  time,  that  who- 
ever examines  into  the  state  of  these  must  expect  to  fin4 
his  character  very  differently  represented.  Upon  a  fair 
examination  of  his  conduct,  however,  as  well  as  his  writings, 
it  will  probably  be  found  that  he  did  not  fall  much  short 
of  his  contemporaries  as  an  able  divine  and  an  honest  poli- 
tician. But  it  is  as  a  historian  and  antiquary,  that  we  feel 
most  indebted  to  his  labours,  and  could  wish  he  had  been 
enabled  to  devote  more  of  his  time  to  the  illustration  of 
literary  history,  to  which  he  was  early  attached,  and  had 
every  requisite  to  become  a  useful  collector  aqd  biographer. 
As  tp  his  character  in  pther  respects,  if  we  can  rely  on  the 
rev.  William  Newton,  the  writer  of  his  life,  there  was  much 
that  was  exeniplary.  He. was  always  indefatigable  in  the 
duties  of  his  sacred  function,  had  a  great  sense  of  the  worth 
of  souls,  and  was  very  solicitous  to  serve  in  the  most  effec* 
tual  manner  those  committed  to  his  care. 

He  was  a  man  of  great  diligence  and  application,  ho( 
only  in  his  youth,  but  even  tp  the  close  of  his  life;  and 
like  many  other  men  of  eminence,  he  began  early  that 
pursuit,  which  he  more  or  less  followed  during  the  whole 
of  his  life.  He  assisted  Anthony  Wood  in  collecting  ma- 
terials for  the  **  Athense,"  and  would  have  probably  given 
a  valuable  work  of  that  kind  to  the  world^  had  he  found 
leisure  to  methodize  and  complete  his  collections,  by 
which,  however,  men  of  research  may  yet  be  benefited. 
He  had  a  very  extensive  and  valuable  library,  collected  at 
a  great  expence,  and  many  of  his  happiest  hours  were 
spent  there.  He  had  one  practice,  into  which  most  men 
of  literary  curiosity  have  fallen  ;  that  of  writing  notes,  cor- 
rections, additions,  &c.  to  all  his  books,  many  of  which, 
thus  illustrated,  are  now  in  various  public  and  private 

His  manners  and  behaviour  were  easy,  affable,  and 
courteous.  He  was  accessible  and  communicative,  much 
a  friend  to  the  younger  clergy,  recollecting  how  greatly 
he  had  himself  been  indebted  to  the  kindness  pf  early 

RENNET.  3t3f 

patrons;  and  was  always  ready  to  assist  tUem  in  tiieir  sta-i^ 
dies;  and,  according  to  their  merit,  to  promote  them  in . 
the  church.     He  was  also  liberal  to  the  poor,  and  generous 
to  bis  relations. 

Among  his  works,  besides  those  already  noticed,  are  his 
1.  **  Parochial  Antiquities,  attempted  in  the  History  of  Am- 
faroseden,   Burcester,    and  other   adjacent  parts,    in  the 
counties  of  Oxford  and  Bucks,"  Oxford,  1695,-  4to.     2v 
**  Preface  to  sir  Henry  Spelmas^s  History  of  Sacrilege,** 
1698.    3.  "  Ecclesiastical  Synods,  and  Parliamentary  Con-- 
vocations  in  the  Church  of  England,  historically  stated,  and 
justly  vindicated  from  the  misrepresentations  of  Mr.  Atter- 
bury,"  Lond.  1701,  8vo.     4.  "An  occasional  Letter,  on 
the  subject  of  English  Convocations,"  ibid.  1701.  5.  "  Xhe 
History  of  the  Convocation  summoned  to  meet  Feb.  6y 
1700,  &c."  ibid.  1702,  4to.     6.  "  The  case  of  Impropria- 
tions, and  of  the  Augmentation  of  Vicarages,  &c."  ibidv 
1704,  8vo.     7.  **  Preface  to  sir  Henry  Spelman's  and  Dr. 
Ryve's  two  tracts,"  ibid.  1704.     8.  "  Account  of  the  So- 
ciety for  propagating  the  Gospel  in  foreign  parts,"  ibidw 
1706,  4to.     9.  **  The  Christian  Scholar,  in  rules  and  di- 
rections for  children  and  youth  sent  to  English  schools,*' 
ibid.    1708.      10.  "  The  French  favourite,  or  the  severt 
discourses  of  Balzac's  Politics,"  ibid.  1709.     11.  **A  Let- 
ter, about  a  motion  in  convocation,  to  the  rev.  Tbos.  Brett, 
LL.TD."  ibid.  1712.     12.   "A  Mem'orial  for  Protestants  on 
the  5th  of  November,  &c.  in  a  letter  to  a  peer  of  Great 
Britain,"  ibid.  1713.     13.  *'  A  Letter  to  the  lord  bishop  of 
Carlisle,  concerning  one  of  his  predecessors,  bishop  Merks, 
on  occasion  of  a  new  volume  for  the  Pretender,  entitled^ 
The  Hereditary  Right  of  the  Crown  of  England  assertedj^* 
ibid.   171-3.     14.  *^  The  wisdom  of  looking  backwards  to 
judge  the  better  on  one  side  and  the  other,  by  the  speeches, 
writings,  actions,  and  other  matters  of  fact  on  both  side^, 
for  the  JFour  last  years,"  ibid,  1715,  8vo.     This  is  a  very 
curious  volume,  and  fills  up  a  gap  in  our  literary  history ; 
but  he  rendered  a  more  important  service  afterwards  by  bis 
•^*  Register  and  Chronicle,"  1728,  folia;   .  Dr.  Kennet  p^b- 
lisbed  also  a  great  many  sermons  on  occasional  subjects.^ 

KENNET  (Basil),  younger  brother  of  the  preceding, 
vas  bom  Oct.  21,  1674,  at  Postling  in  Kent,  th^  vicarage 

*  Life  by  the  Rev.  W.  Newton,  1730,  8yo.— Ath.  Ox.  vol.  II.-rGent.  Mag. 

lee  Index,  and  vol.  LXXV,  p.  971.— Biog.  Brit— Geu.  Diet.— Nichols's  Atler- 

.  Vury  tad  Bowy«r*     .      »       ;  i  .  ;     .  

"      '  * ^  ii 

SU  K  E  N  N  E  T. 

of  his  fsther,  who  bred  this  son  also  to  the  church.     He 
was  sent  to  Corpus  Cbristi  college,  Oxford^  iu  1690,  where 
lie  a<K>n  distiuguisbed  himself  by  his  uncommon  abilities^ 
and  extraordinary  advances  in  classical  literature.    He  took 
ihe  degree  of  M.  A.  in  1696,  and  comnrenced  author  the 
same  year,  by  the  publication  of  bis  ^*  liomsB  Antiquse 
!Nutiu«,  or,  The  Antiquities  of  Rome  ;  in  two  parts ;  1.  A 
9bort  History  of  the  Rise,  Progress,  and  Decay  of  the 
Commonwealth.    2.  A  Description  of  the  City  :  an  Account 
of  the  Religion,  Civil  Government,  and  Art  of  War ;  with 
the  remarkable  Customs  and  Ceremonies,  public  and  pri- 
vate ;  with  Copper  Cuts  of  the  principal  Buildings,  &c* 
To  which  are  prefixed.  Two  Essays,  concerning  the  Roman 
Learning,  and  the  Roman  Education,"  in  8vo.     The  dedi* 
nation  is  addressed  to  his  royal  highness  William  duke  of 
Gloucester ;  and  the  work  must  have  been  written  for  his 
use  particularly,  if  any  credit  may  be  given  to  a  report^ 
then  at  Oxford,  that  Mr.  Kennet  was  to  be  appointed  sub- 
fHreceptor  to  that  darling  of  the  nation.    This  book  being 
very  well  received  by  the  public^  he  was  encouraged  to  go 
on  with  his  design  of  facilitating  the  study  of  classical 
learning;  and  with  this  view  published,  in  1697,  **  The 
Lives  and  Characters  of  the  ancient  Grecian  Poets,"  in 
SvQ,  which  he  also  dedicated  to  the  duke  of  Gloucester. 
This,  however,  did  not  succeed  so  well  as  the  ^*  Roman 
Antiquities,"  which  is  scarcely  yet  superseded  in  common 
use.    The  same  year  he  was  admitted  fellow  of  his  college, 
and  became  a  tutor.      About  this  time  he  entered  into 
orders ;  and,  some* years  after,  gave  proofs  of  the  progress 
he  had  made  in  the  study  of  divinity.     In  1705  be  pub- 
lished ^'  An  Exposition  of  the  Apostles  Creed,  according 
to  bishop  Pearson,  in  a  new  Method,  by  way  of  Paraphrase 
aiod  Annotations,"  in  8vo,  which  was  followed  by  '^  An 
£ssay  towards  a  Paraphrase  on  the  Psalms,  in  Verse ;  with 
a  Paraphrase  on  the  third  Chapter  of  the  Revelations,'* 
3706,  8vo. 

The  same  year  he  was,  by  the  interest  of  his  brother, 
appointed  chaplain  to  the  English  factory  at  Leghorn ; 
wbei^  he  no  sooner  arrived  than  he  met  with  great  oppo- 
sition from  the  papists,  and  was  in  great  danger  of  the 
inquiaition.  This  establishment  of  a  church-of^ England 
chaplain  was  a  new  thing ;  and  the  Italians  were  so  jealous 
of  the  Northern  heresy,  that,  to  give  as  little  offence  as 
possible,  he  performed  the  duties  of  his  office  with  the 

K  E  N  N  K  T.  813 

litoiost'  privacy  and  caution.  But,  notwichatandiug  this^ 
great  offence  was  taken  at  it ;  and  complaints  were  imme* 
diately  sent  to  Florence  and  Rome.  Upon  this,  the  pope^ 
a^nd  the  court  of  inquisition  at  Rome,  declared  tbeir  reso* 
lution  to  expel  heresy,  and  the  public  teacbet  of  it,  from 
ike  confines  of  the  holy  see  ;  and  therefore  secret  orders 
were  given  to  apprehend  Mr.  Kennet  at  Leghorn,  and  to 
httn*y  hioi  away  to  Pisa,  and  thence  to  some  other  religious 
prison,  to  bury  him  alive,  or  otherwise  dispose  of  him  in 
(he  severest;  manner..  Upon  notice  of  thi3  design^  Dr. 
Newton,  the  English  envoy  at  Florence,  interposed  his 
office^  at  that  court ;  where  he  could  obtain  no  other 
answer,  but  that  '^  be  might  send  for  the  EngUsh  preacher^ 
and  keep  him  in  his  own  family  as  his  domestic  chaplain  ; 
otherwise,  if  he  presumed  to  continue  at  Leghorn,  he  must 
take  the  consequences  of  it ;  for,  in  those  matters  of  reli* 
gion,  the  court  of  inquisition  was  superior  to  all  civil 
powers.^'  The  envoy  communicated  this  answer  of  the 
great  duke  to  the  earl  of  Sudderland,  then  secretary  of 
state,  who  sent  a  menacing  letter  by  her  majesty's  order ; 
and  then  the  chaplain  continued  to  officiate  in  safety^ 
though  he  was  with  much  difficulty  preserved  from  their 
intended  fury  till  that  letter  arrived. 

He  continued  at  Leghorn,  and  persevered  with  great 
steadiness  in  his  duty,  till  the  bad  state  of  his  health 
obliged  him  to  think  of  returning  to  his  native  air.  He 
arrived  at  Oxford  in  1714  :  he  was  also  admitted  D.  D^  the 
same  yean  But  he  lived  to  enjoy  these  new  honours  a 
very  short  time;  for,  his  health  having  been  much  impaired 
in  Itajy,  he  died  of  a  slow  fever,  Jan.  1714-l5«  A  little 
before  bis  death,  be  finished  the  pre&ce  to  a  volume,  which 
came  out  under  the  title  of  **  Sermons  on  several  occa-r 
sions,  preached  before  the  Society  of  British  Merchants  in 
foreign  Parts."     Lond.  1715,  8vo. 

Besides  this  collection,  and  the  pieces  already  mentioned, 
of  his  own  composing,  he  published  English  translations  of 
eminent  authors,  the  chief  of  which  are  as  follow :  1,  '^  Puf« 
fendorf  of  the  Law  of  Nature  and  Nations."  2i  ^^  Placette^a 
Christian  Casuist."  3.  "  Godeau's  Pastoral  Instructions.^* 
4.  ^^  Pascal's  Thoughts  on  Religion.''  To  which  he  pre<p 
fixed  an  account  of  the  manner  in  which  those  thoaghti 
were  delivered  by  the  author.  5,  *^  Balsac's  Aristippus ; 
with  an  Account  of  his  Life  and  Writings."  6.  *^  The 
Marriage  of  Thames  and  his ;" .  from  a  Latin  poem  of 


K  E  N  N  E  T. 

Mr.  Camden.  Dr.  Basil  Keniiet  is  said  to  have  been  ^ 
very  amiable  man ;  of  exemplary  integrity,  generosity,  and 

KENNICOTT  (Benjamin),  a  very  learned  divine,  the 
son  of  Benjamin  Kennicott,  parish  clerk  of  Totnes  in 
Devonshire,  was  born  April  4,  1718,  at  that  place.  From 
bis  early  age  he  manifested  a  strong  inclination  for  books,  ^ 
vrhich  his  father  encouraged  by  every  means  within  the 
Compass  of  his  ability ;  for  he  had  from  the  scanty  pittance 
of  a  parish  clerk  *,  and  the  profits  of  a  small  school,  saved 

^  *  It  is  said  that  when  Dr.  Kennicott 
had  takeirordersy  he  came  to  officiate  in 
his  clerical  capacity  in  his  native  town : 
when  his  father  as  clerk  proceeded  to 
place  the  surplice  on  his  shoulders,  a 
struggle  ensued  between  the  modesty 
of  the  son  and  the  honest  pride  of  the 
parent,  who  insisted  on  paying  that  re- 
spect to  his  son  which  he  had  been  ac* 
<!ustomed  to  shew  to  other  clergymen  : 
to  this  filial  obedience  was  obliged  to 
submit.  A  circumstance  is  added,  that 
bis  mother  had  often  declared  she  should 
never  be  able  to  support  the  joy  of 
bearing  her  son  preach ;  and  that  on 
her  attendance  at  the  church  for  the 
first  time,  she  was  so  overcome  as  to  be 
taken  out  in  a  state  of  temporary  in- 

The  following  anecdotes  are  from 
Polwhele's  History  of  Devonshire.  **  In 
his  younger  days  Dr.  Kennicott  was 
much  attached  to  the  study  and  prac- 
tice of  music.  I  have  at  this  time  in 
my  possession  an  anthem,  to  which  the 
tenor  and  counter-tenor  were  added  by 
liim.  He  also  taught  the  choir  at  Tot- 
nes churchi  and  much  delighted  to  walk 
into  the  fields  with  a  few  of  the  best  of 
the  singers,  and  would  there  join  with 
them  in  the  praise  of  that  God  to  whose 
honour  he  has  erected  so  lasting  a  mo- 
pument.  I  have  been  assured  that  his 
voice  and  manner  far  exceeded  medio- 
ccity.  He  was  also  a  ringer  i  and  there 
is  an  inscription  on  a  brass  chandelier 
in  the  belfry,  where  his  name  is  men- 
tioned as  being  one  of  its  donors,  to  the 
ringers  of  Totnes  church,  for  ever*  I 
shall  further  add,  that  when  the  doctor 
^rst  returned  from  Oxford,  in  orders, 
.he  was  thought  by  his  benefac